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YE PARISH OF CAMERWELL, 




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Y E PARISH OF CAMERWELL 



A BRIEF ACCOUNT 



OF THE 



PAEISH OF CAMBERWELL, 



ITS 



itetarg attir 



BY 



WILLIAM HAKNETT BLANCH. 



LONDON : 
E. W. ALLEN, AVE MAEIA LANE, E.G. 

1875. 



LONDON : 
BHADEURV, AGNEW, & CO., IRINTKKS, WHITEFKIARS. 




TO 



ROBERT ALEXANDER GRAY, ESQ., 

JUSTICE OF THK PEACE AND DEPUTY LIEUTENANT OF THE COUNTY OF SURKEY 



MY DEAR Sin : 

Your kind consent to allow me to associate your name with the 
following pages, is but one more added to the numerous acts of kindness 
which I have received at your hands. 

Although there are many who would gladly testify that during 60 years' 
residence in Camberwell, your " daily pleasure's been in doing good," no 
one can more truly appreciate your high character and proverbial generosity 
than 

Your ever obliged and obedient servant, 

WILLIAM HARNETT BLANCH. 






PBEFACE 



A PREFACE is too often merely a medium for apology. Whilst regretting 
its necessity in my case, and condemning the practice in others, I am com- 
pelled nevertheless to thrust myself upon the indulgence of my subscribers, 
and ask forgiveness for the delay which has taken place in the publication of 
the present volume a delay which has been caused by a desire on my part 
to enlarge the basis of my original design, and so present to my subscribers a 
more complete local history than I had originally contemplated. 

Further apology I shall not make : for the support which I have received 
from the local gentry embracing all shades of opinion and religious belief 
is ample justification, if any were needed, for the compilation of such a work. 

It is not in any way an ambitious book, but simply a collection of facts 
concerning a parish with which I am officially associated, and where my family 
have long been resident. My connection with the local press a few years 
since gave me perhaps the first idea of getting materials together for a local 
history, and my subsequent official position brought to my hand statistics 
showing the wonderful changes which had recently come over the Parish of 
Camberwell. I was further encouraged to proceed from the fact that, beyond 
the slight sketch of Camberwell given by Lysons, in his Environs of London, 
and by Manning and Bray, and by Brayley, in their County Histories, there 
had only been one attempt to chronicle local events, and bring Old Camber- 
well out of the obscurity to which time and negligence had consigned it. 
Of Mr. Douglas Allport's able Collections concerning Camberwell, published 
in 1841, I desire to speak in terms of the highest praise. As a local 
history it will ever be regarded as a book of the greatest authority. It 
is, however, now rarely met with, and on application to the representatives 
of Mr. Allport's family, I at once received permission to copy such of the 
illustrations in Mr. Douglas Allport's book as I might like to select a 
permission which has been made use of in a few instances. I have also 
made slight use of materials found in the County Histories, and in minor 
publications ; but by far the greater portion of the following compilation is 
from original documents. 

I have received during the past three years that is, from the time it 
became known that I was engaged upon the work the most liberal, and 
indeed unlooked-for, assistance. 

I am also largely indebted to many old residents for books and prints 



Tiii PREFACE. 

placed at my disposal, and rny thanks are eminently due and are hereby 
offered to the following : 

Messrs. Philip Stephen King (De Crespigny Park), G. W. Marsden 
(Camberwell Grove), George Aug. Griffith (Lyndhursfc Roadj, J. J. Gloss 
(Camberwell Green), Edward Burls (North Terrace), Dr. Webster, J. P. 
(Dulwich), Mrs. Lilley (Eye Hill Park), W. Shoults (Camberwell Grove), 
James Henderson (Adon Mount, Lordship Lane), Mrs. Lines (Camberwell 
Grove), G. S. Mansell (Walnut Tree Villa, East Dulwich), Perceval Alleyn 
Nairne (The Glebe, Camberwell), Charles Stevens, Clerk to the Board of 
Guardians, Eobert Vincent (Camberwell Road),, George Murphy (Church 
Street, Camberwell) and many others. 

For active literary assistance I am under great obligation to Mr. Arthur 
Bott, F.G.S., for his able and exhaustive chapter on the Geology of Camber- 
well, whilst I desire also to acknowledge the valuable assistance from Mr. 
E. H. Bramley, whose facile pen will be recognised in many happy descriptive 
sketches. To Mr. W. F. Noble I am indebted for his diligent and successful 
researches at the British Museum and Public Record Office ; for his accurate 
transcript of documents unintelligible to any but an expert ; and for his 
intelligent and hearty co-operation at all times, more particularly for his 
companionship, when, through the courtesy of the Vicar, I was enabled to 
spend my 1874 vacation in the vestry of the church, for the purpose of 
making extracts from the Parish Register. 

I am anxious also to place on record the assistance I have received from 
Sir T. Duffus Hardy, of the Public Record Office, through whose courtesy 
I have been enabled to place before the reader much original information 
concerning old Camberwell. My thanks are likewise due to the Secretary of 
the Post Office ; Mr. Purdy, the principal of the statistical department of 
the Local Government Board, and to Mr. Overall, the courteous Librarian 
of the Guildhall Library. 

To Mr. J. G. Thompson, of St. Mary's College, Peckham, who notwith- 
standing many onerous duties, has found time to afford me considerable 
assistance, I owe a special meed of thanks. 

To Mr. T. C. Noble, author of Memorials of Temple Bar, I am under 
considerable obligation for many valuable notes concerning this district ; 
whilst to Mr. G. Steinman Steinman, author of the History of Croydon and 
other works, I am indebted for much interesting information, and his papers 
in the Coll. Top. et Gen. on the Camberwell Register and Old St. Giles's 
Church, have been of great service to me ; to Mr. T. P. Shonfeld I am indebted 
for many nights of " honest toil," and more especially for assistance rendered 
in the statistical portions of the work ; whilst I must not omit to mention 
that T received many valuable hints from gentlemen who treasure up the 
legendary lore of a limited district, amongst whom may be mentioned Mr. J. 
Innes, of Cold Harbour Lane. To the Master of Dulwich College, I owe 
not only a debt of gratitude but a word of apology, for through his readiness 
to assist me at all times in my researches, I have been sometimes led, owing 



PREFACE. ix 

to my official engagements, to trouble him at times and seasons which must 
necessarily have been highly inconvenient. 

The account of Dulwich College, considering the great interest of the 
subject, will perhaps be considered disproportionately brief, for I had some- 
what exceeded my proposed number of pages, before reaching that important 
chapter of local history. Many original documents concerning the history of 
the College in the eighteenth century have been held over for publication on a 
future occasion. 

In the slight sketch now given, I have endeavoured to steer clear of contro- 
versy, but I cannot allow the present opportunity to pass without protesting, 
as a resident of the parish of Camberwell, against the wild ex parte statements 
recently made concerning the interest of Camberwell in Alleyn's foundation. 
The gentlemen who indulge in these random statements are not content with 
an endeavour to prove that St. Luke's parish is entitled to a much larger share 
of the College funds than it has hitherto received, but a large amount of 
superfluous energy is thrown away in showing that Camberwell is at the best 
but an interloper a sort of arri&re pensee of Edward Alleyn a district 
which by the mere matter of accident only has managed to catch a few 
crumbs, which ought never to have been swept off the table of the three 
parishes (St. Botolph, St. Saviour, and St. Luke) "solely entitled for ever" 
to receive Alleyn's bounty. 

Now this is certainly delightfully novel. Camberwell, where the autumn 
of Alleyn's life was spent, where he bought land and houses, and built his 
College^- where he was recognised not as an actor, but as a gentleman of 
property, and a lord of the manor where he was married to Constance 
Donne, and where all that was mortal of his " dear sweet harte and loving 
mouse " was laid to rest, and where his own bones now remain, has no 
connection with Alleyn, his history, or his foundation ! But if it be conceded 
for the nonce that Camberwell had but slight association with Alleyn, what 
shall we say of St. Luke's ? The great claims now advanced by our friends 
"on the other side of the water" are based on the fact that Alleyn was 
proprietor of a theatre in that parish, which said theatre tumbled to pieces 
shortly after Alleyn's death. Now this may or may not constitute a stronger 
claim upon Alleyn's bounty than the Camberwell associations I have men- 
tioned, but it does appear to me that there is only one of the four 
"interested" parishes which has but a slight claim upon Alleyn's estate, and 
that is the parish of St. Luke's ; and this is perhaps the reason that so 
great an outcry is necessary to preserve the status of that parish as a 
beneficiary. 

Not long since what may be termed " St. Luke's views " were represented 
in a tract called "The History of Dulwich College, with a short Biography 
of its Founder," by Frederick Hovenden. In perusing Mr. Hovenden's 
History we learn for the first time that "the marriage of Alleyn's mother 
to a player and haberdasher named Browne was probably the cause of the 
existence of the present Duliuich College." I never pass the splendid College 



x PREFACE. 

buildings now, but I think of poor Browne, the husband of Alleyn's mother, 
the actor and haberdasher, " the cause of the existence of Dulwich College ! ! " 

Mr. Hovenden further informs us that in the year 1613 Alleyn entered 
into a contract with one " Ben Johnson " for the erection of a " chappell, a 
schoole house, and twelve almshowses," a fact which is doubtless known to 
Mr. Hovenden exclusively. It is, however, more than probable that Mr. 
Hoveuden here alludes to the contract with John Benson, which is so like 
" Ben Johnson " that it really seems hypercritical to call attention to the 
discrepancy; but then Mr. Hovenden is an elective Governor of Dulwich 
College for the Parish of St. Luke the author of a " History " of the College 
a great discoverer of mares' nests, and an accepted authority on Dulwich 
College north of the Thames. 

It is difficult to persuade oneself that the author of this pamphlet ever read 
the documents upon which he founds his claim for the parish of St. Luke. 

Let me state a few facts derived from those documents. 

In 1613 Alleyn commenced the erection of his college at Dulwich, in the 
parish of Camberwell. 

In 1616 his chapel was consecrated, and the rest of the buildings at least 
partially occupied. 

In 1619 he obtained letters patent perpetuating his endowment. 

Now it is not till September, 1619, in the deed of foundation, that the first 
allusion is made by Alleyn to the three outlying parishes. In that deed he 
does at length give a special interest to the four parishes (i.e., Camberwell, as 
well as the others) in the eleemosynary benefits of the charity. But the 
meaning which he attached to this privilege is made quite evident by the 
fact that he proceeded himself to admit " foreigners," '.&, boys other than his 
twelve poor scholars, to his new school. 

Moreover, his statutes to which Mr. Hovenden is glad enough to appeal 
on behalf of the " assistants " while they limit the poor scholars to three 
from each parish, give a free education to all Dulwich boys, and establish a 
perfectly open school in Dulwich for eighty boys without any restriction of 
birth or residence, except so far as the Dulwich boys and the free scholars 
are concerned. 

Then again as to the " assistants," whom Mr. Hovenden supposes to have 
formed a sort of Governing Board, with almost absolute power, they are not 
even mentioned till 1626, seven or eight years after Alleyn's College had 
been in full working order. 

The object of their appointment was obviously to provide that security 
which is now obtained by the publicity of trust accounts against malversation 
of the funds by the actual recipients. Accordingly they were to be summoned 
only to the half-yearly audits, to the election of a new warden, and to act as 
assessors in certain possible, though not very probable, cases of appeal. But 
they were secured (as Alleyn thought) against all opportunity of undue inter- 
ference in the administration by the addition, under these same statutes, of 
six " Junior Fellows " to the resident members, " every one of them to have 



PREFACE. xi 

his voice as the fower senior fellowes have," so that they had only six votes 
as against twelve or (in case of the vacancy of the warden ship) eleven votes 
of the resident members. Such at any rate was Alleyn's intention. 

But one more choice extract, and I must leave Mr. Hovenden. " Need 
more be added to show that it was Alleyn's intention to benefit these three 
parishes, and that the small benefits he threw into Camber well Parish were 
from the accident of his building the College there, the property being 
about that time in the market, and that it was his expressed condition 
that the vested interest should solely lie in these three parishes for ever." 

Xow I am quite at a loss to understand how Alleyn could have purchased 
the property unless it had been in the market for sale ; and with respect to the 
11 accident " of building his College at Dulwich, it may be remarked that but 
for the "accident" of his owning a theatre in St. Giles, Cripplegate, the 
modern parish of St. Luke's would have known nothing of Dulwich College. 

On the other hand, Alleyn had been purchasing land at Dulwich for 
several years before he commenced the College, and nothing was more natural 
than that he should erect his building on his own land, and in the vicinity 
of his fine old manor house, and should devote his wealth primarily and 
specially to the benefit of his own tenants and neighbours. 

It is an exceedingly painful duty thus to call attention to inaccurate and 
unfair statements made by a gentleman occupying a prominent public 
position; but as representing the parish of Camberwell in this matter, I 
am compelled to notice them. When a Governor of Dulwich College, who 
ought to be better informed than the ordinary run of folk, puts his name to 
a document, common courtesy at once enlists our attention, and demands 
criticism. 

There are many omissions to be regretted in the present volume, amongst 
which may be mentioned the " health statistics " of the district, which, under 
the able supervision of Dr. Bristowe, the Medical Officer of Health, are now 
presented to us with so much completeness. This chapter would also have 
enabled me to do justice to the time and labour given to sanitary reform 
in this parish by Mr. Andrew Middlemass, the late Chairman of the Sanitary 
Committee ; but I trust that an opportunity will be afforded me at no 
distant day to supply the information now unavoidably omitted. 

One word respecting the illustrations. For the purpose of giving fac- 
similes of old documents and prints, I have availed myself largely of 
the services of Mr. Griggs, Hanover Street, Peckham, and it is mainly 
through his intelligent co-operation that I have been enabled to place 
before my readers so many interesting relics of old Camberwell. The 
photographs by Mr. Garrett Cocking, Queen's Road, Peckham, and the 
London Stereoscopic Company, speak for themselves ; whilst the wood- 
engravings of Mr. Dorrington, of Fleet Street, have been executed with 
great care. Some of the illustrations originally announced do not appear 
in the present volume, but in their place are others of perhaps greater 
interest. 



xii PREFACE. 

I desire also to bear testimony to the courtesy which I have experienced 
from Messrs, Bradbury, Agnew, and Co., printers, whose work has been exe- 
cuted in their usual first-class manner. 

In conclusion, I must thank my numerous subscribers for the confidence 
so generously accorded me, without which I could not have progressed very 
far with my self-imposed labours ; and I should be wanting in common 
gratitude were I to omit mention of the untiring zeal and devotion of one 
"nearer yet and dearer than all other," who has, notwithstanding the many 
and manifold claims of a domestic character, found time to undertake a 
great part of the correspondence, and to make hundreds of calls for the 
purpose of collecting information for this volume. 

WILLIAM HARNETT BLANCH. 

MAY, 1875. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

1. GENERAL SURVEY 1 

2. GEOLOGY OF CAMBERWELL 9 

3. OLD FAMILIES 28 

4. VOLUNTEERS PAST AND PRESENT 66 

5. POPULATION 77 

C. TRAVELLING PAST AND PRESENT 81 

7. POLITICAL HISTORY . . . 85 

8. LOCAL NAMES AND PLACES 90 

9. CAMBERWELL UNDER THE COMMONWEALTH 95 

10. PAROCHIAL HISTORY 98 

I. GENEEAL SUEVEY 98 

II. LIGHTING AND WATCHING 101 

III. THE CflUECHWAEDENs' ACCOUNTS 110 

IV. VESTEY CLEEKS 123 

V. COLLECTOES 125 

VI. BEADLES, &c 127 

VII. THE BUEIAL BOAED 130 

VIII. PAEOCHIAL CHAEITIES 132 

IX. RATES AND TAXES 143 

X. THE WOEKHOUSE 153 

XI. PAEISH BOUND AEIES 156 

XII. POOE RELIEF 158 

XIII. DUST AND BEEEZE 163 

XIV. OLD AND NEW VESTEY HALLS 165 

XV. INPIEMAEY, NAZAEETH HOUSE AND CATEEHAM ASYLUM . . 168 

XVI. THE CHUECH REGISTEE 171 

XVII. OUE LOCAL PAELIAMENT AND PUBLIC OFFICEES . . .183 

11. CHURCHES AND CHAPELS . 191 



xiv CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

12. SCHOOLS . . , . ,'",'* 241 

13. CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS . . . : V ' ' . * - 260 

14. LOCAL WORTHIES, PAST AND PRESENT . , . . . .279 

15. LOCAL SOCIETIES AND INSTITUTIONS . . . , .. .' . . 292 
1G. BUILDINGS OF THE PAST 9 . . .801 

17. SPECIAL AND GENERAL INCIDENTS . . . . ; . . . 312 

18. MANORIAL HISTORY ....,,.' .327 

19. SUBSIDIES 335 

20. LOCAL PLACES AND THEIR ASSOCIATIONS . . . ~ .' V -340 

21. LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS .,..,. 35G 

22. HOSTELRIES PAST AND PRESENT , .'. . 3GG 

23. LOCAL LONGEVITY . . 373 

24. THE HAMLET OF DULWICH 375 

25. MEMOIR OF EDWARD ALLEYN ......... 420 

2G. DULWICH COLLEGE . 441 



APPENDIX. 

DULWICH COLLEGE. 

I. LETTERS PATENT . i 

II. DEED OF FOUNDATION vi 

III. GRANT OF LANDS , . . ix 

IV. STATUTES AND ORDINANCES xiii 

V. WILL OF EDWARD ALLEYN xxxiv 

VI. BUILDING CONTRACT xxxvi 

VII. LIST OF BOYS SENT TO THE UNIVERSITY xxxviii 

VIII. LIST OF MASTERS, WARDENS AND FELLOWS .... xxxix 

IX. LIST OF VISITORS xlii 

X. REVENUE, 1858-74 xlii 

XI. THE CONSECRATION OF DULWICH COLLEGE CHAPEL AND 

CEMETERY xliii 

XII. ATTENDANCE AT UPPER SCHOOL, 1858 74 .... xlvi 

XIII. ATTENDANCE AT LOWER SCHOOL, 1858 74 .... xlvi 

XIV. LIST OF HONOURS (UPPER SCHOOL) xlvii 






LIST OF ILLUSTBATIONS. 



DULWICH COLLEGE, 1875 

EXTRACTS FROM DOMESDAY BOOK 

FOSSIL LEAVES AND SECTION OP THE LONDON BASIN 

FOSSIL SHELLS, ETC 

TEETH, ETC. (WOOLWICH BEDS) 

JOHN BOWYER AND FAMILY (OLD ST. GILES'S CHURCH) 
MATHYE DRAPER AND WIFE 

LADY HUNT'S MONUMENT 

REV. THOMAS JEPHSON 

EDWARD SCOTT'S MONUMENT (OLD ST. GILES'S CHURCH) 
BARON SCOTT'S MONUMENT 

SCOTT MONUMENT 

CAMBERWELL MILITARY ASSOCIATION (FAC-SIMILE) . 
REGIMENTAL ORDER IST SURREY R.V. 

OLD HEAD QUARTERS IST SURREY R.V. . 

LAMBETH ELECTION, 1857 

FAC-SIMILE VESTRY MINUTES, 1674 (A.g.) . 

1715 .... 

PAROCHIAL ALMANAC, 1840 

RATING ORDER (SURREY SESSIONS) .... 
OLD WORKHOUSE AND VESTRY HALL 
FAC-SIMILE VESTRY MINUTES, 1675 .... 
1696 .... 

MAP OF CAMBERWELL, 1744 

1834 

NEW VESTRY HALL 

PAROCHIAL PORTRAITS 

OLD ST. GILES'S CHURCH (NORTH VIEW) 
CAMBERWELL (COPIED FROM AN OLD PRINT) 
RUINS OF OLD ST. GILES'S CHURCH .... 
INTERIOR OF ST. GILES'S CHURCH .... 

EXTERIOR OF' ST. GILES'S CHURCH 

CAMDEN CHURCH 

ST. GEORGE'S CHURCH 

ST. JOHN'S CHURCH, EAST DULWICH .... 
MARLBOROUGH CHAPEL, OLD KENT ROAD 
CONGREGATIONAL CHAPEL, CAMBERWELL NEW ROAD 
WESLEYAN CHAPEL, QUEEN'S ROAD, PECKHAM 



Frontispiece. 

To face page 2 

10 

18 

20 

32 

32 

46 

48 

54 

56 

58 

68 

72 

74 

86 

98 

106 

126 

146 

154 

156 

156 

158 

158 

166 

186 

192 

198 

200 

202 

204 

208 

208 

220 

234 

234 

236 



xvi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

GERMAN CHAPEL, WINDSOR ROAD, CAMBERWELL . . . To face page 238 

CAMBERWELL FREE GRAMMAR SCHOOL . . ' . . . . ,, 250 

GREEN COAT SCHOOLS, CAMBERWELL .' 256 

CAMDEN SCHOOLS . . . ...'.'. . . 260 

BASING MANOR HOUSE 260 

DANIEL CRONIN 270 

MR. CRONIN'S FREE RESIDENTIAL HOUSES 270 

SAMUEL CHANDLER, D.D. . . A . . . ... 280 

DR. LETTSOM'S VILLA, GROVE PARK 282 

THE OLD HOUSE ON THE GREEN 302 

BOWYER HOUSE , > 303 

FOUNTAIN COTTAGE ., 304 

POLITICAL PROCESSION TO THE GROVE HOUSE, CAMBERWELL . 306 

DENMARK HILL GRAMMAR SCHOOL 308 

OLD FARM HOUSE, HIGH STREET, PECKHAM 310 

THE CAMBERWELL BEAUTY 340 

CAMBERWELL GROVE, 1750 342 

CAMBERWELL MILL 342 

ST. MARY-LE-STRAND HOUSE, OLD KENT ROAD .... 346 

OLD FARM-HOUSE, PECKHAM RYE 352 

GOLDSMITH HOUSE, PECKHAM 360 

JAMES HENDERSON 362 

FAC-SIMILE OF " SOUTH LONDON PRESS "..'-. . . . 364 

" OLD PLOUGH INN " 366 

" THE GREYHOUND," DULWICH ....... 366 

"OLD CROWN INN," DULWICH 368 

" BEW'S CORNER," LORDSHIP LANE 368 

" THE OLD ROSEMARY BRANCH " 370 

DR. WEBSTER, J.P 394 

FAC-SIMILE DULWICH CLUB BILL OF FARE, 1782 ... ., 396 ' 

HENRY BESSEMER ., 400 

BELAIR 406 

OLD ELM TREE, HALF MOON LANE . . . . . . 408 

THE MANOR HOUSE, DULWICH ., 408 

CASINO, DULWICH HILL ., 410 

MR. BESSEMER'S HOUSE (FRONT VIEW) ., 412 

(BACK VIEW) 412 

CONSERVATORY 414 

GROUNDS (BRIDGE OVER LAKE) .... 414 

WOODHALL (FRONT VlEW) ........ 416 

(BACK VIEW) 416 

THE Hoo, SYDENHAM HILL (FRONT VIEW) .... 418 

(BACK VIEW) ,. 418 

EDWARD ALLEYN 420 

DULWICH COLLEGE, 1750 446 

1790 446 

1830 446 

1840 448 

THE GREAT HALL, DULWICH COLLEGE 464 

DR. CARVER, THE MASTER OF DULWICH COLLEGE . . 466 



Y? PAEISH OF CAMEKWELL. 




GENERAL SUKVEY. 

OMESDAY BOOK supplies us with the earliest reliable record of 
this parish. At that time there was a church and consequently a con- 
gregation of people at Camberwell. The church was probably built 
about the seventh century,* but no one can assert with any exactness at 
what period the Parish of Camberwell became a habitable spot. Anti- 
quaries generally agree, that the space between the hills of Camberwell and the 
rising ground of Deptford and Clapham, and as high up as Lambeth, was originally 
a vast bay or lake overflowed by the tide, and at low water a sandy plain, and 
that when the Eomans fixed themselves in England, they improved it by banking 
against the Thames and by draining. Koman utensils have been found in various 
parts of south London,f which Dr. Whitaker considers ample evidence that the 
wonderful work of embanking the river was projected and executed by the 
Eomans. During the excavations made by the Grand Surrey Canal Company in 
1809, a Roman causeway was discovered strengthened and supported by stout piles of 
timber. It ran in a north-easterly direction from the Kent Road to the Thames at 
Rotherhithe ; was about fifteen feet wide, and extended about 250 yards. ^ Mr. Bray, 
the county historian, had a handsome pen-tray made out of one of the oak piles, and 
presented it to the late Mr. Samuel I. Lilley, of Peckham, for assistance rendered in 
connection with the county history. 

This interesting morsel of antiquity bore the following inscription : " Cut out of 
an oak pile in a causeway through Camberwell marshes probably made by the 
Romans : discovered 1809." 

A curious description of Roman London is given in a letter to Hearne the 
antiquary, in 1714, from the ingenious and elaborate Mr. John Bagford, from 
which we extract the following : " When the Romans first came into this island 
they landed near Dover, and from thence proceeded by easy journeys towards this 
city, raising their military ways, and at every ten miles' distance fixing their stations 
or camps. At Peckham, of late years, was dug up in the middle of the highway, a 
famous glass urn, which I more willingly took notice of, because urns of this kind are 
scarce, and are not commonly seen. Much about the same time, not far from St. Thomas 
a Watering, in a garden near the road, was dug up an ancient Janus's head in marble. 
Many other Roman antiquities have been found on the edge of Blackheath, particularly 
in that part near the town of Leusum. On the left hand of Kent Street, in the road 
to London, in the garden ground (which was a Roman military way, and is commonly 
made use of upon an extraordinary cavalcade, as it was particularly upon the entrance 

* See " St. Giles's Church." J Manning and Bray, Hist, of Surrey, 

t Peckham, Old Kent Road, Kennington, St. Hughson's London. Vol. i. p. 3ti. 

George's Fields, High Street, Southwark, 



2 Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

of King Charles II. at his return from Holland, and at such time is layed open) they 
have found in digging, several Roman antiquities, with many of their coins, both in 
silver and brass. I have been the more particular on this subject, to show that the 
Romans were much, and had their several stations, in Surry, and left many remains 
behind them for future ages to admire." 

In 1690 a Janus's head in marble was discovered near St. Thomas a Watering, in 
the Kent Road. " I am apt," says Dr. Harris,* " to fancy it to have been the very 
Deus terminus which was placed near the ferry at Lambeth, where the Roman ways 
parted. Montfaucon, in his travels, tells us where there were several cross ways in 
old Rome, called Jani, where there stood a statue of Janus, usually with two, but 
sometimes with three or more faces." Defoe, however, writing in 1742, in describing 
the Roman military way leading from the horse-ferry at Lambeth, says : " At the end 
of Kent Street there was a very strong fortification of stone, the foundations of which 
were dug up in the year 1685 ; this ran across a garden about a quarter of a mile from 
the Stone's-End. In digging up this foundation, there appeared two ancient pillars 
of a large gate ; upon each of them had been placed heads with two faces curiously cut 
in stone, one of which was taken up, but the other, lying in a quicksand from whence 
the springs flowed out freely, was rendered more difficult to be taken up ; and the 
curiosity of the people being not very great, they contented themselves with getting 
up one of the heads, which was placed over the gardener's door, where it remained 
for several years, until it was known to the learned Dr. Woodward, who purchased 
it and kept it in his valuable collection of curiosities.''! It would appear from this 
that the heads when discovered retained their original position on the piers of a 
Roman gateway. The great temple erected to Janus by the Romans was always open, 
we are told, in a time of war, and it was only closed three times in 700 years, the 
Romans during that period being continually fighting in some portion of the 
globe. 

With respect to the Thames embankment, there can be no doubt, according to an 
eminent antiquary that the work was commenced by the ancient Britons long before 
the advent of the Romans. " The Romans must have continued the work during the four 
or five centuries of their dominion in Britain ; but that it was not complete in anything 
like its present form until after the Norman conquest, is clearly shown by historical 
evidence. It is asserted that should the earthen wall of the river burst its banks, the 
town of Peckham and much of the surrounding country would be entirely submerged. 
The various reyes and rises, such as Peckham Rye, &c., were islets in the great 
estuary of the Thames." Residents of Peckham have been somewhat alarmed of late 
at the construction of the monster reservoir on the heights of Nunhead, capable of 
holding 80,000,000 gallons of water, but the danger of being washed out of existence 
by the friendly streak of water close by, perhaps never before presented itself to their 
mind. 

The learned antiquary, Sir William Dugdale, gives some account of the marshes 
in the suburbs of London. It appears that in the 22nd Henry VI. (1443), Sir John 
Burcestre, Knight, Richard Bamone, Richard Combe, William Oxburne, Adam 
Lynelord, John Martin, John Malton, and William Kyrton, were assigned to view 
all those banks on the side of the Thames and marshes adjoining, "as well within 
the Lordships of South Lambehithe, North Lambhithe, Lambhithe Marshe, and 
Parysh Garden, as in Southwerk,Bermundsey,Rotherhithe,Depford-stronde, Peckham, 
Hacham, Camerwell, and Newyngton, in the counties of Surrey and Kent, which 
were at that time broken and in decay, and to take order for the repair of them ; as 
also to make the necessary laws and ordinances for the safeguard and preservation of 

* Hist, of Kent. j Mark Anthony Lower. 

t See Allport, Collections, &c., 27. History of Embanking and Drayniug, p. 67. 








Lcenftf W * ^ 



EXTRACTS FROM DOMESDAY BOOK RELATING 
TO CAMBERWELL AND PECKHAM. 



GENERAL SURVEY. ;3 

"them, according to the Laws and Customer of Romeney Marsh ; and, moreover, to 

imprest so many diggers and labourers to be imployed therein upon competent 
sularyes, as shall be necessary in respect of the great necessity at that time for the 

speedy dispatch of that work." Commissions were also issued for the same purpose 
in the 25th, 31st, and 33rd of Henry VI., and in the 5th and 14th of Edward IV. 

Numerous plans have at various times been proposed for the embankment of the 
Thames, some including railways, arcades, terraces, promenades, &c. More than a 

century and a half ago Sir Christopher Wren designed " a commodious quay on the 
whole bank of the river, from Blackfriars to the Tower ;" and in 1845 John Martin, 
*he painter, designed a railway along both sides of the Thames, with an open walk 

from Hungerford to the Tower, and from Vauxhall to Deptford. 

The fac-simile of those portions of the Domesday Book* relating to Camberwell 

is .else where given, but as the characters there used may be unintelligible to a portion 
of our readers, we transcribe the paragraphs into more modern type. 
Camberwell is mentioned as follows : 

TERRA HAIMONIS VICECOMIT' 

IN BRIXISTAN H'D. 

Ipse Haimo ten' Ca'brewelle. Norman tenuit de rege E. T'c se def M p xij hid. 
Modo p vi hid. & una v' Tra e' v. car. In d'nio sunt ii ic & xxij vill'i & vij bord' cu' 
vi car.' Ibi aeccl'a & Ixiij ac' p'ti. Silua de Ix pore' T. R. E. ual'b' xij lib' post vi 
lib' Modo "j lib." 

THE LAND OF HAIMO THE VISCOUNT. 

IN BRIXTON HUNDRED. 

Haimo himself holds CA'BREWELLE. Norman held it of Edward the Confessor. 
It was then taxed for 12 hides, t Now for 6 hides and 1 virgate. There are 6 cam- 



* This curious and interesting statistical record, 
which has been characterized by Spelman as "not 
-only the most ancient, but beyond dispute the most 
noble monument of Britain," and which Hume 
styles " the most valuable piece of aiuiquity pos- 
sessed by any nation" [" Monumentum totius Bri- 
tannia, non dico antiquissimum, sed absque 
controversial augustissimum "], includes an ac- 
count of the state and value of the landed property 
throughout nearly the whole of England at the 
close of the eleventh century. It was collected and 
arranged under the direction of commissioners 
especially appointed for the purpose, who com- 
pleted their task in 1086, and the fruit of whose 
labours was the compilation of the two invaluable 
volumes, appropriately entitled the Domesday 
Book : or, Book of Judgment. 

Holinshed gives the following account of 
Domesday Book : " The king (William the Con- 
queror), having at length obtained some rest from 
wars, practised by sundrie meanes to inrich his 
.coffers, and therefore raised a tribute throughout 
the whole klngdome; for the better levieing 
whereof, he appointed all the subiects of hisrealme 
to be numbred ; all the cities, townes, villages, 
-and hamlets to be registered ; all the abbies, mo- 
nasteries, and priories to be recorded. Moreover 
he caused a certificat to be taken of eurie man's 
substance, and what he might dispend by the yeare : 
he also caused their names to be written which 
"held knight's fees, and were bound thereby to 
serve him in the wars. Likewise be took a note of 
euerie yoke of oxen, and what number of plough 
lands, and how manie bondmen were within the 
realme. This certificat being made and brought 
unto him, gaue him full vnderstanding what 
wealth remained among the English people, there- 
upon he raised his tribute, taking six shillings for 
ouerie hide of land throughout this realme, which 
amounted to a great masse of monie, when it was 
-nil brought together into his excheker." 

For the execution of the Survey, Commis- 



sioners, called king's Justiciaries or Legati Regis, 
were appointed to go into each county. "The 
Inquisitors," according to Sir Henry Ellis, " upon 
the oath of the Sheriffs, the Lords of each Manor, 
the Presbyters of every Church, the Reves of every 
Hundred, the Bailiff and six Villans of every 
village were to enquire into the name of the plnce, 
who held it at the time of King Edward, who was 
the present possessor, how many hides in the 
manor, how many carucates in demesne, how 
many homagers, how many villans, how many 
cotarii, how many servi, what free men, how many 
tenants in socage, what quantity of wood, how 
much meadow and pasture, what mills and fish 
ponds, how much added or taken away, what the 
gross value in King Edward's time, what the 
present value, and how much each free man or 
soch-man had or has. All this was to be triply 
estimated ; first, as the estate was held in the time 
of the Confessor ; then, as it was bestowed by K ing 
William ; and thirdly, as its value stood at the 
formation of the Survey. The jurors were more- 
over to state whether any advance could be made 
in the value." 

t The hide was a very old denomination of land 
among the Saxons. The quantity of a hide, re- 
marks bishop Kennett, " was never expressly 
determined. The Dialogus de Scaccario makes it 
100 acres. The Malmsbury manuscript, cited by 
Spelman, computes it at 96 acres ; one hide, four 
virgates, and every virgate four acres. And yet 
the history of the foundation of the Abbey of 
Battle makes eight virgates go to one hide. But 
Polydore Vergil blunders most, who reduces a 
hide to 20 acres. The truth seems to be, that a 
hide, a yard land, a knight's fee, &c., contained no 
certain number of acres, but varied according to 
different places. In the Domesday Inquisition, 
the first inquiry was, 'How many hides 'i '"- 
Gloss. Par. Antiq. 

A virgate was the fourth pxrt of o ic carucate or 
hide. 

r. 2 



4 Y PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

cates of arable land.* Two are in demesne ; and there are 22 villains,t and 7 bordars,t 
with 6 carucates. There is a church ; and there are 63 acres of meadow. The wood 
yields 60 swine. In the time of King Edward it was valued at ,12 ; afterwards at. 
.6, and now at ,14. 

The following concerns Peckham : j| 

Ep's Lisoicensis ten.' cle epo' PECHEHA' Alfled tenuit de Heraldo T. R. E. & 
iacuit in Patricey. T'c & mo' se def 'd p ii hid. T'ra e' i car' Ibi e' un' uill'i, & iii 
bord' & ii ac' p' ti. T. R. E. & mo' ual xxx sol. Cu recep.' xx sol'. 

The Bishop of Lisieux holds of (Odo) the Bishop (of Baieux H) Pecheham which. 
Alfleda held of Harold, in the time of King Edward, when it was included in 
Patricesy. It was assessed then as at present at 2 hides. The arable land is one- 
carucate. There are 1 villan and 3 bordars, and 2 acres of meadow. It is valued 
at thirty shillings, as it was in the time of King Edward; but when received at. 
twenty shillings. 

It appears from the above that Pecklmm formed a part of Battersea Manor in the 
reign of Edward the Confessor, and this statement corresponds with the account of 
that manor among the lands of the Abbot of Westminster, in the Domesday Book,, 
where it is mentioned that the Bishop of Lisieux held two hides, of which the church 
at Westminster was seized in the reign of King William, but was afterwards dis- 
seized by the Bishop of Baieux. William II. made over to Archbishop Anselm the 
profits and revenues of his manor of Petteham, then valued at thirty pounds per 



* "What, and how much a Plough land is, Sir 
Edward Coke in his Ninth part, in Low's case, and 
upon Littleton, telleth us, and saith. That a Carue 
or Hide of land, or a Plough land, which is all one, 
is not of any certain content, but so much as one 
Plough may Plough in one year ; and so in some 
counties it 'is more, and in some other it is less 
(according to the heaviness of their Soil) and 
differences arising from several presentments, 
what shall be conceived a Plough-land, an order uf 
explanation was made that 100 acres should be ten 
esteemed and one Peny an Acre for all more. 
1 Oct. 15 Jac. And afterwards upon the same 
difference 80 acres was to be accounted a Plough 
land, and so proportionably to be charged for 
mending the Highways. 

" And of the same opinion was Judge Prisot, 35 
Hen. vi. 29, where he saith, That a came i f Land is 
greater in one Country than another, for that a 
Plough may plough more in one County than 
another. 

"And yet some others do make a difference 
between an Hide of land and a Carue or Plough 
land. For they say that an Hide of land doth 
contain four Plough lands, whereas a Carue or 
Plough land containeth but li'O acres ; and every 
Plough land or Carue is four yard land (in Latin 
called Quatrm>u terrce), every yard land containeth 
.;0 acres. But a Plough land or Carue is called in 
Latin Carucata terra;, that is, quantum aratriim 
arare pottut in estivo ttmporf. And yet this defini- 
tion or description of Carucata terra? showetb, that 
t is not of any certain amount." The Country 
Justice, by Michael Dalton, 1705. 

t ''These villeins, belonging principally to Lords 
or Manors, were either villeins rfyaruant, that is, 
annexed to the inanur or land ; or else they were 
n yross, or at large, that is, annexed to the person 
of the lord, and transferable by deed from one 
.wner to another. They could not leave their lord 
without his permission ; but if they ran away, or 
were purloined from him, might be claimed and 
recovered by action like beasts or other chattels. 
they held indeed small portions of land, by way of 
ustaining themselves and families ; but it was at 
he mere will of the lord, who might dispossess 
hem whenever he pleased; and it was upon 
. illein services, that is, to carry out dung, tohed^e 
.aid ditch the lord's demesnes, and any other the 



meanest offices. And these services were not only - 
base, but uncertain as to their time and quantity. 
A villein could acquire no property, either in lands . 
or goods ; but if he purchased either, the lord 
might enter upon them, oust the villein, and seiz^ 
them to his own use." See Blackstone, Comm.. 
vol. ii, pp. 9296. 

J The bordarii of the Survey are called by Coke, 
" boors holding a little house, with some land of 
husbandry, bigger than a cottage." Bishop Kennett 
says, ' ' The bordarii often mentioned in the Domes- 
day inquisition, were distinct from the servi and t 
villani, and seem to be those of a less servile con- 
dition, who had a bord or cottage with a small 
parcel of land allowed to them, on condition they 
should supply the lord with poultry and eggs, and . 
other small provisions for his board and entertain- 
ment " Gloss. Par. Aiitiq. 

"The wood yields 60 swine." When the - 
woods of a manor are said to have furnished the 
lord with so many hogs de pasnagio, it is to be 
understood of swine fatted with the mast and 
acorns : and implies, in proportion to their number, . 
that those woods abounded with beech and oak. 
This was a usual method of stating the quantity of 
wood upon an estate : which leads us to suppose - 
that the woods were considered as of no other 
value than to afford pannage for hogs : indeed, a 
wood that yielded neither acorn nor beech mast is 
in the survey called silvo infructuoso. In the Saxon 
and early Norman times the wealth of the agri- 
culturists consisted, in no small degree, in his 
droves of swine ; for bacon was the general viand 
of the people, and even the table of the feudal lord 
was usually loaded with the favourite joints fur- 
nished by the porcarius, or swineherd. Dr. Whit-, 
aker remarks that, "though the hog would of 
course be put up to fatten at that time as at 
present, he was in his general habits more of a 
wild animal than now, feeding, as his snout imports, 
upon roots, mast, &c., and very far from the filthy 
impounded glutton to which we have degraded 
him." 

|| The district of Dulwich is not mentioned. 

if The Bishop of Baieux was the son of Thurston 
de Bastenburg, a Norman, who, having been present 
at the battle of Hastings, was, for that and other 
services, rewarded with large grants of land, both, 
in Kent and Surrey. 



GENERAL SURVEY. 



annum, for seven years, by way of security for a loan of two hundred marks of silver, 
which he had borrowed of the church of Canterbury.* The mortgage appears to 
have been paid off, as his successor, Henry I., gave both Camberwell and Peckhani to 
his natural son, Robert Earl of Gloucester. 

The manor of Dulwich was given to Bermondsey Abbey in 1127, and it remained 
in possession of the abbey till the dissolution of the monasteries, when it was 
granted to the Calton family, who sold it to Edward Alleyne, the founder of Dulwich, 
-College. 

It has already been shown that in the eleventh century there was a church at 
Camberwell, and it is fair to assume therefore that it contained a few families of 
note even at that remote period. A century later mention is made of eight knight's 
fees in Camerwell and Hechesh'm, four of which were in the first-named place, f 
Estimating therefore each knight's fee at twenty pounds, which is the value com- 



monly assigm 
portance sine 



The subsidi 



d to it, Camberwell must have increased very considerably in im- 
the Conqueror's survey was made.t In the fourteenth century, a 



capital messuage of the annual value of six shillings and eightpence is mentioned, and 
buildings in Camerwelle and Peckham are several times alluded to, and it will be 
.seen on reference to the subsidies granted by Parliament to Edward III., that in the 
early part of the fourteenth century fifty-five persons were assessed within the 
villages of C*,merwell and Peckham, the aggregate amount levied on the parish 
16s. 7d. The names given in this subsidy form the earliest muster 
well and Peckham residents yet published, and some of the families 
ed can be traced through Camberwell history for hundreds of years. 
sewell,|| French, Baker,1T Ode, Forde, Dovedale,** and Bretynghurst ft 
.ents of yesterday, so recently do some of their names occur upon the 



amounting to 
roll of Cambe: 
there mentioi 
Stephen de Be 
appear as resi 
pages of local history. 

In subsequent subsidies during the long reign of Edward III. the contribution of 
this parish is generally put down at 100 shillin 



s of the reign of Henry VIII. illustrate in a remarkable degree the 



increasing importance of the place, for the number of persons assessed was about 100 
.against 55 in tie reign of Edward IIT ; and many families of wealth and repute had 
bought land End built mansions within it. The Skinners, Scotts, Muschamps, 



* Holinshed, Clron. ii. 22. 

t "A knight's : ee is properly to be esteemed 
according to the quality aud not according to the 
quantity of the lahd ; that is to say, by the value, 
.^nd not by the content. And antiquity thought 
i hat twenty-pound land was sufficient to maintain 
the degree of a knight." Coke. 

J Allport, Collections, &c., p. 57. 

Money at this time is generally estimated at 
thirty times its present value. 

|| In 1307, the 35th Edward I., Robert de Beke- 
well died, seised of the manor of Camberwell, held 
of the heir of Gilbert Earl of Gloucester, by the 
service of half a knight's lee, consisting of a capital 
messuage, value 6. 8d. a year ; a windmill, 10s. ; a 
wood, 6*. Sd. ; 221 acres of arable land, at <$d. an 
acre ; 20 of meadow, at 2s. ; 26 of pasture, at 'Ad, ; 
rents of assise, 9 lla. 3d. ; customary works, '20s ; 
perquisites of courts, 6d. in all, 20 4s. Id. Stephen 
<le Bekewell, his son and heir, held this estate in 
the 8th of Edward II. ; and in the 43rd Edward III. 
it belonged to Henry de Bekewell; for in that year 
Thomas Doleshill, or Dolsley, died, seised (jointly 
with his wife Joan) of the manor of Peckham, held 
of Henry de Bekewell by the service of 5s. lOd. a 
year, to be paid at his manor of Camberwell. 

If The Bakers at one time held the manor of 
Basing in Peckham. 

** Douedale Mauor, since corrupted into Dowdale 
and Dowlas, belonged originally to a family of that 
name. John dc Ovedale married Isabella, sister of 



Thomas de Tychesey, who in 1297 died seised of 
considerable land in Camberwell. 

f t The manor of Bredinghurst was named after 
this family. In the 9th Edward III., Johanna, wife 
of Robert de Bretinghurst, died seised of one hun- 
dred and twenty acres of land ir. Camberwell and 
Peckham, by the service of paying 10s. every thirty- 
two weeks to the ward of Dover Castle. Caleud. 
tnquis. Post Mort., vol. ii. p. 05. 

U A curious instance of legislative error, based 
upon an exaggerated estimate of the number of 
parishes, occurred at this time. The Parliament of 
1371 granted Ed ward I II. a certain subsidy, to raise 
which it was estimated that an assessment of the 
average rate of 1 '2s. 4d. upon each parish would 
be sufficient; but it was found when the rate 
was actually levied that the number of parishes 
had been taken to be five times more numerous 
than was really the case, so that the rate had even- 
tually to be raised to 5 10s. on each. 

John Scott was made baron of the Exchequer 
in 1529. The manor of Camberwell-Buckingham 
granted to the Scotts by Henry VIII. ultimately 
descended to the Cocks. The Muschamps belonged 
to Peckham. The bowyer family are now repre- 
sented by Sir William Bowyer Smijth, of Hill Hall, 
Essex. John Webster is described in a document 
of the time as of "Peckham Rie," and Henley, 
Monck, Hamond, and Pike are names which appear 
i.i the church register for nearly 300 years. 



G Y c PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

Bowyers, Drapers, Delves, and Doves, first appear as residents ; and the following 
names of the inferior gentry are also mentioned : Munck, Starkie, Hamond, Webster, 
Henley, and Pike. 

During Elizabeth's reign mention is made of Thomas Calton, brother of Sir Francis,, 
who held the Dulwich Manor, which he subsequently sold to Edward Alleyn. In the- 
thirty-fifth year of Elizabeth Thomas Calton was assessed at ,3 for his land at Dulwich, 
and about the same time the Garcliners and Grymes appear as Peckhani residents. 
The reign of James I. introduces us to the Milburys of Camberwell, at whose- 
house the Jesuits were secretly housed ; to the Budders of Dulwich, to the Swing- 
fields of Peckham, and to Edward Alleyn, whose land at Dulwich was assessed 
at .20. 

As showing the relative importance of Dulwich compared with the remaining- 
portion of the parish, it may be mentioned that in a subsidy granted to James I. the 
sum of 6s. 8d. was collected in Camberwell and Peckham, and 15s. 8d. in the- 
hamlet of Dulwich. The troublous times of Charles I. were severely felt in Camber- 
well, for not only were some of the Parliamentary troops found at Dulwicli- 
College, but fighting took place in the streets of Camberwell,* and many of the 
leading residents, through espousing the cause of the king, had their property 
confiscated. Sir Thomas Bond, of Peckham, who was a warm adherent of thc- 
Stuarts, was a notable sufferer, and the mob were so exasperated against him that 
they were with difficulty restrained from destroying his beautiful mansion at 
Peckham. 

The hearth -tax of the 15th Charles II. tells us something of the relative size of the 
residences of the local gentry of that day. Sir Edmund Bowyer was assessed for 
20 hearths; John Scott, Esq., 17; Mr. Delves, 10; Mr. flox, 13; Doctor Parr 
(vicar), 10 ; and Dulwich College, 33. 

The earliest poor ratef (1697) which has come under our notice illustrates in a 
remarkable manner the great increase which had taken place in the number of 
residents. The total number of assessments then amounted to 233, divided as 
follows : Camberwell, 88 ; Peckham, 103 ; and Dulwich 42, and the total 
amount of the rate at 3d. in the was .72 18s., divided as follows : Camberwell., 
31 7s. Qd. ; Peckham, .30 9s. 3d. ; and Dulwich, .11 Is. 

Sir Thomas Trevor whose name appears in this rate was afterwards raised to the 
peerage and appointed Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas. 

The De Crespignys appear in local records about 1740 ; the Spurlings a few years 
earlier, and the Shards of Peckham about the same time as the Spurlings; the 
Puckles came to Camberwell about the middle of the eighteenth century. Dr. Lettsom.. 
whose splendid "villa" is elsewhere described, was a power in the parish at the 
beginning of the present century. 

The state of society in Camberwell at the end of the eighteenth century is thus 
described by Dr. Lettsom in his " Village Society " : " In Camberwell village there^ 
are few poor inhabitants and not many overgrown fortunes. Among those who- 
may be deemed of the superior class a general equality prevails, both as to 
exterior appearance and mental cultivation. They consist chiefly of respectable 
merchants and tradesmen, and of those holding eligible situations in the public 
offices." 

The rural character of Camberwell at the latter part of the eighteenth century may 



* The following entry occurs in the church re- 86; Thomas Allen, 110; John Jackson, 125; 
gLster; "1647. Aug. 1. The same day was biiryed Richard ffloyde, 151; Sir Thomas Trevor, 60; 



gister; "1047. Aug. 1. Tne same day was biiryed Kichard moyde, Jtl51 ; Sir Thomas Trevor, 60; 
H man that was killed upon the highway by the Nicholas Abbis, 146 ; Widow Nash, 206 ; Thoma.s 
souldgers." 

t In this rate Anthony Bowyer was assessed at 
l:J6; Dr. Tipping, the vicar, U.O ; William Scott, 



Alleyn, 66 ; John Alleyn, 43 ; and Dulwich Col- 
lege, 25. 



GENERAL SURVEY. 7 

be gathered from the fact that the " trees and hedges of the village " are alluded 
to in the vestry minutes ; and in 1782 caterpillars so abounded in the parish 
that the overseers spent 10 in "apprehending" them, at the rate of 6d. per 
bushel. The caterpillars were described as being "dangerous to the public in 
general." 

The churchwardens' accounts of the past century contain numerous entries showing 
that hedgehogs were more numerous than ratepayers, and 4d. (alive or dead) was the 
price put upon the animal. Polecats were also a terrible trouble to the local authorities 
and Is. was paid for each one destroyed. And even sparrows were regarded by the 
Camberwell farmers as deadly enemies, and 3d. a dozen was paid by the church- 
wardens for sparrows' heads ! If report is to be credited, these sparrows' heads 
after being paid for and thrown away, came to the tally again with wonderful 
regularity ! 

The churchwardens and overseers of a parish are of course exceptionably shrewd 
individuals at all times ; but it reveals a very high order of intelligence when a 
man is able to detect a Camberwell pole-cat or hedgehog, from one caught in a 
neighbouring parish. Perhaps the Camberwell animals, like the " Camberwell 
beauty," had some peculiar excellence, or distinguishing mark, or it may be that 
they were more civilised than their brethren in other parts ! 

In 1797 the residents were, it appears,* "much troubled by hogs being suffered to 
range at large in the roads," and a committee was formed " to inquire what steps 
could be taken " to abate the evil, when it was resolved, " That notices be sent to the 
parishioners, and others stuck up, to prevent hogs being at large in the roads, and 
that 5s. reward be paid by the churchwardens for information of owners who are to 
be indited at the expense of the parish." 

The hogs of Camberwell are mentioned in Domesday Book in the llth century 
and at the close of the 18th they are still found laying claim even to the king's 
highway ! There was evidently no sanitary committee in those days. 

The great changes which have come over Camberwell since the commencement of 
the present century are fully recorded elsewhere. From a straggling suburban parish 
of about 4,000 inhabitants, Camberwell has become a congeries of streets, part of the 
great metropolis itself. Bricks and mortar, and universal stucco, have invaded the 
place, and green fields and hedge rows axe fast deserting us. In describing the 
parish in the middle of the past century, a writerf quaintly remarks " The spirit 
of building which has been so prevalent for some years past, appears equally to have 
affected this part with any other round the metropolis ; for between Newington 
Butts and Camberwell several new streets have been formed, and a prodigious 
number of new buildings erected." Another writer J remarks, that " Camberwell is 
a very pleasant village, of rather a straggling form, but there are many good buildings 
in it, inhabited by the merchants and gentry of London." 

Of recent years Camberwell has opened its arms not only to the mechanics driven 
out of other parts, but to the " noble army of clerks." Considerably more than half 

* V. M., June 22nd, 1797. unlike the disposition of the ancient citizens, who 
Stow, alluding to the enclosures of the com- delighted in the building of hospitals and alms- 
men fields, by means of hedges and ditches, which houses for the poore, and therein both employed 
were destroyed by the Londoners 6th Henry VIII., their wit and spent their wealth, in preferment 
remarks : " But afterward wee saw the thing in of the common eomtnoditie of this our citie." Stow 
worse case than ever, by means of inclosure for gives the following distich made in ridicule of some 
gardens, wherein are build ed many faire summer of the houses built in his day : 
houses; and, as in other places of the suburbs, iriyVnVa Pastlp ar\c\ "Fisher's Follv 
.ome of them like midsummer pageants, with ^SiiH^^tndMfgllGSy." 
towers, turrets, and chimney-pots, not so much 

for use or profit, as for show and pleasure, and f The Traveller, 

bewraying the vanitie of men's minds, much j Harrison, History of London, p. 557. 



Y PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 



the houses are now let either at weekly or monthly rentals.* The local gentry are 
gradually being driven into Dulwich ; and the market gardens, for which the parish 
was once famous, have given place to the manufacture of size and soap ; to monster 
gasometers, and to other "outward and visible signs" of inevitable nastiness. 



* In the neighbouring parish of Lambeth there 
is an annual increase in the percentage of houses 
above 40. The qualification for a vestryman in 



that parish has in consequence of the fact that more 
than one-sixth of the houses are now let at 40 and 
upwards, been increased from 25 to 40. 




GEOLOGY OF CAMBEKWELL. 

N order to give the reader an intelligible view of the geology of Camberwell, 
it will be necessary to offer some remarks upon what is called the London 
basin, of which the parish of Camberwell forms a part ; we shall then 
proceed to enter more into detail, with regard to the special district under 
consideration. 

London, as our reader is aware, is situated in a valley, bounded on the north by 
Hampstead Hill, which rises about 430 ft. above the Thames, and on the south by a 
range of hills, of which Norwood, the highest, is 353ft. above that level.* This valley 
gives unmistakable evidence of having been formed by erosion and denudation ; 
for there is a sandy bed (fig. 1) lying nearly horizontally, about 100 It. beneath the top 
-of the London Clay at Highgate and Hampstead Heath, and a bed of exactly the 
same character, very near the summit of Norwood Hill ; this bed has not been found 
-anywhere between these two places. We conclude, therefore, that these two patches 
of sand are all that are left of one bed which stretched right across London ; which 
bed, with many beneath it, have all been worn and washed away by some current of 
"water running east and west and forming the valley of the Thames. If we proceed to 
the north or the south of the hills bounding the Thames valley, we come at Ware, 
Hatfield and Watford on the north, and Croydon, Epsom, and Leatherhead on the 
south, upon ranges of chalk hills ; and borings and sections at various places reveal to 
ois the fact that these chalk hills are the outcrop of a thick bed of chalk, which under- 
lies the whole of the country between these points. The depth at which the chalk is 
reached, in those parts nearly on a level with the river Thames, averages from about 
100ft. to 120 ft. 

As the only spot at which the chalk comes to the surface, near the parish of Camber- 
well, is to the east at Loampit-hill, Lewisham, it is not intended further to describe 
.that formation, than to state that it was formed at the bottom of a deep sea, such as 
the Atlantic Ocean ; which opinion has, of late, been confirmed by the ocean dredg- 
ings, which have been made by Dr. Carpenter and others. The ooze or mud, which 
Jias been obtained in this manner from the bed of the Atlantic Ocean, has been care- 
fully examined beneath the microscope, and has been found to be composed, chiefly, 
of minute shells or fragments of minute shells belonging to the group called Foramini- 
Jera; these shells are identical with those which, Professor Ehrenberg has shown, 
compose the great mass of the chalk strata. Nor is this all ; a great number of types 
of animal life were met with in these dredgings, distinctly characteristic of the 
fauna which lived in the cretaceous sea : and the most remarkable discovery of all 
was the finding a siliceous sponge (i.e., a sponge, the skeleton of which is composed, 
.not of horn, as in the ordinary sponge, but of silex or flint) which represents a 
large group of chalk fossils called Ventriculites (little bag stones). 

* Prestwich, The Ground beneath Us, p. 35. 



10 



Y PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 



The strata (stratum, a layer or bed) overlying the chalk in the London basin are as 
follows : 

Post Tertiary or Quar- ( 6. Beds of Peat. 

. . . \ 5. Yellow clay (brick eaith). Sand and gravel. 



ternary 

Eocene* 
Chalk. 



( 4. London clay. 

1 3. Oldhaven and Blackheath Beds. 

) 2. Woolwich Beds. 

( 1. Thanet Beds. 



As these deposits are to be found in the parish of Camberweli, we shall therefore 
now confine our remarks to the geology of this district. 

Within the last fourteen years great light has been thrown upon the subject iib 
hand by the excavations which were made for the construction of the Southern High 
Level Sewer, main line and Effra branch ; the main line being carried through Dept- 
ford Broadway, Queen's Road, Peckham, Eastwood's brickfield, Hanover Park, 
Hanover Street, across Lyndhurst Road, Denman Road, across Camberweli Groves- 
through Cold-harbour Lane, Stockwell Green, Stockwell Private Road, ending at the 
Plough Inn, Clapham : the Effira branch diverging from the mainline near St. Mary's 
Church, crossing Pecham Rye, close by the fountain, crossing Lordship Lane, being 
carried as a tunnel under the Five-fields at Dulwich, crossing Dulwich and Herne 
Hill to Brixton. 

The following sections were taken during the progress of the works. 

Along the main line : 

Queen's Road, Peckham ; Eastwood's brickfield, Peckham ; Denman Road, Lynd- 
hurst Road ; De Crespigny Park, Camberweli ; Lilford Road, Cold-harbour Lane. 

The total length of the main line sewer, commencing at Deptford Creek, and 
terminating at Clapham Common, is 5 miles 1850 feet ; and the ground gradually 
rises from east to west at Clapham being about 60 feet above the level of the river 
Thames. 

Along the Effra branch : 

Nunhead brickyard ; Five-fields, Dulwich ; 1st East Shaft, 2nd Main Shaft, 3rd, 
West Shaft. 



Section No. l.f Queen's Road, Peckham. 

Made ground . 
( Brown clay and sand . 
Valley Drift . . . < Grey sandy clay 
( Dark grey clay . 
Woolwich Beds . . Woolwich clay (very shelly) . 




Section No. 2. Eastwood's Brickfield, Peckham. 



Valley Drift . 



Mould 

Yellow clayey sand . 

Yellow sandy clay .... 

Light brown clay with a little sand 



ft. in. 

2 6 

11 3 

4 

4 



21 9 



* Gr. tos, the dawn, and Icainos, recent : so 
called because the fossils found in these beds show 
a perceptible approach to existing species. 



t Sections Nos. 1 to 
vol. i. pp. 329, 330. 



Proc. Geol. Association,. 



lection 



across the Thames Valley from, Hampstead to JVorwood. 



Camberwell tfhe % 'harness. 




tthalk.((8) Oldhaven.fgJ Woolwich and Reading; h. London Clay. k. Lower gag-shot 



he (Post-tertiary deposits sands and gravels, brick-earth, beds qf sand and peat 
are too thin to be shewn. 




gott, del 




( reduced ) 

( reduced \ 

Fossil leave* from Glay*-beds Woolwich Ijeds 



GEOLOGY OF CAMBERWELL. 1L 



Section No. 3. Denmaii Road 


, Lyndhurst Road, Peckham. 










ft. 


in. 






2 





r 


Yellow clay (brick-earth) . 


. 2 


() 


Valley Drift (22ft.) . < 




2 





Woolwich Beds . . | 


Greenish mottled sandy clay 
Woolwich clay (very shelly) . 
Clayey green sand with a few shells . 


. 18 
. 3 
. 5 


6 
6 
6 






33 


6 


Section No. 4. De Crespigny 


Park, Camberwell. 










ft. 


in. 




Made ground .... 


. 2 





( 


Brick-earth clay .... 


. 7 







Sand, with a little gravel 


. 


t> 


\ 


^Infirl'v plnv 


6 


(V 


Valley Drift (25ft. Sin.) \ 


Fine gravel, sand and water . 


. 3 





- 


Gravel ...... 


i 


9 


I 


Loamy yellow clay 


. 1 


<> 


London clav . 


Blue clav . ... 


3 






Section No. 5. Lilford Road, Cold-harbour Lane. 

Loamy gravel and sand . 




! Loamy gravel and sand . . . . 2 it 
Sand and gravel 3 
Coarse gravel and water . . . . 20 



25 0> 
Section No. 6.* Through Nunhead Green. 

( Clay, about ...... 8 ft. 

London clay. . . j Basement bed, pebbles . . 12 in. or 18 in. 
Woolwich Beds . . Sands. 

Section No. 7.f Nunhead Brickyard. 

(Section about 40ft. long and 6ft. or 7ft. deep.) 

Soil. 

( A little brown clay at one part only. 
London clay . . . < Basement bed. An irregular clayey pebble-bed, 

( 1 ft. to 2 ft. in thickness, lying irregularly on, 
Woolwich Beds . . Sand, with layers of clay. 

In the works for the Southern High Level Sewer, across Peckham Rye, near where 
the fountain now stands, the Paludina bed (Woolwich Beds) was cut through. This 
bed is a pale grey clayey limestone, mostly crowded with the shells of Paludina. 
lenta (Fig. 5) ; here, the shells were massed in one continuous floor in the middle ol 
the bed, causing it to split, when struck with the hammer, along the line of fossils. 
The position of this bed, in the Woolwich series, is clearly shown in the following 
sections at the " Five-fields," Dulwicli. This bed was also cut through, in the main 
line excavation about half way between Sections Nos. 3 and 4 ; here the Paludina? 
were not so numerous as at Peckham Rye ; but they were of larger size, and what is oi 
great interest, numerous impressions of the operculum (Lat. a cover, or lid) or 
horny door, so well known in the periwinkle (Littorina), were found in the bed a 
little above the line of the Paludinse themselves. This would seem to show that the 



* Memoirs of the Geological Survey. Geology of t Memo'rs Geol. Survey. Geol. London Basin,, 

the London basin, Part i. p." 131. W. Whitaker, Parti, p. 131. W. Whitaker. 
li.A. 



12 



Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 



Paludina} had died upon the spot, where they were living, before a fresh deposition 
of clay or mud took place (the shells are almost invariably filled with the clay), their 
bodies had decomposed and the opercula had floated away and had been deposited 
-elsewhere. 

The Effra Branch of the Southern High Level Sewer was carried as a tunnel 
beneath the " Five-fields," Dulwich, and the following sections (Nos. 8, 9, 10)* were 
-taken of the beds passed through in the shafts that were sunk. 



Section No. 8. Five-fields, Dulwich (East shaft.) 



London clay . 



Woolwich Beds 
28ft, 6 in.) 



(about 



Soil 

Loamy clay .... 
Red sand . 

Black clay, with leaves, lignite, &c. 
Blue clay 

Dark clay 

PaludinaBed . 
Band containing broken cyrense 
Oyster bed . . 
Blue clay with leaves 
Dark sand . 
Blue clay with leaves 
Dark sand . 
\ Hard shelly rock (bottom). 



Section No. 9. Five-fields, Dulwich (Main shaft.) 



London clay . 



Woolwich 
53ft.) 



Beds (about 



Soil 

Loamy clay 

/ Mottled clays . . . . . 
Mottled sands . 

Clay, with cyrenae 

Paludina bed . 

Sandy clay ... . . 

Oyster bed, sandy 

Dark blue clay, with leaves . . . 

Green sand witli comminuted shells 

Very hard, tough and rather coarse 

sandstone (greatest thickness) . . 

Dark blue clay, with leaves, lignite, 

shells, and bone . . . . 



ft. in. 
9 
6 10 
5 6 
2 2 
10 
6 

8 


8 

2 4 

1 6 
9 3 



36 

ft. in. 

9 

12 

8 

4 6 

6 

9 
3 

1 8 







7 




-Section No. 10. Five-fields, Dulwich (West shaft). 



London clay . 



Woolwich 
28J ft.) 



Soil 

Loamy clay 

Dark clay 

Paludina bed 

Light sandy clay, with leaves . 
Blue clay, with oysters . 

Dark sand 

Beds (about J Yellow sand 

Blue clay, with leaves 

Dark loamy sand . 

Blue clay, with thin layers of sand 

Running sand, with water 

Light coloured loamy clay 

Hard shelly rock (bottom). 

* Proc. Geologists' Association, vol. i. pp. 114. 115. 



65 8 

ft. in. 

9 

9 3 

2 

6 

1 10 

3 
8 

2 
2 6 
8 
9 

4 
2 6 



38 8 



GEOLOGY OF CAMBERWELL. 



ia 



At a brickyard about a quarter of a mile south-east of Brockwell Hall, Dulwich, 
there is a long section, partly hidden "by fallen masses of London clay ; the following, 
beds being shown in the middle : 



Section No. 11.* 
London clay . 



01dhavenBeds(0 
Woolwich Beds 



Stiff brown, roughly laminated, and jointed (so 
as to break up into cuboidal pieces), rather 
sandy towards the base, where there are a 
few flint pebbles, and some green grains. 

Buff sands with shells, 6 in. to 9 in. 

Light coloured sand, with many thin layers of 
clay, evenly bedded, 6 ft. visible. 



Besides the sections above given, we are also in possession of others in the parish,, 
which it may be well to mention : 

Section No. 12.f Marlborough House, Peckham (1841). 

( Gravel 

Valley Drift (20ft.) . < Bright loam and sand . ... 

( Sandy gravel 

Woolwich Beds . . Yellow, soapy clay, marbled with light 

blue .... 
. Green sand and clay, and quicksand 
I Dark grey sand, yielding water, strongly 
Thanet Beds . . . \ impregnated with copper (1) . . . 

/ Greenish sand 

Slate-coloured clay and dark heavy sand 
Chalk with flints, water at 



3ft. 

1-4 
3 

20 
40 

16 

2,, 

2 

123 



Section No. 13.J At the foot of Herne Hill, Dulwich. 



Soil, &c. (10ft.) 
London clay . 



Gravel 

Black mould .... 
Blue clay with pyrites and selenite 
Sand yielding plenty of water . 



223 

ft. 
1 

8 



in. 
6 
6 



43 



Section No. 14. Champion Hill, Dulwich. 

To chalk 
In chalk . 



53 

210 ft 

298 



Section No. 15.|| Dulwich Mineral Wells. 

T i | ( Clay with vegetable substances 

" c y ' ' * ( Clay with pyrites and septaria. 



Section No. 16.11 Forest Hill (J. Walter's, Esq.) 

To chalk 



Section No. 17.** Grove Lane, Camberwell. 

Gravel, clay, and sand 
Dark cindery, friable, earthy matter 
London clay (?) . . <{ (decomposed pyrites) 

Peacock coal (lignite ?) 6 in. clay . 



508 

20 
20 

40 
300 



60 



31 



91 



* Memoirs Geol. Surrey. Geology of London 
Basin. W. Whitaker, Part i. p. 133. 

t Allport, Collections Illustrative of the Geology, 
&c., of Camberwell, p. 8. 

J Allport, Collections Illustrative of t!ie Geology, 
&c., of Carnberwel], p. 7. 



Mylne, Sections of the London Strata. 
|| Phil. Trans., vol. xli. p. 835. 
IT Allport, Collections Illustrative of the Geol igy,. 
&c. , of Camberwell, p. 5. 
** Ibid., p. 8. 



14 Y' PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

Section No. 18.* Near Cliurch Street, Camberwell. 

To chalk . 

Section No. 19. t Camberwell Grove (Mr. Wynne's). 



Section No. 18.* Near Cliurch Street, CamLerwell. 

To chalk . .105 ft. 



ft. in. 

To chalk 208 

In chalk 300 6 

508 6 
(Water rose to 90 ft. below the surface.) 

A section of the beds above the chalk at Loam-pit Hill, near Lewisham, though 
not in the parish of Camberwell, has been added, for the purpose of comparison. 

Section No. 20.$ Loam-pit Hill, near Lewisham (showing the succession of beds 
from the chalk to the Oldhaven and Blackheath Beds) : 

Oldhaven and Blackheath Beds Pebble bed 

/ Fine sand, yellow and iron shot . . 10 ft. 
f Loam and plastic clay with pyrites and 

leaves 10 

Sands, yellow 3 

Clay, lead-coloured, with leaves . 2 

_, r , . , -r, -, ' Clay, brownish, with cyrenoe . . . 6 

Woolwich Beds . . ^ Cla inthree beds; the upper and 

lower contain cyrense, and the mid- 
dle oysters 3 

Loam and sand ; upper part cream- 
coloured, with nodules of friable 
marl, lower part sandy and iron-shot 4 
( Ferruginous sand, with flint pebbles . 12 

m 4. -R j } Green sand, coarse and pebbly . 5 

) Sand, ash-coloured, slightly micaceous 35 
C Green sand, with green-coated flints . 1 
Chalk, with beds and nodules of black flint. 

From these sections it will be seen that the chalk which, as we have before stated, 
underlies the whole of the London area, is covered with clays of varying thickness. 
The water which falls upon the exposed surfaces of the chalk at its outcrop, percolates 
through, to the lowest part of the chalk beneath London; the clay above, being 
impermeable, prevents the water rising, except in any places where borings or wells 
-are made, and there most abundant supplies of water are found (as in Section 
No. 19). On the other hand, the surface springs, which were formerly very abundant 
at a depth of 10 ft. or 12 ft., and the springs, which supplied the wells in the neigh- 
bourhood of Peckham, which seldom were of a greater depth than from 25 ft. to 
30 ft., have in almost all cases been dried up, by the cuttings through the beds of clay, 
which lay beneath and which retained them ; in the excavations for the Southern High 
Level Sewer. 

I. ThanetBeds. 

Of the strata which lie above the chalk the next in ascending order, and therefore 
the oldest beds of the Tertiary system or epoch, are the Thanet Sands, as they have 
been called by Mr. Prestwich, from their occurrence in the Isle of Thanet and tlu^ 
immediately adjoining district. The word "Beds," instead of "Sands," has been 
suggested by Mr. Whitaker, as a more applicable term, as sometimes there is a large 
proportion of clay in the formation.)] The reader will observe that these " Beds " 
were cut through in Section No. 12. 

* Mylne, Sections of the London Strata. Quarterly Journ. Geol. Soc., vol. viii. p. 23ft. 

t Simpson MS. in Library Inst. Civ. Engineers. || Whitaker, Memoir Geol. Survey, vol. iv. 

t Prof. Phillips, Geol. Oxford and the Valley of port i. p. 55. 
ihe Thames. 



GEOLOGY OF CAMBERWELL. 15 

The mineral structure of the Thanet Beds consists essentially of a base of fine 
light-coloured quartzose sand, mixed, in its lower beds more especially, with more or 
less argillaceous or clayey matter. The following two characteristics are worthy of 
note : First ; these beds never contain layers or beds of rounded black flint-pebbles, 
so common in the beds above, nor do they exhibit beds of mottled clays, such as so 
well mark the Woolwich and Reading Beds. Second ; there is a constant occurrence 
-at the very base of the deposit, and immediately resting on the chalk, of a layer of 
flints of all sizes, just as they occur in the underlying chalk, from which the chalk 
seems to have been washed away, without wearing or fracturing the flints ; for they 
-are almost as perfect as the undisturbed flints in the chalk, but present this difference, 
that, instead of their usual white or black coating, these flints are almost invariably of 
a deep bright olive-green colour externally ; * by which they may be recognised in other 
beds (tertiary or drift) to which they have been subsequently carried (vide Section 
No. 20). Mr. Whitaker is of opinion that this bed of green-coated flints may have 
been formed after the deposition of the beds above, by the dissolving away of the 
chalk, and the consequent leaving behind of its contained insoluble flints. For the 
grounds upon which this opinion is based, we must refer the reader to Mr. Whitaker's 
Memoir,t where the question is discussed in all its bearings. The green-coating of 
the flints is owing to a deposition of a salt of iron. 

The Thanet Beds are very constant in character throughout the London Basin, 
attaining a thickness, in some parts, of 90 ft. ; but thinning out to the westward, 
until a little west of London they are only 4 ft. thick, shortly beyond which point 
the beds disappear altogether.^ They are thickest in the east of Kent, where they 
tire more clayey, and contain fossils : they may be well seen on the coast near Recul- 
vers and in Pegwell Bay, and also in sand-pits and cuttings in the neighbourhood of 
Woolwich. 

II. Woolwich Beds. 

The next beds, in order of succession, are the Woolwich Beds, cut into or through 
in sections Nos. 1, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, and probably 18 and 19. 

These beds are more variable in character than the Thanet Beds, and also more 
widely extended, becoming thicker from east to west, or in the contrary direction to 
the Thanet Beds, and then again thinner farther west in the London Basin. Their 
thickness varies from 15 ft. in the extreme west to 80 ft. or 90 ft. in some of the 
deep wells under London. In the east of Kent the thickness averages 25 ft. In its 
general character this formation consists of irregular alternations of clays and sands ; 
the former of many and bright colours, mostly mottled and plastic ; the latter also of 
many colours, both coarse and fine in texture, sometimes with flint pebbles, and no wand 
then hardened into sandstone or conglomerate. In parts we find, associated with the 
light-coloured sands, finely bedded grey clay, containing vast numbers of estuarine 
shells, and often with oyster shells compacted into rock.|| The beds included in this 
formation, judging from the fossils contained in them, appear to have been deposited 
in an estuary, as we find alternations of marine, fluvio-marine and fresh- water forms 
of life. As is general with deposits of this character the species of fossils are few, 
though the number of individuals is very large. This is specially noticeable in the 
Paludina bed, already referred to (ante, p. 11). 

The following is a list of fossils found in this parish, from the Woolwich Beds : 

* Prestwich, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., vol. viii. p. 235. 

p. 242. Jukes and Geikie, Manual of Geology, p. 67'-. 

t Whitaker, Memoir Geol. Survey, vol. iv. part i. || Whitaker, Memoirs Geol. Surv., vol. iv. 

pp. 58, 59. part i. p. 99. 

t Prestwich, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., vol. viii. 



16 



ye PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 



LOCALITY. 



Ol 'J!A>1.B*0 


Dulwich. 


eckham. 


amberwell. 


"phodon (canine tooth)* (Fig. 12) ^ 


* 






H^cotheriuin cuniculum (molar tooth)t 


* 






InS ofi mammal' (undescribed form)t 


* 






P teS in Sta of a large insectivore ^ pro- f 
bably allied to opossum (Didelpnis) I 


* 






(Davis)t (Fig. 10) J 








Birds (?) 


-if 






Bones .. 








^Chelonia (bones) Trionyx . 


* 




* 


Crocodilia (Scutes) . 








JfViJv 




X- 




Pycnodont toothj . 


* 




r 


Lamna (? sp.) teeth . 


* 




x- 


Lepidotus minor ? . 
Bones, scales, teeth, vertebrae . . 






* 


Gasteropoda. 
Calyptaea trochiformis. Lam. . . 
Cerithium funatum. Mant. (including C. 


* 


* 


* 


Variabile, Desh.) 




_^_ 




Cerithium Lunnii. Mor.J . 




# 




gracile. Mor.it . . 








Fusus (sp. ?) . 


# 


. 




Fusus gradatus. Sow. j 




-x- 




latusj 


^ 


^ 


y. 


Melania inquinata. Deir 








Melanopsis brevis. Sow 
Hydrobia Parkinsoni. Mor.t . 
Websteri (Mor. T)% . 


* 


* 




Neritina Consobrina. Desh. . . . 


* 






globosus. Defr 








Paludina aspera. Michaud . 
? , lenta. Brand (Fig. 5) 


* 


5f 


* 


rugosa (Brand ]) . . . 
Pitharella Rickmanni. Edw. (Fig. 4) 


* 


* 




Bulimus ellipticus (Fig. 7) . 
Planorbis hemistoma. Sow. 


* 






Isevigata.! Desh. . 


* 








fr 






Conchifera. 








Area, Dulwichiensis. Edw. . ... 


* 






Bysso-arca Cailliaudi. Bella 
Corbula Regulbensis.J Mor. 




if 




(sp ?) .... 


TT 






Cardium Laytoni.^ (Mor. ?) 




3f 


' 


Cyrena cordata. Mor. (Fig. 8) 
v ,, cuneiformis. Fer. (Fig. 9) 


I 


* 


5f 


deperdita. Sow. 


* 






Dulwichiensis. Rickman (Fig. 6) 


* 






obovata. Sow 


* 







* Owen, Palaeontology, p. 357. 

t In the Collection of Arthur Bott, F.G.S. 

* In the Collection of Caleb Evans, F.G.S. 



In the Collection of Arthur Bott, F.G.8., Proc. 
Geol. Assoc., vol. i. p. 338. 



GEOLOGY OF CAMBERWELL. 



17 



SPECIES. 



Conckifera continued. 

Modiola elegans. Sow. . . 

Mitchelli. Mor. 
Teredo antenautac.* Sow. 
Teredina personata. Desh. . 

Tellina (sp. ?) * 

Ostrea Bellovacina. Lam. (including O. 
edulina. Sow.) ..... 
elephantopus 1 Sow. . 
pulchra. Sow. 
tenera. Sow. 
Psammobia Condamini. Mor.* . 
Unio Edwardsi. Wood 

Solandri? Sow 

Deshayesii. Prestwich . 
Poly zoo,. 

Flustra 

Foraminifera. 
Globigerina ? 



LOCALITY. 



Dulwich. Peckliam. Camberwell. 



Coleoptera. 

Wing Cases ...... 

Plants. 

Cones, cast of . . . . 

Leaves, seed-vessels, wood, (figs. 2 and 3) 



On the above list of fossil remains, it may be interesting to make a few remarks. 
Three of the species of shells are new to science, and have received specific names 
associating them either with the finder or the locality. They are the following : Area 
Dulwichiensis, Cyrena Dulwichiensis (fig. 6), and Pitharella Rickmanni (fig. 4). The 
latter shell has since been found at Chislehurst, Kent. The second of these was 
figured and described in the Illustrated London News for March 24, 1860. It would 
be beyond the scope of these remarks to enter into the scientific considerations upon 
which these shells have been determined to be of new species ; those, however, to 
whom these questions may be of interest, are referred to the Proceedings of the 
Geologists' Association, vol. i. p. 110, for a full description of Cyrena Dulwichiensis, 
and to the Geologist, vol. iii. pp. 208 212, for a like description of Pitharella Rick- 
manni. The Cyrena Dulwichiensis was found in the bed called " Very hard, tough, 
and rather coarse sandstone " (section No. 9), and was associated with other forms of 
Cyrena and with Pitharella Bickmanni ; the latter shell being also found in the 
Paludina bed at Dulwich and Peckham. The Cyrense have been beautifully pre- 
served, and show very clearly, especially in Cyrena , Dulwichiensis, the marks of the 
colour bands. The fossil leaves, found at Dulwich (see sections Nos. 8, 9, 10), have 
been also marvellously preserved, being not merely impressions, but the carbonized 
substance of the leaves themselves ; sometimes the leaves forming a thin blackish 
carpet over many square feet of clay. Many of these specimens are now in the Geo- 
logical Museum, Jermyn Street. 

But what may justly claim our attention, even before these interesting relics, are 
the mammalian remains, which are mentioned in the foregoing list : and this for 
two reasons the first, as indicating the close proximity of land ; the second, as giving 
us some slight insight into the denizens of the land at that remote period of time. 
And it may be here observed in passing that the remains of terrestrial animals are, from 



In the Collection of Caleb Evans, F.G.S. 



18 Y PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

the very nature of the case, of great rarity, compared with the remains of creatures 
living either in marshes, lakes, rivers, or seas ; because all deposits of sediment are 
formed under one of these influences, and therefore the creatures, living on the spot, 
are the most abundantly preserved. 

Coryphodon (fig. 12) .* This specimen is thus described by Professor Owen in Pal- 
aeontology, p. 357 : " A fossil canine tooth, brought up from a depth of 160 ft., out of 
the ' plastic clay ' (Woolwich Beds), during the operations of sinking a well at Camber- 
well, near London, belongs, from its size s (nearly 3 in. in length), to a large 
quadruped, and from the thickness and shortness of its conical crown, not to a carni- 
verous, but to a hoofed mammal, most resembling in shape, though not identical with, 
that of the crown of the canine tooth of some large extinct tapiroid mammals, which 
Cuvier had referred to his genus Lophiodon, but which has since proved to belong to 
Coryphodon." This specimen is described at full length by Allport,f under the 
name Lophiodon ; the much shorter and more recent description of Professor Owen 
has been, however, considered preferable. Two of the figures of the specimen, given by 
Allport, are inverted ; so, to the casual observer, the base of the tooth, which was 
hidden in the jaw, might be readily mistaken for the crown. In all figures care 
should be taken to give a representation of the specimen, illustrated, in its natural 
position. 

Hyracotherium cuniculum. This specimen is a molar tooth of the lower jaw of 
another animal, belonging, as determined by Professor Owen, to the same thick- 
skinned (Pachydermata) class as the Coryphodon. For the description of this genus, 
see his History of British Fossil Mammals, p. 419, figs. 165, 166. J It was a 
small creature, and from careful examination of a skull found in the London clay at 
Herne Bay, is supposed, from the largeness of the eye cavity, to have been of a timid 
nature, like the hare ; although its structure classes it in one of the families of the 
hog tribe. This specimen was found during the progress of the works for the 
Southern High-Level Sewer at Dulwich, and is from the bed called " Very hard, tough, 
and rather coarse sandstone" (section No. 9, vide fig. 11). The next two specimens 
are from the same bed. 

Incisor of a Mammal. This specimen has been very carefully examined and 
compared by Mr. Davis, of the British Museum, who, while confirming the opinion 
that it is a mammalian tooth, is unable to identify it with any known fossil forms, 
and is inclined to consider that it belongs to some undescribed form of mammal ; the 
peculiarity of the specimen consisting in the absence of the chisel-edge which incisor 
teeth almost always present, from the grinding and sharpening which they are con 
stantly receiving from the teeth which oppose them. This tooth presents no trace of 
thus having been ground and sharpened, the crown being nearly semicircular from 
side to side. Cuvier, however, in his description of the order Marsupialia, || figures 
the jaws of two genera, Petaurus and Hypsiprymnus (Kangaroo-rat), in which the 
incisors of the lower jaw show no grinding or chisel-edge, the teeth of the upper jaw, 
incisors in the former case, and incisors and canines in the latter, appearing to 
overlap them. As the incisors of the lower jaw of both these genera present a 
remarkable resemblance to the specimen now described, figures of the fossil incisor 
tooth and of the lower jaws of both the genera, are placed side by side for com- 
parison, together with a figure of the skull of Hypsiprymnus (figs. 13, 14, 15, 
and 16). 

Portion of mandible or lower jaw with two teeth in situ of a large insectivore. This 

* (Peak tooth). Owen, Hist. Brit. Foss. Mamtn., } A specimen of this genus is also figured i 

p. 306, fig. 105. Prestwich, Ground Beneath Us, p. 51. 

t Allport, Coll. Illustrating the Geol., &c., of Ibid., p. 52. 

Oamberwell, pp. 1517. II Penny Cyclopaedia. 



,m*. 




'tharella tfickmanni 




'jrena oordata 





(Portion of lower jaw with two tt 
of an insectivorous Jtfammal. 



<Paludina lento. 




Ijulirmis ellipticus. 




ouneqformis 



}4olar tpptfa lower jaw, of 
Syraaotherium cunioulum. 




Canine tooth of 
Coryphodon (Owen 



Fossil shells and teeth from Woolwich geds, (Dulwich. 
natural 



THE GEOLOGY OF CAMBERWELL. 19 

specimen has also been very carefully examined by Mr. Davis, with forms from the 
Middle Eocene, and recent forms of the opossum (Didelphis), with the former of 
which it bears a strong resemblance, except as regards size, the forms known as 
existing in Middle Eocene times being much smaller. Mr. Davis regards this 
specimen as belonging to a species of insectivorous mammal, quite new to Palaeon- 
tology (fig. 10). It may be interesting to mention that this is the first specimen of 
an insectivore which has been found so low down in the tertiary deposits as the 
Woolwich Beds. 

To the north of Peckham and Camberwell the Woolwich Beds are hidden by the 
brick earth and gravel, and then by alluvium (surface soil) ; they are clearly indicated, 
however, by the wells sunk through them. They are also traced by borings on the 
Middlesex side of the river Thames.* 

III. Oldhaven and Blackheath Beds (see section No. 11). 

This name has been given by Mr. Whitaker to the sands and pebble-beds which 
come between the Woolwich Beds and the London clay, and which had been doubt- 
fully classed by Mr. Prestwich as " basement bed of the London clay " in Kentf 
The beds consist of well rounded flint-shingle and pebbles (so well known at Black- 
heath, Bromley, &c.), fine sand, and, near Canterbury, of a bed of sandy-brown, 
ironstone. Sometimes the pebble beds are cemented into a hard rock, and they 
often contain fossils. The thickness of the beds classed under this name is from 
20 ft. to 40 ft. thick. A well-marked feature connected with the pebble-beds is the 
very much rounded condition of the pebbles, scarcely an angular flint being found 
amongst them ; showing that they must have been accumulated in the sea at some 
distance from land, where no beach pebbles could reach them until they had been 
rolled to a very great extent. The fossils contained point partly to estuarine and 
partly to marine conditions, showing somewhat the same conditions of formation as 
the Woolwich Beds. 

The following is a list of the fossils which have been obtained from these Beds, at 
Brock well brickyard, Dulwich: 

SPECIES. 

Gasteropoda. 

Calyptrcea trochiformis. Lam. 

Cerithium funatum. Mant. 

Fusus (sp.) 

Melania inquinata. Defr. 

Natica (sp.) 
Conchifera. 

Cardium (sp.) 

Cyrena cuneiformis. Fer. 

Modiola elegans. Sow. 

Mytilus ? 

Ostrea (sp.) 

IV. London Clay. 

The beds under this name were cut into or through in sections No. 4, 6, "7, 8, 9, 

), 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, and probably 18 and 19. 
The name given to this formation is, as the reader will at once recognize, due to 

le fact that this clay is found very persistently beneath the metropolis,! and attains 
to almost its maximum thickness in the London Basin. The greatest thickness, 
however, appears to be in the Isle of Sheppey. Mr. Prestwich thus speaks upon this 

* Whitaker, Memoir Gcol. Survey, vol. iv. p. 412. 

part i. p. 134. + The same bed also occurs beneath the city of 

t Whitaker, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., vol. xxii. Paris. 



ye PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

point It would appear that the London clay gradually expands as it ranges from 
until i attains a thickness of from 300 ft. to 400ft; and then very 
the neighbourhood of London, it averages from 400 ft to 440 ft. 



thick In the Isle of Sheppey and on the opposite Essex coast it reaches its greatest 
drvelopnlt being there 'appa-tly as much as 470 ft to 480 ft thick"; Mr. 
PresUvich was also the first to point out what is termed the basemen bed, which 
is always found at the base of the London clay. This basement bed "consists of 
brown/green, and ferruginous clayey sands, and occasionally clays with layers of 
flint pebbles, having a maximum thickness of about 12ft. ; in many places, however, 
this bed is not more than 1 ft. in thickness. 

The London clay proper is throughout its entire thickness of an uniform mineral 
structure, so marked and distinct that it can be readily recognized, even where the 
organic remains, which it generally contains, are wanting. The clay is of a bluish- 
grey colour, at and near the surface being brown ; this has, however, been shown to 
be due to decomposition, the iron which imparts the blue colour to the clay, peroxi- 
dating by exposure to the atmosphere.f There are numerous layers in the clay of 
nodular masses of clayey limestone, which have divisions or septa (Lat septum, a 
chamber), and are, from that reason, called septaria. The divisions in these nodular 
masses are filled with a kind of carbonate of lime (aragonite). From the character of 
the deposit, and the remains of life-forms which it contains, which latter are very 
plentiful in some parts, while in others they are rare, it is deduced that the London 
clay was deposited in the sea ; the depth of which Professor T. Rupert Jones infers, 
from the foraminifera preserved, to have been about 100 fathoms. Mr. Prestwich 
says, speaking of the fossils, " taken altogether, they indicate a moderate rather than 
a tropical climate, and yet the flora is, as far as we can judge, certainly tropical in its 
affinities." 

The Isle of Sheppey is a wonderful storehouse of fossil remains of this period. 
Remains of sharks have been found here, the length of which could not have been 
less than 30 feet ; and remains of several species of the shark and ray tribes are 
abundant. Turtles and crocodiles were also inhabitants of the seas of this epoch, 
remains of eleven species of turtles and two of crocodiles having been found. Of 
birds, bones have been discovered, which Professor Owen has determined to belong 
some to a small species of vulture, others to a species of kingfisher, and again others 
apparently to a small wader. Eones of a bird of gigantic size have also been found 
of a species resembling the emu. Two species of mammalia have been discovered, 
belonging to the Pachydermata or thick-skinned tribe of quadrupeds. We must also 
mention the numerous and marvellous remains of plants which abound in the 
London clay of Sheppey ; fragments of wood drilled by the teredo or sea-worm, 
belonging to the cone-bearing class of trees, are very common, as also fossil fruits 
and seeds of several hundreds of species. Of these, 114 species have been determined 
by Mr. Bowerbank, and of this number, between 40 and 50 species belong to the pod- 
bearing plants. The most common of these fossils are certain fruits which resemble 
the fruit of the nipa, a kind of palm, which grows in great abundance in the jungles 
of India and in the Asiatic archipelago. Some of the fruits resemble the orange or 
citron and melon, and some fruit cones are exceedingly like some found in Australia. 
Professor Owen thus remarks on these marvellous remains : " Their abundance and 
variety indicate the extent and nature of those dense primeval forests in which the 
great tapiroid animal we have described as living at this period may have passed, 
like its existing congener the tapir of South America, a solitary existence, buried in 

* Prestwich, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., vol. x. J Prestwich, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., vol. x. 

P- 4() 7. p. 448. 

t Uuat is per- oxide of iron. 



Jl 



-n. 









F'ig.13. Incisor tooth, ofjrfammal, partly in matrix, (natural size)(Woohvioh Ijeds, 

(Dulwiah. 
fl.) Shewing- inside face of tooth. 

(2.) Shewing- cavity at base of tooth ,'a and portion gf jaw (b.) 

(#.) Jfatural position of the tooth. 

Fier. 14. ^e.eth lower jaw of (Petaurus. F. Cuvier. (natural size) 
Fig-. 1. (Teeth lower jaw of Hypsipryninus F. Cuvier. (natural size] 
Fig-. 16. Skull of Hypsiprymnus. \reduced) 



THE GEOLOGY OF CAMBERWELL. 



21 



the dark depths of these ancient forests, and satiating its ravenous appetite with the 
fruits, buds, and shoots of those fruit-bearing trees, witli the fossilized remains of 
which it is associated."* To this we may add the following remarks by Mr. 
Prestwich : besides this great tapiroid creature, the only known denizens of these 
forests " were that timid hare-like pachyderm (Hyracotherium) and a great boa-like 
serpent. Beyond these, those solitudes were probably but little broken, except by 
the harsh notes of a few solitary birds of prey or of some fishing birds. In contrast 
with this desolation on the land, the waters swarmed with life ; large crocodiles, 
accompanied by their constant egg-devouring enemy, the fluviatile turtle, sported in 
'the rivers, and the seas teemed with a numerous population of testacea and fishes. 
The remains of those things living on the land of that time were borne down by the 
.rivers, and became commingled with those living in the seas, but in a proportion and 
in a manner which constitute the latter the great and distinctive feature of the group 
and clearly indicate the marine origin of the strata then and there accumulated." f 

On referring to the sections before mentioned, it will be seen that the London clay 
forms for the most part the high ground of Forest Hill, Dulwich Hill, Herne Hill, and 
Champion Hill ; the boundary line then turns north through Camberwell to Ber- 
mondsey ; in the lower parts, however, it is hidden by valley gravels, and can only 
be seen in borings and cuttings. 

Mr. Caleb Evans, F.G.S., has kindly furnished the following lists of fossils in his 
-collection, from this formation, found by him during the progress of the works for 
the London, Chatham, and Dover Railway tunnels through Sydenham Hill and 
Dulwich Wood : 



SPECIES. 
.Fish. 

Lanma (teeth). 

Otodus (teeth). 
Cephalopoda. 

Nautilus centralis. Sow. 
Urbanus. Sow. 
'Gasteropoda. 

Actaeon simulatus. Sow. 

Aporrhais Sowerbyi. Mant. 

Bulla attenuata. Sow. 

ancellaria Iseviuscula. Sow. 
Cassidaria striata. Sow. 

,, carinata. Lam. ? 
Cerithium Charlesworthii. Prest. 
Conus concinnus. Sow. 
Cyproea oviformis. Sow. 

Dentalium nitens. Sow. 
Fusus curtus. Sow. 

bifasciatus. Sow. 

complanatus. Sow. 

interruptus. Sow. 

(or Pleurotoma) (sp.) 
-Murex cristatus. Sow. 
Natica labellata. Lam. 
Orthostoma crenatus. Sow. (Actoeon ?) 
Pleurotoma helix. Edw. 
parilis. Edw. 

teretrium. Edw. 



SPECIES. 
Gasteropoda, continued. 

Pleurotoma ( ] ) varicosa. Hudleston 

and Price. 
Pyrula Greenwoodi. Sow. 

Smithii. Sow. 
Rostellaria lucida. Sow. 
Scalaria reticulata. Sow. 

nudosa. Sow ? 
Solarium patulum. Lam. 
Triton fasciatus. Edw. '{ 
Trivia (sp.) 

Troshus extensus. Sow. ( = Phorus). 
Voluta denudata. Sow. '\ 

nodosa. Sow. (rare). 
Lauiellibranchiata. 
Astarte rugata. Sow. 
Area inipolita. Sow. 
Avicula media. Sow. 

papyracea. Sow. 
Cardium nitens. Sow. 

seniigranulatum. Sow. 
Corbula globosa. Sow. 
Cyprina planata. Sow. 
C/ythereaobli([iia. Desh. ? 
Leda amygdaloides. Sow. 
Lucina ( Cryptodon) Goodhallii. Sow. 
Modiola elegcans. Sow. 

depressa. Sow. 
Neaera infiata. Sow. 
Nucula Bowerbankii. Sow. 
Wetherellii. Sow. 



* Owen, Brit. Foss. Mammals and Birds, pp. 

-203,204. 



t Prestwich, Ground Beneath (Is, pp. 'A, 55 



22 



Y e PAEISH OF CAMEEWELL. 



SPECIES. 
Crustacea. 

Hoploparia. 

Xanthopsis Leacliii. Desm. 
Cirrhipedia. 

Scalpellum quadratum. Darwin. 
Annelida. 

Ditrupa incrassata. Sow. 

Vermicularia Bognoriensis. Mant. 



SPECIES. 
Laviellibranchiata, continued. 

Ostrea elephantopus. Sow. ? 

Pectunculus decussatus. Sow. 

Pholadomya margaritacea. Sow. 

Syndosyma splendens. Sow. 

Teredo antenautee. Sow. 
Brachiopoda. 

Lingula tenuis. Sow. 

Terebratulina striatiila. Sow. 

Allport mentions the occurrence of the Bagshot sands in small patches on the 
higher parts of Sydenham Common ;* he has evidently mistaken, for sands of this 
formation, the sands which occur very near the summit of Norwood Hill (marked ++ 
fig. 1), which, as stated on page 1, are identical with sands which occur at 
Hampstead and Highgate 100 feet beneath the top of the London clay ; true sands, 
of Bagshot age capping the top of the hill at Hampstead, as shown in fig. 1. 

V. Post-tertiary Deposits. 

(2) Yellow clay (brick earth) ; (1) sands and gravel. 

By reference to sections No. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 12, 13, 17, it will be seen that in all the 
low-lying parts of the parish the Eocene beds are overlain by the (2) yellow clay,, 
(brick-earth), (1) sands, and gravel of varying thickness. 

If we look into the gravels carefully we shall find they are composed almost entirely 
of flints, some angular, with their edges only slightly rounded, others again quite 
smooth and round ; these are mixed with a coarse sand and a small proportion of 
clay, and the whole bed is coloured a deep red by oxide of iron. If we further 
examine the 'flints we find that they have on their surfaces casts or impressions of 
some well-marked fossils ; and again, if we examine the interior of the flints beneath 
the microscope, we find a number of minute objects named infusoria (so called from. 
Leing abundantly found in putrid vegetable infusions). The casts and impressions, 
are for the most part of echini, plagiostoma, pectens, &c., and of ventriculites and 
other zoophites. These are common and well-known fossils of the chalk formation ; 
the minute infusoria, two species of which are figured by Dr. Mantell as from the 
Sydenham gravels, f are also commonly found in the chalk flints of the south-east of 
England. And what is of more importance to our inquiry, these fossil remains, while 
common to the chalk, belong to species which are not found in any formation newer 
than the chalk, nor older than the group of rocks of which the chalk is the upper- 
most portion. These evidences prove conclusively that the sub-angular stones and 
pebbles, which compose the gravels of the district, have been derived from the chalk 
formation. But, as we have shown, the gravel here rests upon beds of Tertiary age,, 
and no chalk is found at the surface within a distance of from four to ten miles on 
the south and east ; it is clear, therefore, that the materials for the gravel must have 
been derived from some distance. Further, though the stones forming the gravel are- 
for the most part flints derived from the chalk, yet there are substances found which, 
have evidently come from other parts. Stones have been obtained from the gravel,, 
which upon being broken are found, some to be pieces of chert, others pieces of rag-, 
etone, derived from the beds called upper and lower green sand, which are older than, 
the chalk, and which are found at the surface near Redhill and Dorking. It is 
probable, therefore, that the stones composing the gravels of our parish and neigh- 
bouring localities have been transported northwards from the hills of Surrey and 
Sussex, and some of the stones must have been brought a distance of twenty miles.. 



* Allport, Collections Illust. Gcol., &c.,ofCamber- 
well, p. 18. 



t Mantell, Wonders ot Geology, vol. i. p. 324. 



THE GEOLOGY OF CAMBERWELL. 23 

We occasionally, also, find pieces of slate and quartz amongst the gravel pebbles ; the 
rocks from which these were originally derived are not found nearer than Wales 
and the border counties. There are, however, some pebble-beds in Worcestershire 
and Warwickshire which contain similar stones, and from which these pebbles 
may have been derived. These stones, therefore, must have travelled a still greater 
distance. 

We shall now consider the question as to the way in which these pebbles have 
been brought into their present position. It is doubtless well known to most of our 
readers that astronomical investigations and calculations have proved the fact, that at 
certain periods of time, removed from each other by vast intervals, owing to the 
change in the eccentricity of the earth's orbit, it is possible for the earth to be more 
than eight millions of miles (8,641,876 miles) further from the sun during the winter 
than at the present day. Mr. James Croll, who has made this elaborate calculation, 
justly argues that this increase of distance from the sun would cause a considerable 
decrease of heat, and would therefore lower to a great extent the winter temperature. 
This would take place to such a degree that what now falls with us as rain during the 
winter, would then fall as snow. He also shows that the winters would not only be 
much colder, but they would be much longer, and that this increase of cold in the 
northern hemisphere would have the effect of causing the Gulf-stream, to which we 
owe much of our present temperature, to flow into the Southern Ocean. For the 
scientific considerations upon which these conclusions are based, the reader is referred 
to Croll, Phil. Mag., February, 1870. Evidences of an extreme cold existing in 
England at this time have been found in scratched boulders and blocks, which occur 
in many parts of what is termed the boulder-clay ; these boulders and blocks pre- 
senting exactly the same appearance as those which are left on the east coast of 
America, carried by coast ice and icebergs from Greenland and Baffin's Bay as far 
south as 40 north latitude. During the period of greatest cold, Great Britain 
was for the most part covered with a great sheet of ice, like that of Greenland, which 
moved outward and downward from the high grounds to the sea. So vast was the 
mass of ice, that it swept over even considerable hills, smoothing and scratching their 
sides and summits. The boulder- clay before mentioned is considered to be the 
product of the grinding of this mass of ice over the country.* We have evidences 
in various parts of Great Britain that the land then sank beneath the sea to a great 
depth, and as it gradually rose, the extreme cold passed away ; although on the re- 
elevation of the country the climate still continued of sufficient severity to retain 
much snow in the more hilly districts. 

The animals which inhabited the land during this period of cold are remarkable : 
the mammoth, or woolly-coated elephant, a two-horned rhinoceros, a large hippo- 
potamus, an animal closely allied to the lion or tiger, of large size, a species of bear, 
a hysena, the red-deer, rein-deer, wolf, a species of ox, and a species of horse, have 
been proved to have existed, at this time, by the remains of their bones or teeth, 
which have been discovered in the gravels. In the gravel pit near Croydon Station, 
a small tusk of an elephant was found some years since. t In our own parish, a 
discovery of mammalian remains of much interest was made in Hanover Park, during 
the progress of the main line of the High-level Sewer. Here were found, about six 
feet below the surface, antlers of the rein-deer (cervus tarandus), horns of an extinct 
species of ox, probably bison priscus, and many teeth and jaws of smaller mammals. 
There were also found here, a pair of large tusks of an elephant, as well as the lower 
jaw with the teeth on either side. This magnificent specimen was shattered into 
fragments, and consequently lost, owing to the inexperience of the workmen. 

* Jukes and Geikie, Manual Geol., p. 703. t Prestwich, Ground Beneath Us, p. 21. 



24 Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

The question still remains to be considered as to the manner in which the chalk 
was denuded, from the waste of which the gravels in the neighbourhood of London, as 
previously pointed out, have been most certainly derived. To suppose that the 
glacial period had little or no influence in wearing away the chalk of the south-east 
of England, because of the absence of any boulder clay to the south of the river 
Thames, appears to be very questionable ; especially as we have beds of undoubted 
boulder-clay so near as Finchley. Mr. Searles V. Wood, jun., who has devoted 
much time to the consideration of this subject, believes the boulder-clay to have been 
deposited over the Thames valley, and to have covered the whole of the south-east 
of England, and that, as the land gradually rose, after the glacial period, the whole 
of the boulder-clay was swept off the south-east of England, south of the river 
Thames, and certain trough-like valleys were formed, of which the Thames valley 
was one, in which the gravels were deposited. Mr. Wood contends that at this 
period, and until a much later date, the Thames did not flow out at its present 
mouth, which was barred by a high ridge of land, stretching along the east of Essex 
to the north of Kent, as far as Rochester. He considers that the river Thames then 
flowed from east to west, and that the river Lea may be regarded as the source of 
the Thames of that day ; the sea into which the Thames then flowed occupying the 
country around Reading. He, however, suggests the probability of a small opening 
to the sea, towards the south, between Dartford Heath and this high ridge of land. 
Mr. Wood considers that it was after the deposition of the Thames gravels that the 
upthrow and denudation of the Weald took place ; parts of the gravels being carried 
away, as well as the whole of the London clay, which, until then, had extended over 
the whole of the Wealden area. Mr. Wood, in conclusion, contends that the 
present mouth of the river Thames has been introduced, at a comparatively recent 
period, over a land surface composed of Thames gravel, upon which grew an 
extensive forest. The evidence of this forest is a peat-bed, almost exclusively com- 
posed of the twigs and leaves of trees, in which the tree-trunks lie flat, in immense 
numbers. At the base of the peat, stools of trees have been observed, rooted into 
the gravel. These observations were made at the outfall of the southern sewers, about 
20 feet below the level of the present high- water mark. The sea to the east of the 
high ridge, which barred the river, having, by degrees, cut through the opposing 
barrier, the river Thames flowed over the forest bed, gradually cutting its present 
channel through it.* 

It must, however, be admitted that the effect of rain and the atmosphere in 
dissolving and disintegrating the chalk, where exposed to those influences, is very 
great ; the rain dissolving the lime in the chalk, and carrying it down to lower 
levels, the atmosphere also crumbling it away, as is so well seen in every cutting 
where the chalk is exposed. When we consider the vast amount of chalk that must 
have been denuded to produce the gravels, it seems but fair to suppose that all these 
influences may have been at work. 

As another view of the mode of deposition of these gravels, and also of the clays 
or brick-earth, it may be well, to quote the opinions of Mr. Alfred Tylor, F.G.S., 
upon the subject. He says : " The evidences of numerous sections teaches us that, 
prior to the deposition of the gravel, there was a land surface, smoothly denuded by 
rain and streams, so as to form a perfect system of principal and minor valleys, the 
ground sloping from higher to lower points, so as to admit the rainfall to flow with 
the minimum of obstruction into the side valleys, and thence into the ancient Thames. 
The subsequent deposition of the gravel -series did not, in any way, alter old lines of 
drainage, but, where concavities existed, the new deposit had a tendency to fill them 

* Wood, Quart. Journ. Gcol. Soc., vol. xxiii. pp. 404 ct seq. 



THE GEOLOGY OF CAMBERWELL. 25 

up with a thicker stratum of material than was spread over the general surface of 
the chalk or clay. Thus the Quaternary beds (gravels and brick-earth) reach a 
thickness of 80 feet at the maximum, while the average is perhaps only 20 feet in the 

whole district We are justified in stating, that the character of the 

^denuded surface of the London clay and chalk, above the level of the Thames, is 
evidence of the occurrence of an enormous rainfall in the commencement of the 
gravel period, and that the character of the surface-deposits of gravel is evidence of 

nearly as much rainfall at the close of that period Of marine remains 

in the Thames valley gravels there are no traces." * 

It has been suggested, however, by Mr. Prestwich, that the volume of water 
requisite to deposit these gravels and brick-earths may have been obtained ,by the 
sudden melting of snow, in the short summer of the cold period, and that as the 
climate ameliorated, the flow of water gradually decreased, and the river gradually 
deepening the channel in the middle of its course, by degrees became confined 
within much narrower limits. Though the last-quoted theory has received the more 
general acceptation, each has been here stated as giving the reader some insight into 
the views as to the deposition of these gravels and clays. As to some extent support- 
ing the second theory, we may be permitted to quote a few words by Professor 
Geikie upon the subject. He says : " In the valley of the Thames, the ancient flood- 
loam (brick-earth), brought down by the river swollen to a very great extent, rises 
high above the present bed of the river, and similar deposits are found on slope 8 
which would seem to indicate rain-action rather than the work of a stream or river."f 
Both the theory of Mr. Tylor and of Mr. Prestwich are based upon the hypothesis 
that the river Thames at that period flowed in the same direction as at present, i.e., 
from west to east ; though it, of course, does not follow that it may not have turned 
rapidly round to the south just east of the high ridge of land before described, and 
flowed out into the sea near Rochester. 

Before quitting this part of our subject, we may be permitted to make a short 
extract from a work by the late Professor Phillips, of the University of Oxford, entitled 
" Geology of Oxford and the Thames Valley." Speaking of the valley gravel, Pro- 
fessor Phillips says : " When was that gravel deposited ? The answer must be 
after the last submersion and re-elevation of the tract where it lies. For though 
gravels may have been formed in abundance in earlier periods, none such could have 

Temained lying as these lie, undisturbed by the rises and falls of the sea 

Some long interval of time undoubtedly separates us from the latest of the broad 
.gravel-beds in the upper valleys of the Thames. Gravel is no longer accumulated 
except in very small quantities, because the water-forces exerted in the valleys are 
unequal to transport it. The uplands are still wasted, and plenty of small calcareous 
stones lie on the slopes, such as might make gravel-beds ; but the rain and snow are 

less abundant and the floods less impetuous We are conducted again 

to the contemplation of a time when this region was subject to greater extremes of 
cold than now, with more abundant rain and snow a pluvial period after the last 
Tetreat of the great waters ; and it is permissible to believe that the local climate has 
been gradually improving and acquiring more of its insular mildness and comparative 
dryness from that day to this." | 

VI. Beds of Peat. 

It only remains to consider briefly the beds of peat which occur in the parish, and 
which are the last evidences of change in the Thames valley which belong strictly to 
.geological inquiry. 

* Tylor, Pamphlet on Quaternary Gravels, also t Phillips, Geology of Oxford and the Thames 

uart. Jouru. Geol. Soc., vol. xxiv. p. 455. Valley, pp. 490492. 

t Jukes and Geikie, Manual of Geology. 



26 YC PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

As already stated, there is evidence that the lowest parts of the Thames valley have 
been covered by a forest ; and, in the lower parts of our own parish, beds of peat of a 
thickness varying from 2 to 9 feet have been found, in which have been dis- 
covered the trunks and branches of oak, birch, and elm trees in great abundance. In 
a well-section in St. James's Road, Kent Road, the. following beds were cut 
through : * 

Mould and clay . . . 3 ft. 

Peat-decomposed vegetable matter, with leaves of the oak 

and hazel . . 9 

Pure white sand, with a profusion of nuts, and part of the 

antlers of a deer, at 12,, 

This bed of pure white sand is also found in various parts of Peckham and towards 
Camberwell at about the same depth. As we get towards Bermondsey, the peat-beds 
are more abundant. During the progress of the works for the Southern High-level 
Sewer, peat-beds were cut through in Hanover Park, and again in Hanover Street, at a 
depth of from 6 to 8 feet below the surface, and a similar bed was cut through, when 
excavatm" for the foundation of Bucks Bridge ; and again in the Coburg Road, towards 
the Kent Road. In this last place the peat-bed rested upon a bed of pure white sand. 
A bed of peat has been cut through in the Greyhound Road, Kent Road ; and still 
nearer towards the Thames, in excavating for the foundations of the arches of the 
Charing Cross (South-Eastera) Railway in the Blackfriars Road. There can be little 
doubt that the forest, of which these beds are the evidences, was of the same age as 
that mentioned by Mr. Searles Wood, to which we have already referred ; and that 
the whole of the lower parts of the parish, and towards the river Thames, was more 
or less of a swampy character, favourable to rapid vegetable growth. 

This state of things appears to have lasted until the Roman era, if we may accept 
the derivation of some of the names of the locality given by those who have studied 
the subject. We can clearly see that by embankment, even of the rudest character, 
the river would gradually deepen the channel in the middle, and thus by slow degrees 
the land would become drained and habitable. 

Conclusion. 

In taking a rapid survey of the changes of level and climate and physical conditions 
which we have attempted to lay before the reader, as having taken place in the Parish 
of Camberwell and the neighbourhood adjoining, it will be seen that our starting- 
point was the deep sea of the chalk period ; the whole of the south-east of England was- 
part of this sea, as the sea must have necessarily been wherever we find the beds of chalk 
deposited. 

As the land was rising above the waters, and the chalk mud and sediment were 
becoming consolidated, we have evidence of a new set of conditions setting in ; the sea 
became much shallower, and beds of sand (Thanet Beds) of varying thickness were 
laid down ; in some places shells were embedded with the sands, but in other parts 
there were few or no shells, just as may be observed in the sand-banks which are 
being formed near to our present shores. 

The land still rising, we have next, in the Woolwich Beds, a condition of things 
similar to that which may be seen in estuaries or near the mouths of large rivers ; we 
have beds of varying thickness, which show an oscillation of level, comparatively 
slight, yet sufficient to change a bed of oysters into a fresh-water lagoon, in which 
the leaves of the trees overhanging the shore were shed and embedded in the mud ; 
then the level altered, and we have the bottom of the estuary covered with PaludinjE,, 

* Allport, Collect. Illust. Geol., &c. , of Camberwell, p. 19. . 



THE GEOLOGY OF CAMBERWELL. 27 

who lived and died upon the spot where they are now found ; then the fresh- water 
conditions prevailed again, as shown by the sections, each different bed indicating a 
change in the physical conditions of the district. 

The land, then, seems to have gradually sunk, and the pebble-beds (Oldhaven 
Beds), which are considered to have been deposited some distance from shore, were 
formed ; and then the pebble-beds at the base of the London clay. 

The conditions under which the London clay was accumulated were of a purely 
marine character, though the land could not have been far distant, as is evidenced by 
the numbers and varieties of fruits which have been found from these clays in the Isle 
of Sheppey. These remains also show us that the climate at this time must have been 
warmer than at present, if not tropical in temperature. The beds of sand in the 
upper parts of the London clay show that the sea was becoming shallower, and as we- 
pass up into the Bagshot sands, shown at the top of Hampstead Hill, we find the 
conditions of a still more littoral nature. 

We then come to a break in the series of deposits ; beds found in the Isle of Wight 
and in Suffolk and Essex having either not been deposited here, or, what is more 
probable, having been entirely washed away by the influences which existed during 
the glacial period. 

We find at this time that the temperature was of an arctic character, and that 
arctic conditions existed over our island. As the climate gradually ameliorated, and 
the land, which had been again submerged to a great extent, arose, the gravels were 
strewn over the trough of the Thames valley. On the land at this time roamed 
elephants and rhinoceri, lions, bears, hysenas, wolves, and other animals ; and it is 
believed, from the presence of this fauna in our land, that the separation of Great 
Britain from the Continent did not take place until a yet more recent period. 

The temperature still becoming higher, a forest grew upon the gravels and clays, 
deposited in the Thames valley, which had been raised above the surface, and as the 
Romans, the great civilizers of Western Europe, came to this island, the river Thames 
was gradually confined to its present limits, and the forest disappeared, leaving trunks. 
and leaves and twigs and fruit to attest this last change in the physical conditions of 
our neighbourhood. 



OLD FAMILIES. 



THE BAKERS. 

THE Bakers of Peckham were established in the parish at a very early date, as in 
a Lay Subsidy granted in the 6th year of Edward III. Jo. le Baker was assessed for 
Ms property at Peckham in the sum of 12 pence. 

In a return of the Commissioners to take oaths in the 12th year of King Henry 
j c 6th (1433) the name of Richardi Baker de Pekeham is returned as amongst the gentry 
of the place. In the 18th Henry VIII. " John Baker of Peckham Rye " is quoted in 
certain* legal documents, and from that time to the present the Bakers have never 
deserted the parish of Cambenvell. In the Record Office is to be found an amusing 
account of a law-suit between Richard Baker and Edmond Style, over the sum of 
.100 lent to Richard's father by Sir Homfraye Style, father of Edmond Style. The 
" Replicacons " and " answers " in the suit are so numerous that it would not be 
ai surprising matter if the ,'100 in dispute has been written about and quarrelled 
over from that day to this. 

John Baker, Enquire of Peckham, whose name occurs amongst the names of the 
""principal gentlemen" of the county in 1558, supplied two lighthorse for the service 
of the Queen, and Thomas Baker, gent., of the same place, supplied one ; and Richard 
.Baker " 1 lighthorse, 1 Corslett, and a bowe." 

In a return "conteyninge the names of such psons as furnished souldiors w th 
armor unto the campe at Tilbury, out of the hundred of Brixton, under the charge of 
Capt. Gaynsford, and have had the same or pt thereof chaunged or lost, what armor 
y* was, whoe serv'cl there w th , by whome and with whome y l was chaunged or lost," 
^occurs the name of John Kingston " that serv'd for Mr. Baker of Peckham," and poor 
John lost his " pyke, Burgonett, sword, and dagger." The return is signed by Sir 
Edmond Bowyer. 

The Bakers appear as residents in all the subsidies of this parish. 



1586. 
1599. 
1627. 
1640. 
1647. 
1649. 
1652. 
1655. 
1657. 
1660. 
1669. 



FROM CHURCH REGISTER. 

Julye x, bur., Edward Baker. 

June ij, bap., Jone, dan. of Richard Baker. 

Feb. ix, bur., M rps Elizabeth Baker. 

Feb. ix, bap., Ellen, dau. of Henrie Baker. 

Jan. xxj, bap., Thomas, sonne of Roger Baker. 

Julye xvj, bap., Roger, sonne of Roger Baker. 

Sep. vij, bap., Elizabeth, dau. of Roger Baker. 

Ap. iij, bap., Henry, sonne of Roger Baker, Esquier. 

July vj, bap., Judith, dau. of Mr. Roger Baker, Esquier. 

Dec. x, bur., Roger Baker, Esquier. 

July xxi, bur., M ri ' Elizabeth Baker. 



* Pat. Roll, 4 Hen. VIII. p. 2. 



OLD FAMILIES. 20 

1672. Feb. xx, bap., Edmund, sonne of Mr. Thomas Baker. 

1673. Dec. xxx, bur., Thomas, sonne of Mr. Thomas Baker. 

1676. Oct. xiij, bap., Nicholas & Roger, twin sonnes of Mr. Thomas Baker. 

1677. Oct. viij, bur., Roger, sonne of Mr. Thomas Baker. 

1678. Ap. viij, bur., a sonne of Mr. Thomas Baker. 

1678. Ap. xviij,bap., Elizabeth, dan. of Mr. Thomas Baker. 
1688. Oct. xij, bur., Elizabeth Baker. 
1693. Nov. vij, bur., Suzana, wyfe of Mr. Thomas Baker. 
1700. Ap. 1, bap., Roger, sonne of Mr. Nicholas Baker. 
1702. Ap. 8, bap., Elizabeth, dau. of Mr. Nicholas Baker. 
1702. Ap. 16, mar., M ri ' s Judith Baker and Mr. James Butler. 
1705. Ap. 5, bur., Mr. Thomas Baker, High Constable. 
1719. Ap. 30, bur., Mrs. Margaret Baker, &c. &c. 



THE BASINGDONS. 

Mrs. Basingdon, "wyddowe of Pekcam Rye," whose will bears date 1544, was 
evidently a lady of some considerable means. The Basingdons (Henry and John) 
were assessed at 16s. lOd. and 13s. 4d. in a subsidy granted in 34th and 35th 
Hen. VIII., and other entiles of the family occur in subsequent subsidies. The will, 
which is a very interesting document, is as follows : 

Basmndon ( ^ n ^ e name ^ God. Amen. The yere of our lord god mdxliiij 
and the vj day of the mo . . . . of marche I Elisabeth Basingdon Wyddowe of 
pekcam Rye in the pishe of camwe .... w'iu the Dyocys of Wynchester and 
the countye of Surre being sycke in my boclie but of a hole and stedfaste mynde make 
my testament and last wyll in this maner and forme Mowing, fyrst I bequethe my 
sowle to god allmigtie to our blyssyd ladie saint marie and to all the holie companio 
of heauen, my bodie to be buryed in the chyrchyard of saint Gyles of camwell 
Aforesaid. Item I bequethe to the hy alter of camwell chyrche aforesaid for mv 
tythes necligently forgotton xij' 1 . Item I bequethe unto the mother chyrche of 
Wynchester ij d . Item to the byldyng of the steple of the chyrche of camerwell vj s and 
viij d . Item I bequethe to Thomas Mownko ij kyne namyd wevyll and bleache. Item 
to Elisabeth Mownke ij kyne namyd leictyn and sareone. Item I bequethe to 
Elisabeth EdrJl ij keyne namyd lytell gayrle and blacke nan. Item to Agnes Edall 
ij kyne namyd pykhorne and browne. Item to Johan Edall ij kyne namyd gret 
garll and litell cheare. Item I bequethe to Hani Dove ij kyne namyd lele and 
threbygs. Item I bequethe to Water Dove my sune in Lawe ij steres namyd hawke 
and whyte and a quarter of Whete. Item I bequethe to kateryne Dove my 
Doughter iiij calvys of the age of one yere and A fether bede w l a bolster a payre 
of shets A couerlet and a payre of blanketes A fyne bearyng shete w* a blacke seyme 
iij platters and iij dysshys of pewter a gonne being at John Mownks and my harnys 
gerdyll which I boughte my selfe. Item I bequethe to John heth niy sarvant iij of 
my best shepe. Item I bequethe to Wyllm my saruant one of my best shepe. Ite to 
Agnes my sarvant one of my best shepe. Item I gyve and bequethe to Thomas Edall 
my sonne my tenyment lying and sytting in Pekcam Rye afore said Wyth all the 
purtenaunce thereto belongyng. The Resydwe of all my goods and cattels unbe- 
quethyd fyrst my detts payd and legacis fulfylde I gyue and bequethe to the for 
said Thomas Edall my sonne Whom I make my sole executor to the entente that he 
shall bestowe them as he shall thynke yt best for ye helthe of my sowle and of all 
my good freyndes sowles and I orden and make John Mownke supervisor of thys 



30 Y e PARISH OF CAMERW^LL. 

my said Wyll and testament. And I Wyll that he shall hatie for hys paynes 
iij" iijj d . Wytnes herof syr Thomas shar pr'ste, John .Mowncke, Robert Ramseaye w* 
other mo. 

THE BONDS. 

Sir Thomas Bond* had a fine mansion at Peckham in the middle of the 16th 
century. He was in high favour at Court, and had been introduced to the Court of 
King Charles II. by the Earl of St. Albans, and was made Comptroller of the 
Household to the Queen Mother ; and was created a baronet by the King at Brussels 
on the 9th Oct. 1658. He purchased a further estate at Peckham, belonging to Sir 
Thomas Grimes, Bart., whose sister he had married. In the reign of King Charles 
II. he built a splendid mansion on the site of the one which he had pulled down. 
Evelyn notices his " new and fine house by Peckham." f " It stands," he says, " on 
a flat, but has a fine garden and prospect through the meadows to London." 

The house had a north frontage, approached under a canopy of stately elms, " at 
the end of which was a beautiful prospect, terminated by a view of St. Paul's and 
the Tower of London. The beauties of this prospect were greatly increased by the 
masts of the ships being seen over the trees as far as Greenwich." The garden was 
laid out with great elegance, and the walls were planted with the choicest fruit-trees 
from France .^ The centre of the garden was, we are told, like "a wilderness" after 
the Elysian Fields in the Garden of the Ttiileries in Paris. Sir Thomas Bond 
married Marie, daughter of Charles Peliott, Baron de la Garde of Paris, whose sister 
was one of the maids of honour to the Queen. || 

Faithful to the cause of the Stuarts, Sir Thomas Bond became deeply involved in 
the interest of King James II., and was compelled to leave the country ; his fine 
mansion was plundered by a fanatic Whig mob, and his estate forfeited to the Crown. 
Sir Thomas Bond was buried at Camberwell, as appears from the following entry in 
>the Church Register : " 1685, June 3, was buryed Sir Thomas Bond, Knt. and 
Papist." 

The following report of this extensive property is given in the Treasury Board 
Papers, Vol. 36, No. 30 : 

Report of Mr. Aaron Smith to the Lords of the Treasury, on the Petition of Sir 
Henry Bond (attainted), stating that the Estate in Surrey and part of the Estate in 
St. James Field, were mortgaged by Sir Thomas Bond, Bart., deceased, father of the 
petitioner, to Elizabeth Lady Wiseman, for .7,500, and to Richard Rothwell, Esqr., 
for ^2,500, and to Sir Willm. Poulteney for 2,400, and that there were other incum- 
brances thereon, setting out what the estate in St. James fields consisted of, and 
various particulars about the estate called Albemarle ground. Dated 15th Feb. 1695. 

The Monies received out of the estate late Sir Henry Bond's at Peckham & St. 
James : 

By Mr. Morrogh, late receiver, from 5th July, 1689, to 12th April, ' s. d. 

1694 (the time of Mr. M.'s death) 7,436 6 7* 

By Mr. Molins, late Receiver of the Rents, from 12 Ap. 1694, to 

23 Dec. 1695 im 7 n 



9,137 14 6 

* Arms: Argent onachevron sable, three bezants, p. 274. 



. 

through Great Britain, vol. i. || JJurke, Dormant and Extinct Baronetage. 



OLD FAMILIES. 31 

Monies paid out by Mr. Morrogh during his term of s. d. 
R'ship for Interest to Mort ees . . . . . 7,436 6 7 
By Mr. Molins during his term . .... 1,445 4 1 

s. d. 

Eemains Cash in Mr. Molins' hands .256 3 10 

The debt due for interest to the several mortgagees on the estate late Sir Henry 
Bond's and to the Lady Bond, the widow of Sir Thomas Bond, deceased, for her 
annuity ; Grand Total ,7273. 

s. d. 5. d. 

Lady Bond . . . 3,200 Col. Fitzpatrick . . . 348 

Mrs. Temple . . .. 696 Mr. Folkes . . . 1,212 12 

E. of Leicester . . 180 Countess of Bristoll . . 464 

Lord Culpepper . . . 121 16 S r ThomasWitherleys,Exors. 500 

Mr. Hornby . . 240 S r John Temples, Exors. . 200 

Dcr. Wake and Lady Hamilton, 



Account of Arrears ; 

At Peckham and Camberwell, 1,024 8s. Od. 

(Attached to this are the several Creditor's names and amounts). 
Kent roll of S r Henry Bonds, Bt., Estate ; Peckham, 
The House, Gardens, Courts, and little Close s. d. 
before the House valued at per annum . 60 
Several names (tenants) .... 638 12 



Total . . 698 12 

Minuted : Read 3 Feb. '96. The King will grant these estates in trust to pay the 
debts ; the residue to be in trust for his Ma ty . In all these Documents occupy more 
than 13 pages. 

The property was subsequently restored to the son, Sir Henry, and by him sold to 
Sir Thomas Trevor,* Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, created Lord Trevor 
by Queen Anne. 

He resided at Peckham, and dying June 19th, 1731, his estate was sold to Mrs. 
Hill, from whom it descended to her nephew, Isaac Pacatus Shard, Esq., and from 
him to his son William Shard, Esq., who died in 1806, and devised to his wife for 
life, remainder to his brother, Charles Shard. 

The mansion was pulled down in 1797, and many houses built on the site of it 
and the gardens, now known as Hill Street. 



THE BOWYERS. 

The family of Bowyerf is derived in the visitations from John Bowyer of Chichester. 
ilph, his son, was father of Richard, father of William, who married Joan Lambert, 
id had issue Thomas, who married Joan (who, according to the pedigree in Hist, of 
surrey, vol. III., died 15th Oct. 1539. ) Their son John married a third Joan, daughter 
id heiress of William Brabant, of Bruton, by Alice, daughter and heiress of Richard 
)ys (both of whose coats were quartered by the Bowyers), and had issue John Bowyer 

* Mention is made in the Gent. Mag., Sept. 1731, t Arms of Bowyer: Or, a bend vaire cotised 

"an aloe in bloom at the Lord Trevor's garden Gules. Crest, a wolf sejant on a Ducal coronet 
it Peckham." (M. & R). 



32 Y PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

of Camberwell, William and John, both of whom died without issue ; and Agnes,. 
married to John Browne, by whom she had William, Agnes, and Joan. 

John Bowyer, of Cambervvell, born at Shepton Beauchamp, was married to his first 
wife, Anne Jenes, Ap. 29th, 1540, and had issue Rice, s.p., and Thomas and Anne, 
who' died infants. He married secondly, Elizabeth, youngest daughter of Robert 
Draper, Esq., of CamberweU, June 17th, 1550. 

The husband's common-place book gives some interesting account of the second 
marriage, and the following extract is made therefrom* : 

Wedyng apparrell bought for my wyffe, Elizabeth Draper, the younger, of Cam. 
berwell, agaynst 17 die Junii, An. Dni. 1550, with despensalls." 

s. d. 

First, four ells of tawney taffeta, at 11s. 6d. the ell, for the Venyce gowne 46 
Item seven yards of silk chamlett crymsyn, at 7s. 6d. the yarcle, for a 

kyrtle 52 

Item, one yard and a half of tawney velvet, to gard the Venyce gowne, 

at 15s. the yard .... 22 6 

Item, half a yard of crymsyn sattyn, for the fore slyves . . ..68 
Item, eight yards of russetts black, at 4s. 6d. the yard, for a Dutche 

gowne * 35 

Item, half a yard of tawney sattyn 50 

Item, a yard and a quarter of velvet black, to guard the Dutche gowne . 17 8 
Item, six yards of tawney damaske, at 11s. the yard, for a kirtle . . 66 
Item, one yard and half quarter of skarlett, for a pety cote with plites . 20 
The wedding ring is described as " weying two angells and a duckett," and graven 
within with these words, 

" Deus nos Junxit J.E.B.Y.R." 

The date of the marriage is inserted with great minuteness : " At the hour of eight,. 
the Dominical letter F., the moon being in Leo." 

This John and his wife were buried in the chancel of St. Giles's Church, and the 
brass represented a man and woman kneeling at a table ; behind him 8 sons, behind 
her 3 daughters. The inscription ran as follows : 

Pjere Ifiett) tfje iooij of $oi)n ISotogar, esauter, auto <lifafcett) Ijis totfe, one of tljr 
Imugfjters of Kofcert Sraper, es<juier. Cfjeg W issue 8 sons anlr 3 Iraugfjters, anlr 
$otm Irielr ttje x Irag of ctofcer, 1570. <lijabetl) aftertoarlr margefe 312ailliani 
jFowtfr, esouier, anlr fiatr issue one sonne anlr one traugljter, anlr Irielr t^e xitj of april. 
1605.t 

She seems to have outlived her last husband ; for a house adjoining the Free 
Grammar School in 1615 was said to have been "late in the tenure of Elizabeth 
Forster, widow." 

* Lysons, vol. i. p. 78. between three annulets, two covered caps, between 
t "Above the effigies were three escutcheons. them a mullet for distinction. This coat was con- 
In the centre Quarterly, 1st and 4th a bend as firmed to Henry Draper, of Colebrook, in the 
Gsvillim has it, ' a bend verrey between two cotises.' County of Middlesex, gent, Oct. 14th, 1571. 2nd, 
' This coat,' says he, ' pertaineth to Sir Edmond two chevronells, on each three martletts, between 
Bowyer of CamberweU, in the County of Surrey, three escalop shells (Draper). 3rd, Ermin, in 
Knt.' 2nd, on a fess humette, 3 leopards' heads, chief three lions rampant. The coat armour of Sil- 
as given by Gwillim in his ' Heraldry.' This Hewitt Aucher, of Bishopsbourne, in the County 
coat was confirmed by Sir Win. Segar, Garter, of Kent, Knight and Bart. ; it was borne by Robert 
May 2nd, 1629, to Henry Brabourne, alias Aucher, M. A., priest of Queen's College, third son 
Brabon, of London, descended from John Bra- of Sir Anthony, to whom a letter was addressed 
bourne, alias Brabon, keeper of the mowed hawks xuider the hand of Queen Elizabeth, in which she 
to King Edward IV. They are quartered by styles him 'her good freende,' assuring him that 
Bowyer, in consequence of John, the son of Thomas she will r so remember his 'towardness' in n. 
Bowyer, of Shepton Beauchump, having married certain business, ' that whensoever occasion may 
into the family of Brabant, of Bruton. The third serve she will requite it.' The fourth corset is 
quarter is charged with a chevron between three Ermine, a fess cheky. The fifth, a pale counter- 
ucorns. Over the husband are the Arms of Bowyer, changed, three acorns." See Account of the JJowi,r 
impaling six coats; viz., 1st and Cth on a fess Family, Gent. Mag., No. 05. 




MATHYE DRAPER AND WIFE. 



( see page 41 ) 




JOHN BOWYER AND FAMILY. 

( see page 32 ) 

COPIED BY PERMISSION FROM ALLPORT'S COLLECTIONS, &C. 



OLD FAMILIES. 33 

Sir Eclmond Bowyer,* who figures conspicuously in the annals of this parish, was 
horn at Camberwell on the 12th May, 1552. He was Sheriff of Surrey and Sussex 
(the two counties having then but one sheriff) in 1600, and was knighted by King 
James I. at the Charter House, May llth, 1603, and was M.P. for Surrey the same 
year. He was one of the witnesses of the deed of foundation of Dulwich College. 
Besides one-fifth of the manor of Camberwell Buckingham purchased of Edgar 
Scot in 1583, he and his descendants had considerable estates in Camber well, f They 
possessed the Manor of Camberwell, Fryern, Milkwell, Coldharbour, the impropriate 
Kectory, with the advowson of the Vicarage, and other lands, and had a capital 
house on Camberwell Green. Sir Edmond had no children. In a return made to 
the "Lo. highe Admyrall of England on the 23rd Julye, 1588," it appears Edmond 
Bowyer, Esq., supplied for the Queen's service " one launce, one Petronell, two 
corsletts, and 2bowes."J His last will bears date July llth, 1626, and in it he 
desires to be buried in Camberwell Church, requesting his executors "to erect 
a tomb of alabaster or white marble and jet, as they think fit," over his remains ; 
he also begs that he may not be " bowelled," and that his funeral may take place in 
the day-time. 1 1 

His nephew Edmund, who succeeded to the estate, was the son of Benjamin, the 
fourth son of John Bowyer before named, and was only thirteen years of age at the 
death of his uncle. He presented a petition to the Commons on the part of the 
population of Surrey, praying for the restoration of the King and a return of peace 
and quietness. He also was knighted and married 1st, Esther, daughter of Sir 
Anthony Aucher. She was so beautiful that she was called "the Star in the East. "IT 
Sir Edmund was one of the Court of Record, constituted on occasion of a fire which, 
on the 26th May, 1676, burnt the townhall and other places in South wark. Lady 
Bowyer's monument, on the south side of the chancel, had this inscription : 

IN HOPES OF A GLORIOUS RESURRECTION TO ETERNAL LIFE, 
BY THE MERITS OF JESUS CHRIST, HERE LYES BURIED Y e BODY 
OF DAME HESTER BOWYER, LATE WIFE OF EDMUND BOWYER, 
OF THIS PARISH, KNT., AND DAUGHTER OF SIR ANTHONY 
AUCHER, KNIGHT. 

THERE WAS A HAPPY SYMPATHY BETWIXT Y e VIRTUES OF Y" 
SOULE AND Y e BEAUTY OF Y e BODY OF THIS EXCELLENT 
DECEASED PERSON : SHE LIVED A HOLY LIFE, AND DIED THE 
DEATH OF THE RIGHTEOUS, DECEMBER Y e 10, 1665. 

A GOOD LYFE HATH BUT A FEW DAYS 
BUT A GOOD NAME ENDURETH FOR EVER. 

SIR EDMUND ALSO (AS HE DESIRED) LYES HERE BY HIS LOVING 
AND BELOVED WIFE. LIKENESS BEGAT LOVE, AND LOVE HAP- 

* In 1G02, Earl Ellesmere entertained Queen lished about this time, says indignantly : 

Elizabeth at Harefield, and in a note "of all the " We see daily that noblemen and gentlemen of 

presents " made to his lordship, to enable him eminent ranke, office, and qualitie, are either 

better to entertain her Majesty, occurs the follow- silently buried in the night time with a torch, a 

ing : two-penie linke, and a lanterne, or parsimoniously 

"Mr. Bowier, of Camerwell, i Salmon and 9 interred in the day time by tie help of some 

Partridges," and the sum of five shillings was pro- ignorant countrey painter, without the attendance 

sented by his lordship to the bearer of the same. of any one of the officers of arms whose chiefest 

t Maiming and Bray, vol. iii. p. 408. support and maintenance hath ever depended on 

t State Ps. D. M., vols. ii. and iii. the performance of such funerall rites and exe- 

No monument was ever found, and as the in- quies." 

structions were so explicit there could have been If Walpole, in his Life of Cornelius Jansen, 

no difficulty in finding it had one existed, for it Anecdotes of Painting, says : " One of the best 

was to be placed "between the chancel and o\ir works was the picture of a Lady Bowyer, of the 

Lady's chapel, where Mr. Scott is buried, in the family of Auger, called, for her exquisite beauty, 

place where the holy water formerly stood." The Star in the East." 

II Weever, in his Funerall Monumentes, pub- 



34 ye PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

PINESS TRUE HERE, COMPLETE IN HEAVEN, WHERE THEY REAPE 
THE FRUIT OF THEIR FAYTHE AND GOOD WORKS. HE DIED Y< 
27 OF JANUARY, 1681, IN Y 67 YEAR OF HIS AGE. 

TAM PIOS CINERES NEMO CONTURBET. 

Sir Edmund Bowyer was succeeded by his eldest son Anthony. " He was a 
gentleman," says the inscription on his monument, " generally esteemed in his life- 
time, and universally well read, especially in the Laws and Constitutions of his 
Country, which gave him an equal aversion to tyranny and anarchy. He did justice, 
shewed mercy, and was a friend to the poor. Was borne Aug. 4th, 1633 ; was married 
to Katherine,* the daughter of Henry St. John, of Becknam, in the County of 
Kent, Esq., whose piety erected this monument. He dyed June 28, 1709, anno 
setatis 76." 

Anthony Bowyer died without issue, and by his will confirmed the settlement he 
had made on his marriage, and devised the manor of Fryern, and a house at Camber- 
well, to his wife Katherine and her heirs ; and in augmentation of the jointure 
provided for her by the marriage settlement, he gave her all the rest of his estate for 
her life, and directed that if the church at Camberwell should become vacant in her 
lifetime she should present to it ; and after her death, he gave all such residue of his 
estates to his half-brother Edmund and his issue, and failing that to Sir William 
Bowyer, Bart., of Denham, in Bucks, for life, remainder to his son and heir Cecil 
Bowyer and the heirs of his body, remainder to his second son William in like 
manner ; and failing that, it was to go to Greenwich Hospital, if there should be one 
sailor maintained in it, and if not, to St. Thomas's Hospital, Southwark. 

Mrs. Katherine Bowyer died in 1717, and Mr. Edmond Bowyer came into possession, 
of the estates, but he died in about twelve months afterwards, without issue, and Sir 
William Bowyer, whose father was created a baronet 12 Charles II., 25 June, 1660, 
came into possession of that part which Anthony had so devised to him on failure of 
Edmund's issue. The estates afterwards came into the hands of the grandson of Sir 
William Bowyer. This part of the Bowyer Estate was about this time sold to 
Mr. Windham Bowyer, and another portion (Bowyer Place) let on building lease, and 
a portion of the estate was bought by Mr. Robert Edmunds, an extensive market- 
. gardener of New Cross. Edmund, as above mentioned, died in about a year. By 
his will, he devised his estates to his sister Frances Bowyer for life (subject to an 
annuity of 100 a year to his sister Elizabeth Bowyer for her life) ; and after her 
death, to his niece Martha Windham and her issue ; and in failure of that, to his 
niece Elizabeth Ashe of Twickenham. Martha Windham, described by Edmund 
in his will as his niece, was daughter of Sir James Ashe by one of Edmund's sisters, 
and in 1715 was married to Joseph Windham, a younger son of William Windham, 
Esq., of Felbrig, in Norfolk. He at length possessed the estate of Sir James Ashe 
and took that baronet's name. Joseph Windham had issue only two daughters, 
of whom Mary married her cousin John Windham. The issue of this marriage was 
Joseph Windham f and Anne, who married Sir William Smythe, Bart., of Hill Hall, 
in Essex. Mrs. Windham dying without issue in 1810, the estates came into the 
Smythe family. 

Sir William Smijth, the seventh baronet, who married Anne, only daughter 
;and heiress of John Windham (Bowyer), Esq., and three of his sons, succeeded to the 
title ; the kst of whom was the late Sir Edward, tenth baronet, who assumed by 

* The chancel of the church was repaired at her Antiquaries ; educated at Eton and Christ's College, 
expense in 1713. Cambridge 

t A distinguished member of the Society of 



OLD FAMILIES. 35 

royal licence in 1839 the additional surname and arms of Bowyer. He married 
Letitia Cicely, daughter of John Weyland, Esq., of Woodeaton, Co. Oxford, and 
dying in 1850, was succeeded by his eldest son, the present Sir William Bowyer- 
'Smijth, eleventh baronet. Sir William married Marianne Francess, dau. of the late 
:3ir Henry Meux, Bart. 

ENTRIES IN CHURCH REGISTER. 

1560. Mar. xii, bap., John Bowyer. 

1561. Nov. xxiij, bap., Mathew, sonne of Maister John Bowyer, Esquire. 

1562. June xxx, bap., Luke, a childe of Maister Bowyer's. 
1564. May xviij, bur., Luke, sonne of John Bowyer, Esquire. 

1567. July xiij, bap., Beniamyn, sonne of Mr. John Bowyer, Esquire. 

1568. Sep. xxviij, bap., Gregorye, sonne of Mr. John Bowyer, Esquire. 
1570. Jan. xv, bap., Sence, dau. of John Bowyer, Esquire. 

1570. Oct. xvi, bur., John Bowyer, Esquire. 

1572. Sept. 9, mar., Mrs. Elizabeth Bowyer * and Mr. William Foster. 

1573. Maye xxv, mar., Mr. Edmond Bowyer and Mistress Katherine Bynd. 
1573. Maye xxv, mar., M ris Elizabeth Bowier and Mr. John Bynd. 

1588. July ij, mar., Mr. John Bowyer and Em. Snoe, widow. 

1609. July xij, bur., Lady Katherine Bowyer, wife of Sir Ed. Bowyer. 

1612. Oct. , bap., Edmond, sonne to Mr. Benjamin Bowyer. 

1613. Oct. xxviij, bap., Edmond, sonne to Mr. Benjamin Bowyer. 
1619. Aug. v, mar., Eliza Bowyer and John Bottin. 

1623. June iij, bur., John Bowyer. 

1624. Dec. xxvi, bur., M ris Emma Bowyer. 
1627. March xii, bur., Sir Edmond Bowyer, Knt. 
1627. April xvi, bur., Mr. Edward Bowier. 
1635. Feb. viij, bur., Mr. John Bowyer. 

1641. Ap. x, bur., Edmond, sonne of Sir Edmond Bowyer. 

1642. July xx, bap., John, sonne to Sir Edmond Bowyer. 
1645. Feb. xxiij, bap., Eliza, dau. to Sir Edmond Bowyer. 
1647. Jan. xv, bur., Elizabeth, dau. of Sir Edmond Bowyer. 
1649. Mar. llth, bap., Benjamin, sonne of Sir Edmond Bowyer. 

1651. July xxiv, bap., Hester and Francess, daughters of Sir Edmond Bowyer. 

1652. Sep. xvi, bur., Hester, dau. of Sir Edmond Bowyer. 
1652. Nov. xx, bur., Francess, dau. of Sir Edmond Bowyer. 
1654. May xxx, bap., Margaret, dau. of Sir Edmond Bowyer. 
1665. Dec. xxi, bur., the Lady Hester Bowyer. 

1667. Feb. xxij, bur., Benjamin, sonne of Sir Ed. Bowyer. 

1675. Nov. xxiij, bur., John, sonne of Sir Edmond Bowyer. 

1676. Dec. viij, bap., Elizabeth, dau. of Sir Edmond Bowyer. 
1679. Jan. 1, bap., Edmond, son of Sir Edmond Bowyer. 
1679. Nov. xij, bur., Mary, dau. of Sir Edmond Bowyer. 
1709. July v, bur., Anthony Bowyer, Esquire. 

1718. Nov. 10, bur., Edmond Bowyer, Esquire. 

1735. Ap. 9th, bur., Mrs. Francess Bowyer. 

1753. Ap. 20, bur., Mrs. Mary Windham Bowyer, dau. of John Windham Bowyer, 

Esq., and Mary his wife. 

1780. April 23, bur., John Wydnham Bowyer, Esq. 
1789. May 22, Mary Wyndham Bowyer, in her family vault. 

* Mrs. Elizabeth Foster was buried 2 May, 1605. 

D 2 



PAKISH OF CAMERWELL. 



THE CHERRYS.* 

This family is descended from the De Cheries of Picardy and Normandy, Lords- 
of the Beauval Liguiere and Villencourt. A branch settled in England at an early 
period In 1407, as appears from the French archives, Jean, or John de Cherie,, 
sought for and obtained a safe conduct from the king to pass into Normandy for the 
purpose of arranging some family affairs there. By an Inq. post mort. (14 Hen. IV. 
1412-13) it appears that Thomas and John Cherie held lands, &c. in Plumpton, Co. 
Northampton, and from this Thomas and John his son (the Jean of 1407) descended 
the present representatives of the family in England. The first of the family to 
settle in Camberwell was Sir Francis Cherry, of All Hallows, Barking, citizen and 
merchant vintner, bom October 18th, 1552, at North Kilworth. He was knighted at 
Chatham, 4th July, 1604, was ambassador from Queen Elizabeth to the court of 
Russia,t from April, 1598, to 23rd March, 1599. He was buried April 14th, 1605, at 
All Hallows. Elizabeth, the second wife of Sir Francis (his first wife died in child- 
birth with her twelfth child), married afterwards Sir Thomas Hunt, at St. Olave's, 
Hart Street.:}: Sir Thomas Hunt is described as being of Norfolk at this time, and 
therefore it is not improbable that it was through the Cherry family that he 
first became identified with Camberwell. 

Mr. Robert Cherry, son of Sir Francis, was married to Elizabeth, daughter of 
Stukeley, of London, and had issue Elizabeth and Francis. Elizabeth, who was 
baptized March 2nd, 1621, married afterwards John Scott, Esq., of Camberwell. 

ENTRIES IN CHURCH REGISTER. 

1621. Mar. ij, bap., Eliza, dan. to Robert Cherrie. 
1708. Dec. 7, bap., William, son of William Cherry. 
1714. June 20, bap., Richard, son of Wm. Cherry. 
1716. July 27, bap., George, son of Wm. Cherry. 
1718. Mar. 2, bur., George, son of Wm. Cherry. 

1718. June 1, bap., Daniel, son of Wm. Cherry. 

1719. Mar. 24, bur., Wm. Cherry. 

1719. Nov. 8, bur., Daniel, son of Wm. Cherry. 

1738. Nov. 29, bap., Sarah, dau. of Wm. and Deborah Cherry. 

1740. Ap. 27, bur., Mary, dau. of Wm. and Deborah Cherry. 

1744. Jean. 1, bap., Deborah, dau. of Wm. and Deborah Cherry. 

1745. Aug. 18, bap., William, son of Wm. and Deborah Cherry. 

1746. Dec. 14, bur., Deborah Cherry. 

THE KING AND SQUIRE CHERRY. 

In Hearne's MS. Diaries, dated July llth, 1731, he wrote : "At Brick-bridge our 
princes frequently came at the time of hunting in Windsor Forest. A little way 
from this bridge was a very large pleasant oak, said to be the biggest in England, 
called " Nan's Oak," because tradition reported that King James's first queen, Anne, 
was much delighted with it, that she sickened under it, and some say this 
sickness proved fatal. The tree was cut down in the beginning of King James II.'s 
reign, to the no small resentment of the country people, by order of William 

* Arms: Arg 1 . on a fesse engr. between three ceedings as messenger from Queen Elizabeth to the 

annulets gu., a fleur-de-lis, or. Emperor of Russia is given in the Egerton papers 

Crest: A demi-Lion arg. holding in the paw a gem (Camden Soc. Pubs.). 

ring, or, enriched with a precious stone, ppr., the J 1609, Nov. 28, Sr. Thomas Hunt and the Ladie- 

collet in pale. Motto, Cheris 1'espoir. Elizabethe Cherrie, vidua pr. Licenc. 

t An amusing account of Francis Cherry's pro- HarL MSS., No. 1046, p. 61. 



OLD FAMILIES. 



37 



Cherry, Esq., father of, but of different principles from, my best friend, Mr. Francis 
Cherry." 

So they all went to work by the leave of their king, 
And dug up the quickset ts, and filled the ditch in. 
Then up came Squire Cherry, pretending grea> 

power, 
And threw them in prison as strong as a tower. 



"Cherry planted the Hawthorn tree to Brick 

Bridge, 

And wronged the poor people of their privilege. 
He cut down the oak-tree, where Queen Anne did 

dine, 
And said of the common 'All this shall be mine.' 

White Waltham was troubled, their common ta'en 

in; 

So quick they resolved to make suit to the king. 
'Twas one Master John Berry, who at Windsor did 

live, 
That direct to the king, their petition did give. 

Said the king, when hunting one day very merry, 
' Who took in this common ? ' They said, ' 'Twas 

Squire Cherry. ' 
*How, pray,' quoth the king, 'why not thro wit 

out? 
It is a great wrong to my subjects no doubt.' 

' They answered the king, ' That we dare not pursue, 
Cherry is a great man, and he will us undo.' 
' Go, throw it out quickly, without any fail, 
And if any one trouble you, I'll be your bail. ' 



They hired a brave fiddler to play them along ; 
And he played till he came to the prison so strong. 
They bade him play briskly, and spare not a string, 
For they were resolved to dance to the king. 



The king heard the news, and from prison away 
He brought them to Windsor and caused them to 

stay. 

And to each of them he ten guineas did give, 
T' enable them better hereafter to live. 



A dinner was given, so at Berry's they dined, 
And pushed about briskly good ale, punch, and 

wine. 

They ate and they drank, and did merrily sing 
"May Cherry be d d, but God save the King.' " 



THE COCKS. 

The Cocks first appear on the parish books in 1695, and mention is then made of 
^Walter Cock, who appears to have taken an active part in the affairs of the parish. 
He died in 1712, and on his vault was the following inscription : 

" In this vault lieth interred the body of Walter Cock, Esq., one of her Majesty's 
Justices of the peace for this county. He was a gentleman zealous for the good of his 
country, and noted for his charity and benevolence to the poor ; universally beloved 
-and esteemed by all ; who in his lifetime purchased this ground of the parish for a 
burial-place for himself and family for ever. To whose blessed memory this tomb 
was erected by his beloved relict Johanna Cock. He departed this life the 5th day 
of January, 1712, in the 52nd year of his age." 

In 1717 Mrs. Cock gave to the parish about an acre of land to enlarge the church- 
.yard. Sir Jonathan Trelawney, the Bishop of Winchester, attended in person on the 
13th of May and consecrated it in the presence of several of the clergy and gentry 
of the neighbouring places. 

Mrs. Cock was subsequently involved in the South Sea scheme, and being engaged 
in some business at the time, a commission in bankruptcy was issued against her in 
1722. In the meantime Walter Cock's eldest son Peter was married to Letitia, one 
of the daughters of Lord Trevor. 

The estate by reversion had come into the hands of Mr. Belchier, a banker in 
South wark, and one of the representatives of that borough in Parliament in 1747 and 
again in 1754. Belchier became embarrassed in his circumstances, and having mort- 
.gaged the estate to Mr. Collins, the latter filed a bill in Chancery and obtained a 
decree, under which it was sold in 1776. 

By the particulars of sale it appears that on the death of Mrs. Cock Mr. Belchier 
took possession of the estate and for some time occupied part of the mansion house, 
-the remainder of it, fronting the road in Camberwell, having been untenanted for 
some years and being then in ruins. These particulars describe the estate as con- 
sisting of " four-fifths of the manor and of the commons, wastes, and manorial rights, 
at that time not producing any profit ; the part of the mansion house late occupied 
by Mr. Belchier, with the remainder thereof then in ruins ; a barn and about 42 acres 
of land near the Grove lett at .50 a year ; a long room then lately built for the enter- 
it of company and about 10 acres of pleasure and garden-ground lett at .42 8s. ; 



38 Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

a farmhouse and about 75 acres of land at Peckham Rye lett at 100 ; a cottage an& 
five acres of garden-ground at U ; and many other houses and small pieces of, 
ground, making altogether a rental of 485 17s. The property was divided at the 
sale amongst several purchasers, Dr. Lettsom being one. 
FROM CHURCH REGISTER. 
1664. July xvj, bur., Susannah, wyfe of Mr. Samuel Cock. 

1668. Maye xv, bap., Francis, sonne to Mr. Theodore Cock, merchant. 

1669. Aug. xx, bur., Francis, sonne of Mr. Theodore Cock. 
? 1691. Mar. xvj, mar., Ann Cock and Nehemiah Lambert. 

1700. Feb. 29, bap., Agnes Sarah, dau. of Walter Cock, Esq. 

1701. Oct. 27, bap., Peter, son of Walter Cock, Esq. 

1703. Aug. 13, bap., Johanna Cock, dau. of Mr. Walter Cock. 

1704. June 11, bur., Ann, ye wife of Thomas Walter Cock, ye sonne of Antony- 

Cock. 

1705. July 18, bap., a dau. of Mr. Walter Cock. 

1707. July 30, bap., Walter, son of Mr. Walter Cock. 

1708. Ap. 6, bur., Joseph, son of Antony Cock. 

1709. June 2, bap., Charles, son of Antony Cock. 

1710. Jan. 6, Theodore, son of Walter Cock, Esq., so named and baptized by a, 

Dutch minister. 

1712. Nov. 3, bap., Hannah, dau. of Mr. John Cock. 

1713. Jan. 14, bur., Walter Cock, Esq. 

1713. Dec. 4, bap., Sarah, dau. of Mr. John Cock. 

1714. Dec. 9, bap., Mary, dau. of Mr. John Cock. 
1714. May 26, bur., Jane Cock. 

1721. Jan. 22, bap., Fearn, dau. of Wm. Cock. 

1723. Jan. 27, bap., Letitia, dau. of Mr. Peter Cock. 

1724. Jan. 29, bap., John, son of Mr. John Cock. 

1725. March 25, bur., Trevor, son of Peter Cock, Esq. 

1725. Sep. 26, bap., Matthew, son of Peter Cock, Esq., and bur. Feb. 28, 1728. 

1727. July 2, bap., Peter, son of Peter Cock, Esq., and bur. Sep. 17, 1729. 

1728. Dec. 8, bap., Ann, dau. of Peter Cock, Esq. 
1730. Ap. 30, bap., Joanna, dau. of Peter Cock, Esq. 
1732. June 16, bap., Elizabeth, dau. of Peter Cock, Esq. 
1737. Ap. 21, bur., Peter Cock, Esq. 

1739. Jan. 27, bur., Elizabeth Cock, 

1740. Aug. 8, bur., Mrs. Cock, wife of Walter Cock, Esq. 

1743. Oct. 29, mar., Mrs. Joanna Cock, of Tunbridge Wells, in Kent, and George 

Kelley, M.D., of Portsmouth, in the county of Southampton, by licence. 

1744. May 24, bap., Theodore, son of Theodore Cock, Esq., and Catherine his wife.. 

1744. Oct. , bap., Walter, son of Walter Cock, Esq. . 

1745. Sep. 30, bap., and bur. 22 Ap. 1747, Frere, son of Walter Cock, Esq., and 

Rebecca his wife. 

1745. Oct. 9, bur., Rebecca, wife of Walter Cock, Esq. 
1748. May 9, bur., Mrs. Catherine Cock, wife of Mr. Theodore Cock. 
1750. Ap. 21, bur., Mr. John Cock. 

1750. June 25, bur., Theodore, son of Mr. Theodore Cock. 
1750. Dec. 9, bur., John, son of John and Mary Cock. 
1752. May 20, bur., Master Walter Cock. 
1760. July 14, bur., Theodore Cock, Esq. 
1762. Aug. 25, bur., Mrs. Joanna Cock, aged 86. 
1769. May 2, bur., the Hon. Mrs. Letitia Cock. 



OLD FAMILIES. 



39 



" You who are led to this serene retreat, 
Where Contemplation holds unrivall'd sway, 
Stop, if Reflection you would dread to meet, 
And from her rigid mandates shrink away. 
But if a votary at soft Pleasure's fane, 
Allur'd by yon proud city's tempting powers, 
From day to day you join the thoughtless train, 
And in illusion waste life's choicest hours. 
'Tis you who chiefly want Reflection's aid ; 
Bow then to Contemplation's power sublime, 
Here be your vows with pious fervour paid, 
And Reformation shall redeem your time. 



THE DE CRESPIGNYS. 

This family were refugees from France in the reign of King William, and in 
Marylebone churchyard are some memorials of the family bearing date 1695.* The 
De Crespignys settled in Camberwell early in the eighteenth century. Mr. Philip 
Crespigny's name appears first upon the vestry minutes in April, 1743,f and in 1750 
his attendance at the Camberwell Club is elsewhere noticed .J Philip Champion de 
Crespigny, who died in 1765, was succeeded by his son Claude, who was created a 
baronet in 18()5. This honour was preceded the previous year by a visit from royalty, 
H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, afterwards George IV., honouring Champion Lodge with 
his presence. Sir Claude Champion de Crespigny took an active part in local affairs, 
and his name repeatedly occurs in the vestry minutes as attending the various local 
committees. He was married to Mary, daughter of Joseph Clarke, Esq., of Rigton, 
Derbyshire, the lady being then but sixteen years of age, and Sir Claude (then Mr. 
Claude) De Crespigny a Fellow of Trinity Hall, Cambridge ; and after their marriage 
they lived for a short time at Bath, before removing to Camberwell. Lady de Cres- 
pigny was a woman of considerable ability ; and in Sir Claude de Crespigny's grounds 
was a shrubbery surrounding a grotto dedicated to Contemplation. At the entrance 
Lady De Crespigny had placed the following lines, written by her for the occasion : 

But, if curst apathy pervades your breast, 
And veils it 'gainst Convictions heavenly light, 
The Goddess here your offerings will detest, 
Nor with one favouring smile your vows requite. 
And yet fair Virtue may have scatter'd seeds 
Which in your barren mind uncherish'd lie ; 
Or choak'd by Dissipation, baleful weed ! 
Just spring to life, and blossom but to die. 
Then enter here to Contemplation bend, 
Her power can raise the seed which Virtue sows, 
From Folly's blights the tender plant defend, 
'Till vigorous as the towering oak it grows." 

Sir Claude was succeeded by his son in 1818, and in 1839 the title descended to his 
great grandson, Sir Claude William Champion de Crespigny. || Sir C. W. C. Crespigny 
died in 1868, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Sir C. C. de Crespigny, the present 
baronet. He married, in 1872, a daughter of Robert McKerrell, Esq. In 1841 
Champion Lodge was pulled down ; the park, which originally covered about thirty 
acres, is now entirely built over. IT According to Mr. Allport, the date 1717 and the 
letters C. C. were found on the water-pipes when the house was destroyed, and the 
family arms and crest on the west front of the house. 

ENTRIES IN CHURCH REGISTER. 
1747. May 3, Ann Maria Norwood, a child about 2 years old, taken in a starving 

condition by Mrs. Crespigny from the gipsies' tent in Norwood, to be 

maintained at her desire, bapt. 
1765. Jan. 31, bap., William, son of Claude Champion Crespigny, Doctor of Law, 

and Mary his wife. 
1772. June 1, bap., Charles Champion, son of Philip and Betsey Champion Crespigny. 

* A monument to Claudius Champion de Cres- 
pigny, aged 75, "e Gallia natali, solo pro fide pro- 
fugus." (Seymour, p. 862.) 

t The parish officers being pressed for cash, Mr. 
Crespigny and two others advanced 70 to them. 
Vest. Min., 1743. 

*" t Philip Champion de Crespigny bought Cham- 
pion Lodge in 1755, of Henry Cornelison, Esq. 

The following notice of Philip Champion Cres- 
pigny appeared in Say's Reporter, Jan. 1803 : 

"Died, lately, at Bath, Philip Champion Crespigny, 
Esq., formerly King's Proctor, and Member for 
Sudbury. Mr. Crespigny was a man of extensive 
knowledge, possessed a taste for literature, and 
wrote two numbers in the periodical paper entitled 
4 The World,' which was conduct ed by Mr. Moore, 
author of 'The Gamester,' though at that time 
Mr. Crespigny must have been very young ; a proof 



that his taste and talent were, however, mature, 
as ' The World ' was enriched by contributions 
from the most distinguished wits of that period. 
Mr. Crespigny was married four times, and has 
left several children by his different marriages. 
He was very much the man of fashion in his person 
and demeanour, full of anecdote, and with a turn 
for satirical humour, that rendered him a very 
amusing companion." 

|| He was the eldest son of Capt. Augustus de 
Crespigny, R.N., by Caroline, dau. of Sir Wm. 
Smyth, Bart., of Hill Hall, and was born in 1818. 
He married Mary, second dau. of Sir John Tyssen 
Tyrell, Bart., of Borehain House. 

TT Messrs. Domville, Lawrence, and Graham are 
the solicitors to the estate, and Mr. G. Brinsley, 
auctioneer, of Bridge Street, Blackfriars, surveyor. 



40 Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

1787. Sept. 27, hap., Claude Champion, son of William Crespigny, Esq., and the 

Right Hon. Lady Sarah his wife. 
1791. July 23, Augustus James, son of William Champion Crespigny, Esq., and 

the Right Hon. Lady Sarah his wife, born at Nice, in Piedmont, 9th 

March last. 



THE DOVE FAMILY. 

The family of Dove, of Camberwell,* though not mentioned in the Surrey 
Visitations, is shown by a table in the volume of Surrey pedigreesf to have been 
connected with Camberwell at a very early period. 

Henry Dove, of Camberwell, was slain at Bosworth Field under King Richard III., 
having married Joan, daughter of Thomas Brereton, of Cheshire ; both of them, as 
well as John Brereton, the grandfather of Joan, were buried in Camberwell Church, 
of course before the period of the registers.! 

The orthography of the name was changed from Dowe, or Done, to Dove, as was 
the case with another branch of the Dove family, who bore for arms the same doves, 
with a fess and different field. 

In the church at Camberwell was a brass figure to the memory of Margaret, wife 
of Mr. John Dove, the daughter of Matthew Kelett, of Surrey, gent., and also 
the arms of Dove impaled by Arg. on a mount vert, a bear sable chained and armed 
Or, which coat was confirmed to Matthew Kelett, of Ripley, Surrey, 1 Oct. 
4 Edward VI. She died April llth, 1582, having had issue five sons (of whom 
Dr. Dove was one) and four daughters. 

The inscription was as follows : 

ifcm Igetf) fcursrti tfje fcofcg of fflargaret JBobf, togfe to Jofjtt Bobe, traugfjter O f 
$lattf)eto l&elette, of Surreg, gentleman, antr Jjatr tggue hg tfje sattr Jtoljn, 5 Bonnes antr 
tut fcaugfjters, antr fceeeaselr tlje ixtt trage of &prtll, &nno Jiomtm 1582. 

The following entries concerning this family appear in the church register : 
1558. Ap. iii, buryed, Elizabeth Dove. 

1568. Oct. 1, buryed, Jonas Dove, son of John Dove. 

1569. 27 Feb., ch., Elizabeth Dowthrie, dau. of John Dove. 

1570. Oct. 21, bur., Jone Dove, d. of Henry Dove. 
1572. 30 July, ch., Agnes Dove, dau. of Henry Dove. 

|| 1582. Ap. 23, bur., Margaret Dove, wife of John Dove. 
1588. June 2nd, ch., Acton Dove, son of John Dove. 
1662. Nov. 20, m., Thomas Dove & Katherine Todd. 
1664. July 5, m., Elizabeth Dove & Wm. Hodson. 
1688. Jany. 2, bur., Humphry Dove, gent. 



THE DRAPERS. 

The Draper family were connected with the Bowyers by marriage, as in 1550 John 
Bowyer, of Lincoln's Inn, married Elizabeth, youngest daughter of Robert Draper, 
Esq., of Camberwell. 



dovp^fvi Pa - rty Pe L heV T I i Az ' and Vert - three E. 4, et sepultus est apud Camberwell, in Scott's 

doves with wings addorsed Arg. membered Gules. Isle." Coll. Top., vol. iii. p 142 

within * wrTt'h i S( ;' P" 01 ^' membered Gules, The arms were grante d to John Dove of Camber- 

within a wreath Vert, fructed Gules and banded well by Robert Cook, Clarencieux, 23rd Jan. 1572. 

* TTari \Ti Kcort f i no See Wilson's History of Merchant Taylors' 

t HarlMSS. 5830, f. 108. School, pp. 114'J, 1150, 1164. 

ton reiS avi^fVi " 3 " 8 Pf oav " s T Joh annes Brere- || There is a bra 8 of this Margaret Dove in the 

reeignavit (*tc) m parochia de Larnbhith temp'e vestry of the present church 



OLD FAMILIES. 



41 



In the Surrey Visitations this family is derived from John Draper, of Flintham, 
Notts, father of Thomas of the same place, who by the daughter and heiress of 
Auger, by - , daughter and heiress of Urswicke, had another Thomas, also of 
Flintham,* the father of Robert Draper, of Camber well,f Page of the Jewel Office 
to King Henry VIII. This Robert married Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of John 
Fyfield, alias Lowe, of Camberwell, and had issue Henry and Matthew, who both 
died without issue, Elizabeth (wife of John Bowyer), and Benedicta (the wife of John 
Fromond, of Carshalton). Robert had a younger brother John, father of Sir Chris- 
topher Draper,*who was Lord Mayor of London in 1566-67.^ A monument was erected 
in St. Giles's Church to Mathye Draper and his wife. 

They were represented kneeling at a low table, with open books before them. The 
inscription was as follows : 



Igetf) twrietr tf)e fcotrg of fttatfise Braper, earner, toljo foas ntarrtftr unto Settee 
l, Iraugtjter of 3:$liHiam i$laefttoell of ?l cation, earner, atttr tijjrlr hntfjout issue 
ifje m st trage of Jlulg, in tfje gere of our Hortr 1577. 

The marriage of Matthew Draper and " Sence " Blackwell took place, according to 
gossiping old Machyn,|| on the 30th May, 1559, in the "parryche of saint Andrews 
in the Warderobe," and the bride is described as being " the dawther of Master Wyl- 
liam Blackwell, towne-clarke. They were mared in Laten, and masse, and after 
masse they had a bryd cup and waffers and epocras and muskadyll plenty to hevere 
body j and after unto master Blackwells plasse to bryke-fast, and after a grett 
dener." IT 

FROM CHURCH REGISTER. 

1558. Dec. xx, bur., Thomas Draper. 
**1558. Dec. xviij, bur., Henry Draper, gent. 

1559. Ap. xiij, bur., William Draper, gent. 

1559. June xiij, mar., Mathy 6 Draper to Sence Blackwell. 

1571. Aug. xxiv, bur., Saintes Draper. 

1617. Oct. viij, bap., Katherine, dau. of James Draper. 



This is confirmed in Thorotoii's Nottingham- 
-shire, where it is stated that in the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth, the manor of Flintham came to "the 
wife of John Draper, whose ancestors have been 
resident here (Flintham) since the beginning of 
Edward III." These Drapers of Flintham bore also 
the same arms as those of Camberwell. 

t In the "particulars for grants," 36 Hen. VIII., 
it appears that this Robert Draper, " one of the 
officers of the King's Majestie's Juelhouse did 
require to purchase p'cells of lande, sett, lyiuge and 
beinge win the p'sshe of Cam'well, and Detford, 
alias West Grenewyche Win the countee of Surrey 
and Kent, beying of the clere yer'ly valew of 
xiij li. xvj. vij d ," in witness whereof he " sett his 
seale the iiij h daye of July, in the xxxvj th yere of 
the reigne of our souvraign Lord King Henry the 
yiij'V The land is described as " certayne lande.s 
in the pysche of Camwell called ffreyn, demysed 
to Henry pyke pcell of the possessyons of the late 
pryory of Hallywell, nighe the cyte of London." 

t la his Diary, Machyn records that on the 30th 
July, 1557, Master Draper, probably the alderman, 
and a few other friends, joined " Monser the Machyn 
de Henry " in an oyster feed. They "didettalffa 
busshell of owsturs, in Ancken lane, a-pone hog- 
hedes, and candy 11 lyght, and onyons, and red alle, 
and clarett alle, and muskadylle and malmsesey 
alle, at viij in the mornyng." 

Mention is also made that on the 26th July 
"Masteres Draper of Camurell was bered with 
ij whytt branches and xij stayff torchys, and iij 
grett tapurs, and ij dosen of skotchyons of armes." 
This "Masteress Draper" must have been wife 



either of John or Robert Draper. 

Cbristopher Draper, who was Sheriff in 1560-61, 
and Lord Mayor 1566-67, was buried at St. Dunstan's- 
in-the-East, and Stow gives his epitaph, but with 
the incorrect date 1560. He died in 1580, aged 70. 
His daughters were married to Sir Wm. Webbe, 
Sir Wolstan Dixie, and Sir Henry Billingsley, all 
subsequently lord mayors. 

It was during the shrievalty of Master Alderman 
Draper that a letter was received by him " from the 
Lord of Canterbury's grace, concerning the pulling 
down of the rood-lofts in the city churches." 

Allport imagines this to be an abbreviation of 
Cynthia, but as the name occurs several times 
throughout the Register as Sence Blackwell, Sence 
Fromond, Sence Bowyer, Sence Symonds, and Sence 
Briggs, it seems to represent some moral quality. 
The inferior women of this time were called 
"goody," as " Goody Brown," "Goody Jones," &c. 

In Machyn's Diary she is styled " Sens Draper of 
Cammerwell beyond Nuwhyngton." 

|| Machyn. Diary, p. 199. 

If If Machyn's dates can be relied upon, the 
parties must have been re-married a fortnight after 
at Camberwel), as their wedding is recorded in the 
parish register as taking place on the 13th June. 

** In Additional Charters, No. 8456, is an in- 
denture between the King's Commissioners and 
Henry Draper, whereby the latter purchases "x B ' 
acres of land, beying besyde Hatcham barne byn 
p'cell of the lands and possessions belongyiig to 
the late Monasty of Comberwell in the Countee of 
Kent." 25 Hen. VIII. 



42 y PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

1619. Dec. ij, bap., Ann, dau. of James Draper. 

1620. Sep. vij, mar., Jane Draper and John Williams. 

1626. Jan. v, bur., Edm., sonne to Mr. James Draper. 

1627. Aug. xxvj, bur., Elizabeth Draper. 

1627. Oct. xxx, bap., Thomas, sonne to John Draper. 

1629. July xxiij, bap., Francis, sonne of Mr. John Draper. 

1630. Oct. xiij, bur., Francis, sonne of Mr. John Draper. 

1631. Ap. xviij, bap., Francis, sonne of Mr. John Draper. 
1633. Aug. xv, bap., John, sonne to Mr. John Draper. 
1636. Sept. xxix, bap., Barbara, dau. of John Draper. 

1639. Sept. xij, bur., Thomas Draper. 

1640. Nov. vij, bap., Francis, sonne to Mr. John Draper. 
1640. Mar. xiij, bur., Frances, wyffe of John Draper. 
1649. Aug. iij, bur., James Draper. 

1654. May iv, bur., Thomas Draper. 

1657. Dec. xvj, bur., Elizabeth Draper. 

1669. Sep. vij, bur., Barbara, dau. to Mr. John Draper. 

1673. June xxj, bur., Barbara, wyffe to Mr. John Draper. 

1674. Nov. xvij, bur., Catherin Draper. 
1674. Feb. xxvij, bur., Mr. John Draper. 
1684. Aug. ix, bur., John Draper. 



THE FLEMYNGS. 

Mr. Dennis Flemyng, Clerk to the Navy in the reign of Charles I., was a. 
resident of Camberwell. The following letters, which appear in the State Papers 
(Dom. Ser. vol. 362), tend to show that official positions in Charles's time were not 
free from anxiety : 

To the r l hono ble Tho. Lo d Coventry Lo d Keeper of y e Great Seale of England. 

These are to certify yo r Lo p That Dennis Fleming Esqr. Clarcke of his Ma ts Navy 
hath bene employed in his Ma ts Maryne affaires by the space of one hundred seventy 
and seven Dayes begun the last day of Septemb 1636 & ended the five and twentyeth 
Day of March following (both dayes included : To th' end yo r Lo p may be pleased to 
graunt his Ma ts Writt of Liberate for the payment of three shillings fower pence 
p diem for his travelling Charges out of his Ma tyes Receipt of Excheqr. for the tyme 
aforesaid, according to his Matge 8 Lre s Patent granted to him on that behalfe (Viz 1 ) 
the sume of twenty nyne pounds & tenne shillings, and also three pounds for his Boat 
hyre w th in the same tyme as hath bene formerly accustomed to be payed to the 
Clarke of his Ma^ ei Navye for the tyme being, w ch in all amounteth unto the Sume 
of thirtye-two pounds and tenne shillings. 

Whitehall, 24th April, 1637. xxxij" x' 
Lo. Trear. F C H V F W. 

SIR, Since my returne from y e Bath I have understood by an intymate friend y e 
the Lords have an intention to appoint some person or other to execute my place,, 
alleadging imbecilitie in me that cannot attend it : I protest I was so carefull y* I 
tooke y e vacante tyme y 1 might be (for any attendance) to make my iournie, hooping 
to recouer my health, whereby I might be y e better enabled to doe his Ma tie service, 
and left purposelie such able Ministers behinde me y l might performe such duties a* 
concerned mypticuler w ch I finde was carefullie done,&Ithanke God have received some 
benefit by the Bath, and am still able to doe his Ma tie (as ever it hath bine my ambition) 



OLD FAMILIES, 43, 

good and faithfull service, I beseech you (as ever I have found you my noble friend) if 
any such thing be in agitation, or intended by their Lop s to plead for me, that no man 
may be brought over my head w th out my Consent being able of myselfe to performe my 
dutie, and I shall allwaies stand obliged not onlie for this but for all yo r former favours 
showed towards me, which I am bound to acknowledge w th much thankfullness. At 
present let me request to heare from you, till I waite on you myselfe (w ch had bene at 
this instant but onelie I have taken a late Cold which constraines me a while to keepe 
within dores) but God welling shalbe on ffrydaie if I might be certaine of your being 
at Westminster or Greenwich so wi th my service psented rest 

Yo r most obliged freind and servant 

DEN : FFLEMYNG. 
Cammerwell, 28 June 1637. 

(Addressed) To my much Honored ffreind Edward Nicholas Esquier one of y^ 
Clerks of his Ma ts most hono ble Priuie Councell These. 

(Endorsed) R 28 Junii 1637 Mr. fleming to about the place of Clerk of y e 

Navy. 

N.B. The original MS. is very neatly written. 

To the r l ho ble Thomas Lo d Coventry Lo d Keeper of the Great Scale of England. 

These are to certify yo r Lo p that Dennis Fleming Esq r Clarke of his Ma tyea Navye 
hath bene employed in his Mat 8 marine affaires by the space of 188 Dayes begun the 
xxvj th Day of March 1637 and ended the 29 th Day of September following (both Dayes 
included) To th' end yo r Lo p may be pleased to graunt his Ma ts writt of Liberate for 
the payment of iij 8 iiij d p diem for his travelling Charges out of his Ma ts Receipt of 
Excheq r for the time abouesaid according to his Mat" Lres Patente graunted to him on 
that behalfe (Viz 1 ) the Sume of xxxj 1 ' vj* viij d and also iij H for his Boat hyre w th in 
the same time as hath bene formerly accustomed to be payed to the Clarke of his 
Ma ts Navy for the time being, w ch in all amounts to the Sume of xxxiiij 1 ' vj s viij d . 

Whitehall, 19 tb 8 ber 1637. 



I haue sent you here enclosed by my servant a copie of that note, w ch you yesterday 
desired, it being a Particuler of such demande as we first presented to his Grace before 
his going to Sea, and since to his Ma tie and the LI" of his privie Councell, for a supplie 
of Stores, discharge of maryners wages, and ffreight of ships both in this and former 
services : w ch if we doe reviue, as necessitie enforceth, the Demande must be enlarged, 
his Ma ties stores (since this Collectio) having bene much emptied, by the setting forth 
to sea 6 or 7 of his owne ships viz. the S l Andrew and Antylope, the Gardland 
St. George, Convertyne, Bonaventiere, Mary Rose, and happie Entrance, w ch you know 
as well as myself wherfore I Rest 

Yo r assured ffreind 

ever Ready to serue you 

DEN : FLEMYNG. 
Camberwell, 29 th Sept. 1627. 

(Addressed) To his worthie ffreind Edward Nicholas Esq. at his house in Chano. 
Howe dd w th haste. 

(Endorsed) 29 Sept. 1627 Mr. ffleming sendeth me a Coppy of y e Demands made 
June last for replenishing y e stores of y e Navy. 



.44 Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 



THE GARDYNERS. 

The Gardyners, who resided at Peckham at the latter end of the sixteenth and the 
greater part of the seventeenth centuries, were a Bermondsey family. William Gardyner 
of Bermondsey purchased, during the reign of Elizabeth, an estate at Peckham, the 
Basing Manor, from "one Edward Newport, gent, and Richard Baker,* gent., both 
of Camberwell," and in the Record Officef is an account of an action brought by Wm. 
Gardyner of Barmondsey against Thomas Newman and John Thompson, Scriveners, 
of London, "for obtaining money more than due, for writing certaine Indentures," and 
.amongst the items complained of is the following, having reference to the purchase 
of the Peckham estate : 

" ffor draweing and ingrossing of one Indenture betweene one Edward'Newport, gent., 
.and Richard Baker, gent., of th' one part and y r saide Orator and the saide Richard 
Gardyner his sonne of th' other pte, conteyninge A bargaine & sale from the saide 
Newport and Baker to y r saide Orator and the saide Richard his sonne of divers p'cels 
of lande, meadowe, and pasture lienge an d beinge in Camberwell in the saide countie 
of Surrey sixe poundes xiij 8 iij d ." 

The Richard mentioned above was the eldest son of William, who died at 
an early age, and the property came into possession of the second son, Wm. Gardyner 
(who died 1597), was a justice of the peace, and a person of considerable influence. 
The Peckham property fell to the share of William's second son, Thomas, who was 
knighted, made justice of the peace, and became lord of the manor of Basing, 
Peckham, and died in 1632. 

There are several curious letters^ extant from Sir Thomas Gardyner to persons high 
in authority, from which the following are selected : 

RIGHT NOBL VICOUNT, 

I am very sory that I cannot expres my willingnes and humble servis in mor 
bountey by thes fruts which are so few, and cannot contineu, for now the season of 
the yere vanishing awaye, whereby I am prevented ; but the willingnes of my Desiar 
shall always indever to perfowrme and to showe tru testymony unto your Lo ppe for 
your nobl favor and leater (in the behalfe of my yonge sunn) which can never be 
forgoten of me but ever to be thanckfull, and whilst I have anything wherein I am 
hable to dooe your Lo ppe servis, commaund it veryly, for I am asuredly 

Your Lordshipps 

T. GARDYNER. 
Basing, in Peckham. Sept. 13, 1629. 

I have sent your Lo ppe 8 melons, 12 figs and 22 pers, and carnelia cheris, all which 
are the best and most fruts I have or can com by that ar good. 

When your Lo" e shall have ocasion to writ to Coronell Morgin, I humbly pray to 
remember my son. 

ffor the Right nobl Lord the Lord Vicount Dorchester. 

It appears from another letter from Sir Thomas, that King Charles I. sent him " a 
fat venison in melon time," and in return he sent to the Court " fower'melons " which 
he hopes " will proove well" Notwithstanding these little courtesies between Sir 
Thomas and the Court of King Charles, he was summoned to appear before the Star 

* In 1557, Henry Baker died seised of the Manor t Chancery Bills and Answers, G. 9, 1, No. 48. 

of Casings m Peckham. Arms: Az. a griffin pas- j State P. Dom. S., vols. 149, 172, 175. 

sant or. Crest, on a ducal coronet or, a lion passant Lord Viscount Dorchester, Secretary of State, 

gardant azure. At the Inq. p. m. taken 26th May, As Sir Dudley Carleton, Ambassador to Holland, 

4 & 5 Philip and Mary, Richard, the eldest eon, he acquitted himself with so much honour that the* 

was four years and eleven months old. His other King bestowed the honours of peerage upon him. 

children were Frances, Phillipa, and Thomazine. Lord Dorchester died 1631-32. 



OLD FAMILIES. 45 

Chamber in the following year ; but he excuses himself thus (Nov. 22, 1630) : 
" I humbly praye that my coumming may be spared because of myne infermyties 
if the mater be not great that is mad against me ; " and he complains bitterly of those 
who " without just caus seketh to trobl those which disiareth to live quietly and in 
peac without mollistation." The following was also written in the same month 
(Nov. 16-30) to the " right nobl and right honorabl Earle the Earle of Suffolk " : 

Eight noble and right honorabl Earle, 

I receaved a warrant by a messenger from your Lo ppe and other Lords of his 
Ma ties privie counsell commaunding me to apere at the counsell chambar and to 
answer unto such maters as shulld be objected aganest me, wherein I shall be most 
willing to obeye in all things according to my duty and obedienc unto his Ma tic 
and your Lo ppes commaunds, as knowing no cause wherein I have offended ; but 
having infirmities that I cannot gooe from home and eather on horseback or coch I 
voyde blood and am troubled with the stone, the which maketh me at this tyme to be 
bould to acquaint your Lo ppe therewith, humbly praying your nobl Lo pps favour 
that if ther be no nessesetie for my aparence I may be spared untell God shall 
make me more habl to performe your Lo vps commaund, and I shall always rest 
assuredly 

Your Lordshipps 

To serve verely, 

T. GARDYNER. 
Basings in Peckham, 

Nov. 1630. 

for the right nobl and right honourabl 
Earle the Earl of Suffolke. 

In another letter to Lord Dorchester, Sir Thomas writes to caution the minister 
against Spain, which country "by the gift of the Beast " is to make short work of all 
Dutchmen, Frenchmen, and Germans ; after which all Italy, France, Spain, and 
Germany, and the Low Countries are " to sink and be as Sodom and Gomorrha," all 
of which Sir Thomas warns the Secretary of State will happen within 35 years, " when 
the number of the beast shall be fulfilled." The worthy knight states that he intended 
to write a book on the subject, but he was then so busy with his melons and other 
fruits that he was not able to spare the time. He adds emphatically, at the close of 
his letter, " these thinges are no fables but remarkable." 

As Sir Thomas died in 1632, two years after his remarkable letter was penned, it is 
not at all likely that his threatened book was written. He was buried in Camberwell 
churchyard, and on a large black marble slab was this inscription : 



fwrielr tr Cfjomas igartrgncr, Ifcnt, tfje serbant of Jtesus 

Sir Thomas was succeeded in his Peckham* estates by his grandson George, who 
was 10 years and 7 months old at his grandfather's death, son of Sir William 
Gardyner, son and heir of Sir Thomas Gardyner. George Gardyner sold the Basing 
Manor Sept. 26th, 1651. 

FROM CHURCH KEGISTER. 

1595. Oct. 2, ch., Katherine Gardyner, dau. of Thomas Gardyner. 
1609. July 28, bur., M ris Mary Gardiner, dau. to Sir Thomas Gardiner. 
1632. Aug. 13, bur., Sir Thomas Gardiner, Knt. 
1638. Sept. 4, bur., Lady Frances Gardiner. 

* Sir Thomas died seised not only of this manor Greenhundred. C. of Wards, No. 321. 
out of a messuage and lands in Camberwell, called 



46 ye PAEISH OF CAMERWELL. 



THE HENDLEYS, OR HENLEYS. 

The Hendleys, or Henleys, were an old Camberwell family. 

In 1334 they are found in Corsworne, in Kent.* One of them, buried in 
Otham Church, near Maidstone, has the following doggerel on a brass plate over his 
remains : 

" 5n <Solr is all mg trust. 



&ere Igetf) tf)e bolrg of ftfjomas &enoleg, esriuier bg Iregree, tlje goungest son of #erbia 
, of Corstoorne, in Cramfeebroefee, gentleman fcnoton to be. 



gabe a fjouse antr also lanfc tlje jfifteene for to page 
to reliebe tlje poor people of Ijis parts!) for age 
p?e fciefc tlje frag of from ?im ttjat $ulras soft 

a tfiousano fibe ljunlrrea anlr ninetg gere, being eigt)tie=nine geares ouRr 
protesting often before l)is oeatij, toljen f)e Ijis fattlj treclaretr 
Cftat onlg tig tfje oeatlj of Christ f)e fiopelr to be spareo. 

Christ is oure onlg abior." 

"Walter Hendley, of Cuckfield, was created a baronet in 1661. 

The first who is known to have resided here is described as " William Hendley of 
Peckham, in the p'ish of Camberwell, in Surrey." His son John Hendley also lived 
in Peckham, but his grandson of the same name is styled of Rotherhithe, and Esquire 
of the body to King James.f John Hendley, gent., is mentioned as one of the 
trustees under the will of Sir Edmond Bowyer, dated 11 July, 1626. 

It appears from the following willj that Thomas Henley in 1544 held a farm 
called " Knowles " within the Lordship of Dulwich, and in the subsidy granted in 
the 34th and 35th Henry VIII. he is assessed at 2s. 3d. for his Dulwich property. 
A branch of the Henleys settled at Peckham : 

In the name of God. Amen. The yere of our lord god m ^xliiij the xviij th 

daye of the monyth of Aprill. I Thomas henley of Dulwyche w'in the pishe of 
camerwell diocys of Wynchester and countye of Surr being seyke in my body but of a 
hole and stedefaste mynde make my testament and last will in this manr and forme 
folowing (fyrste I bequethe my sowle unto allmighti god to our blessyd lady and to 
all the holy compani of heauen and my body to be buryed w l in the churche yarde of 
sainte gylis of Camerwell aforesaid. Item I bequethe to Elisabeth my Wyffe all my 
tenements and lands sitting and lying w l in the lordshipp of Dulwych or els wher and 
allso my farme called knowls w* all y e purtenaunce and sffectes to the said testaments 
lands and farme belongyng for the trme of hyr present lyffe and after the Dysseace of 
my said wyffe then I wyll that my said farme called knowles shall remayne to my 
sune Willum and yf yt shall happen my said sune Wyllm to decease before my said 
Wyffe then I wyll that my said farme shall remayne to my sune Thomas and so to 
dyssend from one to an other that is to saye to the longest lyver of all my chylderne 
the residue of all my goods and cattels movable and unmovable my debts being 
paid and funerall costes dyschargyd I gyve and bequethe to Elisabet my wyffe 
whom I make my sole xecutrix and I orden and make harry henley my brother 
supviser of this my last wyll and testament and I gyve to hym for his paines iij s iiij d 
Wytnes herof, Water goodsune, Willm Calkar, and harri henley. 

* Harl. MSS. 1046, fol. 59. same arms were used by the baronet, who dying 

t Harl. MSS. 1345, fol. 52. They bore Paly bendy without male issue, the title became extinct. 
gules and azure ; eight martlets in orle, or ; the t Add. MSS. (B. M. ), Nos. 24, 925, p. 24. 




LADY HUNT'S MONUMENT IN OLD ST. GILES'S CHURCH. 

( see page 47 ) 

COPIED BY PERMISSION FROM ALLPORT's COLLECTIONS, &C. 



OLD FAMILIES. 47 

FROM CHURCH REGISTER. 



1559. Mar. xxiij, bap., Henry Henley. 

1562. , mar., Henry Henley and Agnes Cox. 

1564. July xxiij, bap., Philipa, dau. of Henry Henley. 

1564. Oct. xxij, bur., Bartholomew, son of Win. Henley. 

1565. Maye xxvij, bap., Francis, son of Wm. Henley. 

1566. Aug. xxiij, bap., Margaret, dau. of Henry Henley. 

1567. Feb. ij, bur., Jone, dau. of William Henley. 

1568. July ij, bur., John, sonne of Wm. Henley. 

1569. Ap. iij,bap., Elizabeth, dau. of Henry Henley. 

1569. Aug. xvij, bur., Marye, dau. of Wm. Henley. 

1570. June ix, bur., Henry Henley. 

1580. Sept. xxix, bap., Elizabeth, dau. of John Henley. 
1583. June xxij, bur., John Henley. 
1591. Nov. vj tb , bur., Richard Henley. 

&c. &c. &c. 






SIR THOMAS HUNT. 

Sir Thomas Hunt, who married the widow of Sir Thomas Grymes, of Peckham 
{nee Muschamp), was a benefactor to the parish, leaving % 13s. 4d. annually to 
the poor of CamberwelL In his " last will and testament " he describes himself " of 
Lambeth Dene, Knt.," and he desires to be buried at Folkham, in Norfolk, " in my 
church, where a monument is there made already." 

A handsome monument was also erected in the church at Camberwell to his wife, 
in the north-east corner of the church, and represented Jane, the daughter of Thomas 
Muschamp, wife of Sir Thomas Hunt, kneeling at a fald stool. The pilasters on 
either side were ornamented with carvings of fruit, flowers, and emblems of mor- 
tality, gilt and coloured. Over it were the arms of Hunt,* and the inscription was as 
follows : 

f LO ! MUSCHA'S STOCK A FRUITEFULL BRAUNCH DID BR'NGE 

ADORNDE W'T VERTUES FIT FOR LAD'S BRIGHT 

SIR THOMAS HUNT 0' MAY DAYES PLEASANT SPR'NG 

POSEST Y e FR'WEJ Y< WAS HIS SOULES DELIGHT 

H'S LOVLY JANE HAD TO SONS BY THO'S GRIMS ESQ. AND 

DAUGHTERS THREE 

W'T WEALTH AND VERTUES MET FOR THEY'R DEGRE' 
WHE' TWISE VII YEAR' VI MONTS X DAYES WER SPE' 
I' WEDLOCKS BONDS AND LOYALL LOVE' DELIGHT 
NOVEMB' TWELFT' DAYE THEN SHE WAS CONTENT 
THIS WORLD TO LEAVE AND GIVE TO GOD HIS RIGHT 
HIR 60 THREE YEARS FULL, COMPLETE AND ENDED 
HIR SOU' TO GOD; TO EAR' HIR CORP' COMENDED. 

1604. 

Sir Thomas Hunt was married three times, Jane Muschamp being his second wife, 
te was sheriif of Surrey and Sussex in 1600, and died at Camberwell. His will is 
-dated 28th April, 1625, and the terms of his bequest are as follows :- " I give to the 

* Per Pale, Argent and Sable, a saltire counter- { Aubrey prints "fruit," supposing the reference 

changed ; on a canton of the second a lion passant to be to the children instead of the wife, who is 

gardant of tie first, here called "frowe," a word of similiar import to 

t Bray has " Jo : Muschamp 's ;" and Aubrey the Dutch vrow. 
"Lomus' chest stock." 



48 Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

Vicar and Churchwardens of Camberwell, to the use of the poor, fifty-three shillings, 
and fourpence a year for ever." His instructions respecting his funeral are rather 
quaint, and amongst other wishes expressed therein he states, " And the next Sab- 
bath day, I would have Mr. Parson to mate some good sermon to the auditory who 
come to church." The payment of this bequest was for seventy years allowed to fall 
into arrear. but by the professional assistance of Mr. Lilley (Vestry Clerk) the sum 
of ^155 was recovered in 1811, and passed by a vestry held March 26th, 1812, to 
the credit of the church rate. 



THE JEPHSONS. 

The Jephson family have long been associated witH the parish of Camberwell, 
more particularly as connected with the Free Grammar School. The first of the 
family to settle in Camberwell was Alexander Jephson, Fellow of Trinity College, 
Dublin, who was compelled to escape from Ireland in the days of Tyrconnel, after 
having preached a sermon on Deborah and Barak on the landing of William and 
Mary. The sermon was interpreted as seditious, and he would have been imprisoned 
by the lord lieutenant if he had not escaped to England. He became master of the 
Grammar School at Ratcliffe, and from, thence, with seventy boys, removed to Cam- 
berwell School in the year 1700. He was rector of Bell-house, in Essex, and was 
succeeded in his school by his son William, who was a Fellow of St. John's College, 
Cambridge, and rector of Little Hormead, Herts. 

He was succeeded by his son Thomas Jephson, who took his degree at St. John's 
College, Cambridge, in honours, but never took holy orders, because when a boy he 
lost his leg, and he is stated to have conceived a strong opinion that a mutilated man 
should never be ordained. He was a very successful schoolmaster, and had a very 
large school. He always had a great desire to raise the number of his scholars to- 
one hundred, but hje never succeeded in getting beyond ninety-nine. 

He was succeeded in the school by his son, the Rev. William Jephson, also of St. 
John's College, Cambridge, who held the position of master in the school till 1842,. 
when loss of sight compelled him to resign his position. 
. A son of this gentleman is at present rector of Hinton, in Oxfordshire. 

The Jephsons always took an active part in all local charities and institutions, and 
the Misses Jephson were the principal originators of the Camberwell Savings' Bank. 

FROM CHURCH REGISTER. 

1703. Ap. 3rd, bap., Ann, clau. of Mr. Alexander Jephson, master of y e Free 
Grammar School of Camerwell. 

1703. Sep. 8th, bur., Ann. dau. of Mr. Alexander Jephson, master of the Free 

Schoole. 

1704. Oct. 13, bap., & bur. 7th March, 1705, Thomas, son of Mr. Alexander 

Jephson, master of y e Free Grammar School. 

1705. Oct. 17th, bap., and bur. Oct. 25th, Henry and Jane, children of Mr. Alex- 

ander Jephson, master of the Free Grammar School. 
1724. Aug. 28, bap., William, son of y e Rev d Mr. William Jephson and Mary his- 

wife. 
1736. July 30, bap., Mary, dau. of y Rev. William Jephson and Mary his wife. 

1738. May 1, bap., Alexander, son of y e Reverend Mr. Wm. Jephson and Mary his 

wife. 

1739. Dec. llth, bur., Mrs. Mary Jephson. 

1739. Dec. llth, bap., Thomas, son of y e Revd. Mr. William Jephson, born Nov. 30th. 




fy Stals ' 



ST. GILES'S CHURCH, AND 
MBERWELL FREE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

1765. 



OLD FAMILIES. 49 

1745. Aug. 9, bap., Catherine, dau. of y e Rev. Mr. William Jephson and Martha 
his wife. 

1761. July 6, bur., the Reverend Mr. Wm. Jephson, Master of the Free School of 

Camberwell. 

1762. Jan. 15, bur., Charles Jephson. 
1764. Jan. 30, bur., Elizabeth Jephson. 
1764. May 7, bur., Mrs. Mary Jephson. 

1768. Sept. 29, bap!, Elizabeth, dau. of Mr. Thomas Jephson and Elizabeth his wife. 
1770. Ap. 25, bap., Thomas, son of Thomas and Elizabeth Jephson. 

1772. Mar., bap., Mary, dau. of Thomas and Elizabeth Jephson. 

1773. June 25, bap., and bur. 2 Sep. 1773, Mary, dau. of Thomas and Elizabeth 

Jephson. 
1775. May 3, bap., William, son of Thomas and Elizabeth Jephson, born April 10th , 

1778. May 13, bap., Sarah, dau. of Thomas and Elizabeth Jephson. 

1779. Feb. 2, buried, Prudence Jephson. 

1779. Nov. 19, bap., Alexander, son of Thomas and Elizabeth Jephson, buried 

Nov. 7, 1781. 

1780. June 3rd, bur., Thomas Jephson. 

1782. Feb. 27, bap., Martha, dau. of Thomas and Elizabeth Jephson. 
1784. June 4, bap., Thomas, son of Thomas and Elizabeth Jephson. 



THE MUSCHAMPS. 

The Muschamps* undoubtedly lived in Camberwell at the time of Henry VIII. 
Mr. Bray has traced their pedigree to Thomas Muschampe, to whose memory there 
was an inscription in the church of St. Mary Magdalene, Milk Street, and of whom 
Weever, in his Funerall Monumentes, says, " he was Sheriffe of this Citie " (London) 
" in the year 1463." The Magna Brit, et Hib. says of the Camberwell family ,f that 
" they were ranked among the barons called to Parliament from the reign of King 
Henry I. to that of King Henry IV." Lysons states that they came over to England 
with William I. 

The name of Muschamp occurs in "the Battaile Abbey Roll," containing the 
names of the Conqueror's retinue.^ 

Henry I. gave the barony of Wollover, in Northumberland, to Robert de Musco- 
campo, or Muschamp. From him descended another Robert, who in the reign of 
Henry III. was reckoned " the mightiest baron in all these northern parts. " But of 
this family the issue male appears to have failed ; as Camden says, " the inheritance 
soon after was divided and shared among women," so that the name as regards this 
chief branch became extinct. In the British Museum is a MS. book in which memo- 
randa of the Muschamp family are entered. It contains an account of the family of 
Thomas Muschamp, of Peckham,|| and the signature of Edward Muschampe, with the 
date of 1553. 

Elizabeth Muschamp the first child of Thomas Muschamp esquire Pcham in the 
Count Surr was borne upon the munday at viij of the cloke a fore none upon seint 
lenard Day the v th day of nombr the xj yere of the reigne of Kyng Edward the iiij th 
And the godfader s r Water Muschamp Elizabeth wiffe of Rarff of the legh esquyer & 
the wiffe of Rauffir West Gedindders. 

* Arms : Or, three bars Gules. Ci'est : A mastiff Thomas Muschamp, not William, as previously 

dog proper collared Argent. imagined. According to Bray, Agnes Scott was at 

t Vol. v. p. 345. once the grandmother (see Exch. Pleas, Edwd. IV.) 

{ Stowe Chron. Eng. 157. and the wife of Thomas's son William an error 

Camd. Brit. 861 . which has crept in through cutting Agnes into two- 

II This Thomas Muschamp was the son of parts. 

E 



50 Y' PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

Petre Muschampe the sonne of Thomas Muschampe was borne upon the ffryday in 
ffebruary in the feste of seint Petre in cathedra in the comyng in of kyng Kerry the 
vj th his godfaders Thomas Ph . . . e m r c & Thomas hore m r c godmoth Maude Mus- 
champ his grandemoder. 

Thomasyn my dought was born upon seint Thomas Day of y ... e in Decembre 
upon thoursday the xv yere of kyng Edward Godfaders Colrnan Groode Godmoders 
Jenkyn baker the Eldrs wiffe and his brodes wiffe. 

Agnes my Dought was born. in Deccbr upon sondaye & Christmas eve hyr Godfader 
baker, the elder the godemoders, my Gossepe Agnes Skynn' & Symthes wiffe 

ffyscha. . . . 

Wylyam my sonne by the grace of god was born in August upon seinte laurence 
day & upon thursday. his godfaders Willym Welbek of lond & the Vicar of 
Cam r well Thorn* orbhm his godmoder his gundem. 

Brygytte my dought was born upon seinte petre day in July upon saterday in the 
ffirste yere of the reigne off kyng Richard the iij th Godfader Michell Skynn Eliza- 
beth Scotte hyr suster Agnes Godmoder, the chyldren of Ric Skynn r Gentylman. 

In a MS. volume of church notes, taken by Nicholas Charles, Lancaster herald, in 
the reign of James I., and now preserved in the Lansdowne collection,* is a pen-and- 
ink sketch showing that one of the windows of Camberwell Church (which, on 
referring to Aubrey's Antiquities of Surrey, appears to be the east of the north 
aisle) contained the figure of a man attended by his ten sons and a woman attended 
by as many daughters, all robed and kneeling in the act of prayer before a fald-stool. 
Above the pictures were depicted three shields of arms, viz. : centre shield, quarterly 
1 and 4, Or, three bars Gu. for Muschamp ; 2 and 3 Arg. on a chev. Gu., between 
three lozenges sable, as jnany martlets Or, for Welbeck ; crest, a mastiff dog 
proper, collared Arg. Dexter shield the same, without the crest. Sinister shield the 
same, impaling Arg. three bears' heads erased Gu., muzzled Or, in chief as many 
Torteaux for Barker. Beneath the figures was the following inscription : 



rate pro fcono statu SHiIl'tnt fBuscfjamp &rtmgeri et &gneti0 tuor etus an 

S'ttt 1528. 

In the north window f were shown the five following shields of arms, in the order 
of two and three. First, Muschamp. Second, Welbeck. Third, Muschamp, impaling, 
Arg. on a fess Sa., three boars' heads couped Or, for Scott. Fourth, Muschamp, 
impaling, Gu. a chev. between three crosslets Or, for Bishe. Fifth, Muschamp and 
Welbeck quarterly, impaling, quarterly : 1 and 4, Arg. a chev. Sa. between three 
perukes proper, for Harmonde ; 2 and 3, Arg. on a fess Sa. between three apples 
Vert, a mullet of the first, for Appleton. Beneath the arms was the following 
inscription : 

rate pro iono statu TOtl'mi fHusefjamp armigeri et &gnetus eonsorttu etus &n 
Bn't 1528. 

Lysons is of opinion that the figures behind William and Agnes Muschamp were 
not intended to represent the children of William Muschanip,t as Agnes brought 
him no issue, and his children by his other wives, though numerous, fell short of the 
number specified (20). One of these figures he conjectures to represent John Scott, 
Baron of the Exchequer and brother of Agnes, and others to be his sons. 

According to the following record of baptisms, however, it would appear that 

* No. 874, vol. Ixiv. widow of Nicholas Minne, Esq., Alderman of Lon- 

i A\;brey, i. 166. don ; 3, Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Sandys, 

J William Muschamp had three wives : 1, Agnes, Esq. 

daughter of Wm. Scott, Esq. ; 2, Elizabeth, daughter Harl. MSS., No. 1807, p. 310. 

of Henry Harmonde, Esq., of Cray ford, Kent, 



OLD FAMILIES. 51 

William Muschamp had nine sons and six daughters, and it is not by any means 
improbable that the five missing children have escaped the notice of the genealogists. 

To the In the name of god amen yo r most honora yo r 

most 

love dread and hono r god Jove 
yo r most in the 

Deare freend. 

Edithe my doughter was bo r ne the xvj daye of nouemb in the xxiij th yere 
of kyng Henry the vij th And hir godmothers was my lady Carne & my lady 
Leght of Stokwell & hir godfather Willm Brothers of london Drap. 

Itm. Kaff Mnschamp my Eldest son was bo r ne the viij Daye of Decemb. 
the xxiiij th yere of kyng Henry the vij th And his godfathers was Raff Aleght 
of the Temple And Razain g fforde And his godmother Kateryn welbek his 
gradar .... 

Itm. John my sone was bo r ne the viij th Daye of May the ffirst yere of 
kyng Henry the viij th And his godfathers S r John legh & "Willm. 
polkyn & his godmother m r is Scott. 

31ortug. Willm Muschamp was bo r ne the xiiij th Daye of ffebruary the iij' le 
yere of Kyng Henry the viij th his godfathers was Willm Welbek & Willm 
Haddon his godmother his Auncte Dandyson. 

Edward Muschamp was bo r ne the first Daye of Aprell in the viij th yere 
H. viij his godfathers the prio r of Seynt Mary ou r ey & John Worsopp his 
godmother my lady hoddy. 

Mary my Doughter was bo r ne the xiij th Daye of ffebruary in the vj th yere 
of H. viij th hir godmothers my lady Jernynghin & my lady Archelley hir 
godfather Richard Baker of Pekhm. 

1515 Thomas my son was bo r ne the xxvj th Daye of January the vij th yere of 
H. viij th his godfather my brother John Som r s And m r Thomas Stacy vycar 
of Cam 1 well, And his godmother m rs Jernynghm wydowe. 

nono Xpofer my sone was bo r ne the vij th Daye of Aprell in the yere of o r lord 
V11 J 1517 his godfathers s r xpofer garnyssh knyglit m r Willm Drap Gent his 
godmother. 

Richard my sone was bo'ne the xiiij Day of August in the xj yere of 
H. viij th his godfathers S r Richard Jernynghin knyglit & m r Thomas 
Kytson m r c ml Jerlynghm his godmother. 
)rtg. ffrauncs my son was bo r ne 

his godmo th 

Willm my sone was bo r ne the v Daye of January in the xiiij yere of 
H. viij th his godfathers the prio r of Seynt Mary ou r ey and Willm Holland 
goldsmyth of London his godmother maistres Amadas goldsmyth. 
lortg. Elizabeth my Doughtir was bo r ne the xx th Daye of (blank) in the xvij th 
yere of H. viij th hir godmother Elizabeth Drap & mary legh hir godfather. 

Anne my Doughtir was bo r iie the viij th Day of ffebruary the xix yere of 
H. viij th hir godmother Margaret lambard & Agnes Aleyn hir godfather, 
lortg. Letice my Doughtir was bo r ne (blank). 

Martha my Doughtir was bo r ne the vj th Day of ffebruary in the xxj tu 
yere of H. viij. 

Thomas, who is styled " citizen and goldsmith of London," married Catherine, 
ighter of Louclay, and had issue two daughters ; Jane, married to Thomas Grymes, 
London, and Susan, married to Henry Tappesfield, citizen and merchant of 
mdon. 

E 2 



52 Y< PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

Richard remained at Peckliam, as did also his son, grandson, and great-grandson 
who were all named Francis, and are described as of that place. 

A moiety of" Camberwell " manor was conveyed to Thomas Muschamp by Edward 
Scott in 1564. From him it passed to his daughter, who was married to Sir Thomas 
Grymes. Ralph Muschamp held the other moiety in 1588, and his grandson died 
seised of it in 1632. Mary, his daughter, married Edward Eversfield, who sold it to- 
Sir Thomas Bond. 

The old manor-house stood near the High Street, on the land now intersected by 
the Grand Surrey Canal, and was pulled down in the reign of Charles II. by,- 
Sir Thomas Bond. 

FROM THE CHURCH REGISTER. 

1562. Oct. xxij, bap., Margaret, dau. of Mr. Muschamp. 

1562. Nov. iv, bur., Margaret, dau. of Mr. Muschamp. 

1564. Oct. xv, bap., Saints, dau. of ffrauncis Muschamp, gent. 

1566. May xxij, bap., ffrauncess, dau. of ffrauncis Muschamp. 

1567. Julye xx, bap., Jane, dau. of ffrauneis Muschamp, Esquire. 

1568. Jany. xviij, bap., John, sonne of Mr. ffrauncis Muschamp. 

1569. Feb. xv, bap., Mathye, sonne of Mr. ffrauncis Muschamp. 
1569. Feb. xxix, bur., Mathye. sonne of Mr. ffrauncis Muschamp. 
1569. Maye xxiv, bur., John, sonne of Mr. ffrauncis Muschamp. 
1571. Aug. i, bap., Agnes, dau. of ffrauncis Muschamp, Esquire. 
1579. Aug. xxiij, bap., ffrauncis, sonne of Mr. ffrauncis Muschamp. 

1584. Aug. xxix, bur., M ris Isabell Muschamp, wyfe of Mr. Ralphe Muschamp. 

1596. Jan. xxvj, mar., M ri8 Katherine, dau. of Mr. ffrauncis Muschamp, anc 

Mr. ffrauncis ffromonde. 

1597. Jan. xix, mar., Mr. ffrauncis Muschamp and M ris Alice Mosley. 

1598. Nov. v, bap., ffrauncis, sonne of Mr. ffrauncis Muschamp. 

1599. Jan. xxij, bap., Benjamin, sonne of Mr. ffrauncis Muschamp. 

1601. June xxj, bap., John, sonne of Mr. ffrauncis Muschamp. 

1602. Sept. iv, bur., John, sonne of Mr. ffrauncis Muschamp. 

1602. Sept. xiv, bur., Benjamin, sonne of Maister ffrauncis Muschamp. 

1602. Nov. xij, bur., M ris E. Muschamp, wyfe of ffrauncis Muschamp. 

1603. Nov. xiij, bap., Thomas, sonne of ffrauncis Muschamp. 
1605. Sept. viij, bap., Susan, dau. to Mr. ffrauncis Muschamp. 

1608. Feb. xxviij, bap., Mary, dau. of Mr. ffrauncis Muschamp. 

1609. Mar. v, bur., M ris Mary, dau. to Mr. ffrauncis Muschamp. 

1610. Jan. xxi, bap., Elizabeth, dau. to ffrauncis Muschamp, gent. 
1612. Aug. xxij, bur., ffrauncis Muschamp, gent. 

1617. Ap. xvi, bur., ffrauncis Muschamp, Esquire. 

1618. Sep. xv, bur., Sir Thomas Muschamp, Kiit. 

1619. Jan. vij, mar., Mr. ffrauncis Muschamp and M ris Jane Bynde. 
1619. Dec. xvj, bap., Katherine, dau. to ffrauncis Muschamp. 
1619. Dec. xxij, bur., Katherine, dau. to Mr. ffrauncis Muschamp. 
1621. Aug. xxviij, bap., Edmond, sonne to ffrauncis Muschamp, Esquire. 

1627. Jan. xiij, bur., ffrancis, sonne of Mr. ffrancis Muschamp. 

1628. Jan. ij, bur., M ris Jane, wyfe to Mr. ffrancis Muschamp. 
1632. July xxvij, bur., Mr. ffrancis Muschamp. 

1637. Maye vj, bur., Thomas Muschamp, gent. 
1652. Sept. xiv, bur., Alice Muschamp. 
1664. Ap. xj, bur., Elizabeth Muschamp. 



OLD FAMILIES. 



53 



THE GRYMES FAMILY.* 

The Grymes f were an old Peckham family. Thomas Grimes, of London, citizen 
haberdasher, and of Peckliam, son of Richard Grymes, of London, married Jane, 
daughter and co-heir of Thomas Muschamp, of Peckham, and thus became possessed 
of a moiety of the Manor of Camberwell. They had two sons, Thomas and John. 
Sir Thomas was justice of the peace and deputy-lieutenant of Surrey, and M.P. for 
le county in 1623 ; he married Margaret, daughter of Sir George Moore, of Looseley, 
Surrey, and sister to the wife of Dr. Donne. In a letter dated from Peckham, June 
10th, 1606, and addressed to the Right Worshipful Sir George More, Knt., at Losely, 
Sir Thomas expressed his pleasure at hearing of his sister Frances' preferment " (her 
marriage with Sir John Oglander), desires to be remembered to his brother More 
concerning certifying " the collectors of the fifteenes into Chancery ;" states that his 
wife is " reasonable well," and that she was " brought to bed safely of a daughter on 
last Whitsunday." He subscribes himself Sir George's " most assured son-in-law." 

Sir Thomas Grimes had a numerous family, mostly daughters. He was succeeded 
by his eldest son George,|| "sonne to S r Thomas Grymes, who was married to Alice, 
daughter and co-heir of Charles Lovell, of West Harding, Norfolk." 

In Sir Edward Bysshe's Visitation of Surrey, 1662, the title of baronet IT is given to 
-Sir George Grymes and Thomas his son ; but it is generally believed that the family 
had only a warrant, and never passed the patent. His son Sir Thomas Grymes sold 
his Peckham estates to his brother-in-law, Sir Thomas Bond, Bart. 

Sir George Grymes was intimately connected with the Royalist cause ; for in his 
petition " touching such Gent" as shall retourne from His Ma te Service upon ye late 
Declaracon of Parliam*," he describes himself as having " for a long time wayted on 
His Mat 6 '* person as his sworne servant." 

Richard Grymes, a younger brother of Sir George Grymes, of Peckham, in 1649 
also made an application to the " Commissiones for Compounding with Delinquents,"** 
though it would seem from the following petition that he was not so much implicated 
as some of his neighbours : 

The humble peticion of Richard Grymes of Peckham in the County of Surrey, 
Sheweth, 

That yo r pet r was never sequestred nor iudiceally impeached for any 
Delinquency against the Parliament, nor was engaged in either Warre, but doubtinge 
hee may hereafter bee lyable to sequestracon for something said or donne in relacon to 
the first warre doth in pursuance of the late vote of y c 21 of March, 1648, humbly 

Idresse himselfe to this hon ble Comittee. 

And humbly praieth to bee admitted to Composicon according to the said votes as 
being himselfe the firste discoverer. 

Rec d the 8th June, 1649, And the pet r shall pray &c. 

and Refterred upon 
his owne discourie. 



* The name of this family is variously written 
as follows : "Grymes," "Grimes," " Crymes." 

t Arms : Or on three bars gu. as many martletts 
of the first ; on a chief of the second two bars 
nebulee Arg. Crest : A martlett vert. 

I This Richard was no doubt the Master Grymes 
.referred to by Henry Machyn in his Diary, Aug. 1st, 
1553 : 

"The furst day of August was chossen the 
shereyffe of London, Master (blank) Grymes, 
clothworker, d welly ng in saynt Laurans Lane ; and 
the vj day of August he was dysmyssd of the 
shreyffship ; and in ys sted was chossen Thomas 
Clayton, baker, the wyche Master Grymes gayff for 
.ys fyneijclb." 

She afterwards married Sir Thomas Hunt, and 



her burial is thus recorded in the Register : 

" 1604, Nov. 13th, Dame Hunt, wife to Sir 
Thomas Hunt." 

|| It appears from the Feet of Fines, Co. Surrey, 
1565, "that iSir George and Alice his wife 
possessed, amongst other property in Peckham, 
one cottage, one garden, one orchard, six acres of 
meadow, and four acres of pasture. " 

And again in another agreement, " six messuages, 
six gardens, six orchards, 2l) acres of land, and 
four acres of meadow, and 50 acres of pasture." 

TI This title is given once only in the Church 
Register, viz., to ,Sir Thomas Grymes in Eiity. 
19th Ap. 1664. 

** Roy. Coinp. Pap., vol. xlii. p. 712. 



54 Y* PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

According to the schedule of property accompanying the petition, it appears that 
Eichard Grymes was "seised in reversion after the life of Mrs. Margaret Grymes his 
mother," of property to the value of <80 per annum. This, however, was mort- 
gaged to one John Prettyward, ironmonger, for ^300, for which he paid interest at the- 
rate of 8 per cent. The statement was endorsed by John Sarney, of Peckham. 
The following is the inventory of the goods of Richard Grymes : 

s. d. 

Imp r is a Scarlett Coate and Pettycoate of blewe silke . 100 
It. a silver Tankard a silver paire of Snuffers a silver 

Poringer & an Aqua vite "botle 300 

It. 2 peeces of nourished knetwork & I peece of Cutworke 

holland w lh a lace about it 200 

It. a fine paire of holland Sheetes 1100 

It. a paire of laced Sheetes & curtaines for a bed . . 2 0> 

It. a Counter pointed Cupboard .... worke wrought w. 100 

It. a redd .... furniture for a Bedd w th .... silver lace 500 

It. a quilted Counter point 050' 

It. 2 paire of holl . . Pillowbeeres 050 

It. 5 Table Cloathes & Cupboard Cloathes of coarse Diap 13 4 

It. 2 Diap Cupboard Cloathes . ... . . . 056 

It. 43 Table Cloathes & 1 Cupboard Cloatli . . . 080- 

It. Diap Cupboard Cloathes 0*0 

It. a laced Cupboard Cloatli 006 

It. 5 Table Cloathes 10 

It. 3 paire of Pillowbeeres 060' 

It. 11 paire of Sheetes 2 

It. 2 Trunckes 068' 

The Appraisers John Knight gen & Capt 

John Pegge gen 

Itm. in ye greate Truncke 1 plush Cloake . . . . 500- 

It. a fur Coate 0134 

It. a black velvett suite & Cloake of Cloatli . . . . 3 10 0- 

It. a black Shagg base Suite & Cloake . . . . 1100 

It. a Cloath Suite 300 

It. a redd blush Cloake & paire of Damaske briggs & a 

white Sattin Dublett 2 10 fr- 
it, a Cloath Cloake 500 

It. a green e plush Cloake & a greene Sattin Dublett . . 2 10 0- 

It. a black lyning for a Cloake & wrought wast coate . . 080 

It. 2 Hatts 2 Girdles points a hatband and blue rubbin . 050 
It. in y e litle Trunck 2 paire of silke hose 2 paire of silke 

Garters 2 Dozen points a psalme booke . . . . 100- 

46 18 4 
FROM CHURCH REGISTER. 

1603. Aug. xxix, bap., Frances, dau. of Sir Thomas Grymes. 

1604. Feby. x, bap., George, sonne of Sir Thomas Grymes. 

1606. June xxiv, bap., Elizabeth, dau. to Sir Thomas Grymes. 

1607. Jan. ,bur., Elizabeth, dau. to Sir Thomas Grymes. 
1607. Oct. iv, bap., Martha, dau. to Sir Thomas Grymes. 

* Blank in original document. 




SCOTT'S MONUMENT OLD ST. GILES'S CHURCH. 
( see page 55 ) 

COPIED BY PERMJSSION FROM ALLPORT'S COLLECTIONS, &C. 



OLD FAMILIES. 55 

1609. Jan. xxix, bap., Arthur, sonne of Sir Thomas Grymes. 

] 609. Mar. xii, mar., M ris Mary Grymes* and Mr. William Glascock. 

1609. Jan. xxix, bap., Arthur, sonne to Sir Thomas Grymes. 

1610. June xxviij, bap., Thomas, sonne to Sir Thomas Grymes. 
1615. Sep. v, bur., M ris Mary, dau. of Sir Thomas Grymes. 
1615. Sep. xj, bur., M ris Anne, dau. of Sir Thomas Grymes. 

1615. Dec. xxx, bap., Anne, dau. of Sir Thomas Grymes. 

1616. June ij, bap., Margaret, dau. to Mr. John Grymes. 

1617. June iij, bur., Anne, dau. to Sir Thomas Grymes. 

1618. July xvj, bur., Eliza, dau. to Sir Thomas Grymes. 
1621. Ap. xij, bap., Susannah, dau. to Sir Thomas Grymes. 
1624. Oct. xiv, bap., Constance, dau. to Sir Thomas Grymes. 
1626. Sept. xxiij, bur., M ri9 Margaret, dau. to Sir Thomas Grymes. 
1638. Mar. xix, bur., M ris Jane Grymes. 

1638. May vij, bap., Charles Lowell, sonne to Sir George Grymes. 
1638. May x, bap., Thomas, sonne to Sir George Grymes. 
1640. May i, bap., Margaret, dau. to Sir George Grymes. 

1640. Dec. xxiv, bur., Mr. John Grymes. 

1641. Ap. xx, bap., George, sonne of Sir George Grymes. 
1644. May vij, bur., Sir Thomas Grymes, Knt. 

1644. Dec. xiv, bap., Mary, dau. to Sir George Grymes. 

1646. July i, bap., Richard, sonne of Sir George Grymes. 

1647. Nov. xiii, bur., Constance, dau. of Sir Thomas Grymes. 
1652. Sept. xxix, bur., George, sonne of Sir George Grymes. 

1654. July xxiij, bap., Henry, sonne of Sir George Grymes. 

1655. Oct. xxij, bur., Benjamin, sonne of Sir George Grymes. 
1655. Nov. xv, bur., Lady Margaret Grymes. 

1657. Oct. xv, bur., Sir George Grymes. 

1660. Sept. vj, bap., Edward, sonne of Sir Thomas Grymes. 

1661. Jan. xxv, bur., Richard Grymes, Esquire. 

1664. Ap. xix, bur., Edward, sonne of Sir Thomas Grymes, Bart. 



THE ODES. 

The Odes were residents of Camberwell in the 6th year of Edward III., when 
William Ode was assessed in a lay subsidy at that time to the extent of 12 pence. 

In the 12th of Henry VI. the name of "Richard Ode de Camerwelle" is returned 
as one of the principal residents, and in the 38th Henry VIII. Henry Ode was 
assessed at 16s. for his " goods and cattail." 

The name occurs in various rates and subsidies down to the seventeenth century. 



THE SCOTTS. 

There were several monuments in the south aisle of St. Giles's Church to the 
Scotts,f a family long connected with this parish ; that of Edward Scott being a grey- 
stone slab, inlaid with a full-length brass of a knight in armour, with the following 
inscription : 

OF Y0 r CHARITIE P'Y FOR Y c SOULLE OF e&hmrlr cott on' of s e soncs 

* In a pedigree of the Grymes family (Harl. couped Or. Crest: 1, a cup Arg. of fire Proper; 2, 

MSS.) Mr. Wm. Glascocke is described as of " Hen- a boar's head couped Arg. a pheon fixed fessways 

ingham, in Essex." in the neck Sable. 

t Arms : Arg. on a fess Sable, three boars' heads 



56 ye PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

of SJofm rott esauifr to&icfie etrtoartr trcressgtr tije nti th Hag of epte'ier &n lint 
fttrrrrc in bit! ON WHOSE SOULLE & ALL XPC'N SOULLS JH'U HAVE 
MERCY. 

John Scott, father of the above, was sheriff of Surrey and Sussex in 1520 ; was con- 
stituted third Baron of the Exchequer* 15th May, 20th Henry VIII. (1529), and died 
Sept. 7th, 1532. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Skynner, and sister and 
co-heiress' to William Skynner, of Camberwell, Esq., by whom he had issue John, 
his son and heir, and Edward, who died Sept. 29th, 1538, and Elizabeth, married to 
Appleyard. 

The inscription on John Scott's monument was as follows : 

OF YOUR CHARITE P'Y FOR THE SOULLE OF Jofin Scott winter anb 
one of tlje Barons of o r ^oubagnge lortr tije ling's excljefeer, toljgclje Jfo^n trecesgtr tf)e 
btj irase of eptemfot t' tfie iitttj sere of tlje reggne of ou r ^oubagnge lortr l^tng 
&enrg tf)e bitj. antr i' tf)e gere of our lortr (HJotr xbrmii. ON WHOSE SOULLE 
GOD HAVE M'CY AND ON ALL CHRISTIAN SOULES. AMEN. 

John Scott, Esq., his son and heir, was lord of the manor of Camberwell Bucking- 
hams, and sheriff of Surrey and Sussex in 1548. This Scott is mentioned by 
Holinshed as having been concerned in. the month of November, 1520, with Lords 
Ogle and Howard, Sir Matthew Browne and Sir Wm. Bulmer, in certain " riots, 
misdemeanours, and offences."f It appears that they were all pardoned save the 
Lord Ogle, whose case, being murder, was remitted to the common law. John Scott J 
was thrice married, and, according to his monument in the church, had nine children ; 
but in his will it appears he had, besides Margaret, four other daughters Elizabeth, 
Ann, Mary, and Friswith, bequeathing to each of them .10 on their marriage. In 
an inquisition taken at his death it was found that he died " seised of the manor of 
Camberwell, late the Duke of Buckingham's, who was attainted, of a moiety of the 
manor of Canierwell, held of that manor of Camerwell which was late the Dukes ; of 
a moiety of the manor of Cold Abbey in Camerwell, held of Ralp Muschamp of his 
moiety of the manor of Camerwell ; also of a moiety of the manor of Bredinghurst," 
and of other estates in Woodmanstern, Chipstead, Carshalton. &c. By his will he 
devised the manor of Camerwell, which was late the Duke of -Buckingham's, with a 
messuage in East Dulwich, alias Peckham Rye, to five of his sons, Edward, William, 
Bartholomew, Edgar, and Acton, equally between them. He died Aug. loth, 1558. 
The inscription on the tablet in the church was as follows : 

JOHN SCOTT, THE SON AND HEIR OF JOHN SCOTT, ONE OF THE 
BARONS OF THE EXCHEQUER, BEING MARRIED TO ELIZABETH 
THE DAUGHTER OF JOHN ROBINS, MERCHANT, OF THE STAPLE 
AT CALAIS, HAD ISSUE JOHN : RICH : EDW : WILL : BARTHOLOMEW : 
ACTON. BEING ALSO MARRIED TO A SECOND WIFE CHIS. THE 
WIDOW OF JOHN SANDFORD, HAD ISSUE MARG : AND BY MARG : 
BORTON HIS 3 rd WIFE HAD EDGAR AND SOUTHWELL, OF WHICH 
HIS NINE CHILDREN, BARTHO : SCOTT HIS V th SONNE REPAIRING 
YE DECAYED RUINES OF THIS RIGHT WORSHIPFUL AND ANCIENT 
FAMILY REVIVETH THE MEMORY OF HIS DECEASED FATHER. 

* There was a former John Scott, appointed Baron yons of armes." The date of Master Skott's 

of the Exchequer 8th Jan., 4 Hen. VIII. (1513). funeral, given by Machyn, does not altogether fit in 

Holinshed, Ed. 1557, vol. ii. p. 1507. with any of the Scotts who were justices of the 

.<*r ln Macnvns Diary, 1560, mention[is made of peace. It refers possibly to Thomas Scott, whose 

Master Skott of Cam (berwell), justes a pese, a name occurs in Cole's Escheats, i. 441. 

vere good m:m, and he had (a) ij dosen of tkotch- Aubrey supplies the last word 74). 



OLD FAMILIES. 57 

Bartholomew,* the fifth son of John Scott, is described as " a valiant, wise, and 
religious gentleman." He was thrice married, first to " Marg. ye wido. of the Eight 
Revered Prel. and Martyr Tho. Cranmer, Arch-Bish of Canterbarie ; f ye 2 was 
<Dhrista, the widow of Laud, cit. of Londo.*: 'ye 3 and last was Marg. the widow of 
William Gardiner, Esq., justice of peace in ye coun. of Sur." J 

Bartholomew, notwithstanding his three marriages, died without issue, and was suc- 
ceeded in his property by Peter Scott, his nephew, the son of Acton Scott, his brother, 
"" whom he had carefully and lovingly fostered up from his youth, the heir of their 
lands and the hope of their family." 

Peter Scott was knighted at Whitehall, 2 April, 1621, and married Elizabeth, 
eldest daughter of Edward Kedarminster, Esq., " one of the 6 clarks of Chancery, 
in 1599. He had one son and three daughters, and died on the 28th June, 1622. 
The verses on the monument erected to his memory by his widow are exceedingly 
-appropriate as a souvenir of departed worth : 

HERE MIGHT BE PRAISES, BUT HE NEEDS NOT THEM, 
SUCH PUFFS THE VERTUOUS AND THE GOOD CONTEMN, 
FOR SUCH ARE BETTER PLEASED GOOD TO BE 
THAN TO BE CALLED SO ; AND SUCH WAS HE. 
THIS THEN FOR OSTENTATION RAISE WE NOT, 
NOR OUT OF FEAR HIS WORK SHOULD BE FORGOT, 
BUT THAT THE READER AND THE PASSER BY, 
REFLECTING ON HIS SHRINE OF DEATH AN EYE, 
MAY MIND THEIR OWN ; SO NEITHER WILL THE COST 
SEEM VAIN, OR THE BEHOLDER'S LABOUR LOST. 

John Scott, Esq., son of Sir Peter, was a justice of the peace of the county of 
iSurrey, and married Elizabeth, daughter of Robert Cherry, Esq., of Camberwell. 
He died in 1674, and was succeeded by his son Peter Scott, LL.D., Canon of Windsor, 
in 1671. He was married first, to Margaret, daughter of Sir Wm. Bowles, of Clerken- 
well ; and second, to Margaret, daughter of Clement Spelman, Baron of the Exchequer. 

He died in 1689, aged 49 years, and was buried " in linnen," for which privilege 
was paid " to ye poore the somme of fiftie shillings." 

FROM CHURCH REGISTER. 

1558. Aug. xv, bur., John Scott, gent. 

1559. Feb. xiv, bur., Anna Scott. 

1560. Aug. xviij, bap., Henry Scott. 
1560. Dec. xviij, bur., Mr. Richard Scott. 
1560. Dec. xviij, bur., John Scott, son of above. 

1564. Jan. xxiv, mar., Maister Wm. Scott and Anne Croft. 

* On six small shields in front of Bartholomew and by the spoyle of hys goodes after hys attainder, 
^Scott's monument were the armorial bearings of he left hys wyfe and chyldren unprovided." She 
Scott, viz. Arg. on a fess Sable, three boars' heads, is by both represented as a Dutch woman, and re- 
couped, Or ; and also those of Bekewell, Bretyng- lative of Osianders. As Bart. Scott's first wife is 
hurst, Welbeck, Skynner, and Robins. The same elsewhere described as Margaret Whitechurch, she 
bearings were marshalled on a single shield sur- must have had another husband before Scott, 
mounting the entablature. perhaps " Maister Wychurch," who was buried at 

t Strype, in his life of the Archbishop, states that Camberwell 1 Dec. 1561. Allport (in his Collec- 

Cranmer's second wife (he had lost his first in tions) is of opinion that it was a gross blunder of 

childbirth) was named Ann, "and living she was the writer of the Epitaph, and that the Margaret 

toward the latter end of Archbishop Parker's time, mentioned was the daughter of the right reverend 

-and for her subsistence enjoyed an abbey in Not- prelate, as Fox states that he left a married 

tinghamshire, which King Henry, upon Dr. daughter. 

Butt's motion, without the Archbishop's know- As Cranmer was 67 years old at the time of his 

ledge, granted to him and his heirs." death, in 1556, his wife, supposing her to have been 

Fox, the martyrologist, gives a different version. the same age as the prelate, was 75 years of age 

By his 'account, Cranmer's last wife was left when Scott is stated to have married her in 1564 ! 
-altogether unprovided for, her husband having J Epitaph of Bart. Scott. 

" sold hys plate, and payed all hys debtes, so that By Margaret, daughter of John Donne, .D., 

no man could ask him a grote, although thereby, Dean of St. Paul's. 



58 Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

1564. Nov. xxix, mar., Bartholomew Scott and Margaret Whitechurch. 

1565. Maye vj, bap., Elizabeth, dan. of William Scott, gent. 

1566. June xvij, bur., Mistress Ann, wyfe of Wm. Skott, gent. 

1567. Jan. xxxj, bap., Robert, sonne of Mr. William Scott. 

1572. Feb. xiv, bur., Mr. Edward Scott, Esquier. 

1573. Julye xix, bap., Isabell, dau. of Mr. Acton Scott. 
1578. Nov. xxx, bap., Peter Scott, sonne of Mr. Acton Scott. 
1580. Mar. x, bap., Dudley, sonne of Mr. Acton Scott. 

1580. Julye xvij, William, sonne of Mr. William Scott. 

1581. Mar. v, bur., William, sonne of Mr. William Scott. 

1581. Sep. xvij, bap., John, sonne of Mr. Acton Scott. 

1582. Sep. xxvi, bur., Winnifred Scott, dau. of Mr. Acton Scott. 

1583. Jan. xij, bap., Edgar, sonne of Maister Acton Scott. 

1583. June xxx, bap., Agnes, dau. of Mr. William Scott. 

1584. Maye xxviij, bur., Edgar, sonne of Mr. Acton Scott. 

1587. Mar. xxxj, bur., Dudley, sonne of Mr. Acton Scott. 

1588. Aug. viij, bur., Mr. William Scott, Esquier. 

1592. Sep. iv, bur., M ris Anne, wife of Mr. Acton Scott. 

1593. Maye xxx, bur., Mr. Robert Scott, sonne of M ris Scott, wydowe. 

1593. June xxj, mar., Acton Scott, gent., and Elizabeth Norton, gentlewoman. 

1593. Sept. vij, bur., Mr. Acton Scott. 

1595. Sep. ix, mar., Margaret Scott and George Barrett. 

1599. Ap. xvj, mar., Mr. Peter Scott and M ris Elizabeth P. Kedderminster. 

1600. June v, bur., Maister Bartholomew Scott, Esquier. 

1609. Jany. xviij, bap., Marmaduke Scott, sonne of John Scott, gent. 

1610. July xxvj, bap., Letitia, dau. of Peter Scott, gent. 
1616. Ap. xv, bur., a man child, sonne to Mr. Peter Scott. 
1619. Sep. vij, bap., Ann, dau. of Peter Scott, Esquier. 

1619. Oct. xxviij, bap., Thomas, sonne to Mr. John Scott, gent. 

1629. Jan. xxxj, bur., Ladye Elizabeth Scott. 

'1639. July xxiv, bur., Thomas, sonne of Mr. Marmaduke Scott. 

1640. July xviij, bur., John, sonne of Mr. Marmaduke Scott. 

1641. May xj, bur., John, sonne of Mr. John Scott. 

1642. Sep. xxix, bap., Francis, sonne to John Scott, Esquier. 

1643. Nov. i, bap., Elizabeth, dau. of Mr. John Scott. 

1644. Feb. xj, bur., John, sonne of Mr. Marmaduke Scott. 
1644. Nov. xij, bap., Robert, sonne to Mr. John Scott. 
1644. Dec. xj, bap., John, sonne of Mr. Marmaduke Scott. 
1646. Maye vij, bapt., Mary, dau. of John Scott, Esquier. 
1649. Oct. xi, bur., Lancelot, sonne of Mr. Marmaduke Scott. 

1649. Dec. iij, bur., Marmaduke Scott. 

1650. Mar. vij, bap., John, sonne of John Scott, Esquier. 

1651. Ap. ix, bap., Edmund, sonne of John Scott, Esquier. 
1651. Maye ij, bur., Edward, sonne of John Scott, Esquier. 
1651. June xxvij, bur., Anne, dau. of John Scott, Esquier. 

1655. Dec. viij, bap., Edward, sonne of Mr. John Scott. 

1656. Mar. xxv, bap., James, sonne of Mr. John Scott. 

1657. Dec. xxj, bur., James, sonne to Mr. John Scott. 

1660. Dec. xj, bur., Mr. Peter Scott. 

1661. Sep. xij, bap., Sarah, dau. to John Scott, Esquier. 
1664. Ap. xxvij, bap., Peter, sonne of Mr. Peter Scott. 
1666. Mar. xx, bap., John, sonne to Mr. Peter Scott. 




"SCOTT" MONUMENT IN OLD ST. GILES'S CHURCH. 

( see page 57 ) 

COPIED BY PERMISSION FROM ALLPORT's COLLECTIONS, &C. 



OLD FAMILIES. 59 

1668. Aug. ix, bap., Elizabeth, dan. to Dr. Peter Scott. 
1670. Mar. xx, bap., Bartholomew, sonne of Dr. Peter Scott. 

1674. Sept. iv, bur., John Scott, Esquier. 

1675. Jan. xj, bap., Acton, sonne of Dr. Peter Scott. 

1679. Oct. xxviij, bap., Isabella, clau. of Dr. Peter Scott. 

1680. Jan. xxj, bur., Mary, wife of Mr. Edward Scott. 

1680. Oct. i, bur., Mr. A Scott. 

1681. Sept. 7, bur. (affidavit), John, sonne of Dr. Peter Scott. 

1682. Feb. vj, bur., Margaret, wife of Dr. Peter Scott. 

1690. Jan. i, bur., Peter Scott, LL.D., buried in linnen, 50s. to ye poore. 

1690. July xxvj, bur., Mr. Peter Scott. 

1691. Dec. iij, bur., Henreta Maria Scott. 

1693. Dec. ij, bap., Lucy, dau. of Francis Scott, Esquier. 

1695. Mar. xxv, bur., ffrancis Scott, Esq. 

1695. Ap. xiv, bap., sonne of ffrancis Scott, Esquier. 

1705. Mar. 24, bur., Win. Scott, Esq. 

1720. July 14, bur., Mrs. Anne Scott. 

1723. Aug. 28, bur., Henry, son of Mr. Henry Scott. 



THE SHARDS. 

The Shards of Peckham were a family of considerable note in the latter part of 
the eighteenth centuiy, and a large portion of Peckham once belonged to them. 
The estate of Sir Thomas Bond, afterwards held by Lord Trevor, was bought by Mrs. 
Hill, aunt of Isaac Pacatus Shard, Esq., who lived at the splendid mansion in Hill 
Street, then known as Lord Lane. 

William Shard, the son, afterwards succeeded to the estate, and he was succeeded 
by his brother Charles. 

The mansion was pulled down in 1797, and the fine estate was soon after sold and 
became the property of several owners, amongst whom may be mentioned Daniel 
Cronin, Esq., a wealthy freeholder of this parish. The Shard family have given 
their name to several places in this parish, such as Shard's Square, Shard's Terrace, &c.. 

FKOM CHURCH EEGISTER. 

1737. Nov. 14, bur., Dame Elizabeth Shard. 

1739. Mar. 19, bur., , son of Isaac Packatus Shard and Elizabeth his 

wife. 

1740. Jan. 2, bur., Sir Isaac Shard, Knt. 

1740. March 3, bur., Richard, son of Isaac Packatus Shard, Esq., and Elizabeth 

his wife. 

1740. Oct. 21, bur., Mrs. Mary Shard, wife of A. Shard, Esq. 
1742. April 25, bur., Elizabeth, dau. of Isaac Pacatus Shard, Esq., and Elizabeth 

his wife. 

1747. Jan. 6, bur., Richard, son of Isaac Pacatus Shard, Esq., and Elizabeth his wife. 
1749. Sep. 13, bur., George, son of Isaac Pacatus Shard, Esq., and Elizabeth his 

wife. 
1749. Oct. 9, bur., Isaac Pacatus, son of Isaac Pacatus Shard, Esq., and Elizabeth 

his wife. 

1758. Jan. 26, bur., Jacob Shard. 
1766. July 2, bur., Isaac Pacatus Shard, Esq. 
1776. Oct. 10, bur., Mrs. Elizabeth Shard. 



, 60 ye PABISH OF CAMERWELL. 



FAMILY OF SHELBURY. 

According to Sir Edward Bysshe's Visitation of Surrey (1662), Richard Shelbury* 
was at that time a Camberwell gentleman of some considerable standing. His name 
.also occurs amongst the intended Knights of the Royal Oak in 1660 as "Alderman 
Richard Shelbury,'' with an estate of 1,000 per annum. His name, however, does 
not occur in the list of lord mayors or sheriffs. 

ENTRIES IN CHURCH REGISTER. 
1656. July 30, bur., Richard, son of Richard Shelbery. 
1660. June 9, bap., Richard, son of Richard Shelbury. 

1660. Sept. 21, bur., Richard Shelbury, son to Mr. Richard Shelbury. 

1661. Sept. 9, bap., John, son of Richard Shelbery. 

1664. Sept. , mar., Joseph Harrey, Doctor of Law, and Abegail, dan. of Richard 

Shelbery, Esquire, Alderman of the city of London. 
1669. Aug. 30, bur., Mrs. Sarah Shelbery. 



NICHOLAS SIMANS. 

The willt of this gentleman, described as a " husbandman of the pishe of Camer- 
well," bears date 1544. In the subsidy granted in the 34 & 35 Henry VIII., Mr. 
.Symons is assessed to the extent of 10s. " for his goods and cattail " at Camberwell. 
The will is as follows : 

In the name of God, Amen. The yere of our lord god mVxliiij and the xxj* 
daye of the monyth of Maye I Nicolas Simans husbanman of the pishe of camerwell 
w'in the countie of Surr and Diocys of Wynchester being of a hole memore and 
stedfast mynd make my testament and last wyll in thys maner and forme Mowing, 
fyrst I bequethe my sowle unto god allmigtie to our blessyd lady saint Mari and to 
all the glorius company of heauen and my body to be buryed w'in the chyrche yarde 
of saint gyles Camrwell aforesaid. Item I bequethe to the hyghe alter of the foresaid 
churche of Camburwell for tythes necligentli forgotton iiij d . Item I bequethe to my 
.sune wat r ij oxen and one aker of my best whet and one other of my best otes. Item I 
bequethe to Ry chard my sune ij yunge steares and ij cowe bullockes. Item I bequethe 
to Isabell my doughter a cowe. Item I bequethe to Sybbell my Dougter a cowe. Item I 
bequethe to Steuen Sayll my sune in lawe all the goods being in a close called 
Duntons herde. Item I bequethe to Cateryne Whyte my saruant a shepe. Item to 
Maryane fraunces my seruand a shepe. Item to harri olyfe xij d . Item I bequeth to 
kateryne olyfe xij d . Item I wyll that yf yt shall happen any of theys my sars 
chylderne to dyssece before that they be mariable that then the other chylderne 
surviuing theyme so dyscesd shall haue and enioye the parte or partes of them so 
dyscesyd and so cache of them to be others eayrs which parte or partes. I wyll to be 
delyuered by even porcyons equalle emonge theme The resydue of all my goods and 
cattels being unbequethyd fyrst my detes paycl and legacys performyd and my funerall 
costes dyschargyd I gyue and bequethe to Agnes my Wyfe whom I make my sole 
xecutrice and 1 ordeyne and make Robert Olyfe superviser of thys my said testament 
and last wyll, and I wyll that he shall haue for hys paynes iij s iiij d . Wytnes hereof 
s r Thomas share pryste, Robert Ramsey, Steuen Sayll, John lewis, Wyth other moo. 

'Arras: Gyronny of four Arg. and Gules. Crest: Gules. A mullet for difference. 
A lion's head erased, Gyronny of four Arg. and t Add. MSS. (B.M.), No. 24, 925, p. 23, 



OLD FAMILIES. 



61 



THE SKINNERS. 

The Skinner family lived in Camberwell in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, 
and many monuments of them existed in the old church. One of these, which has 
called forth much remark through an error in the inscription, was that commemorating 
Richard Skinner and his wife Agnes. The inscription was as follows : 

H?tc facet Htc'us S&gnner ?t &gttes til' ei' (jut QuftTm 3irus otujt iti trie JanuarV 
& But' JHmfbtj &gn*s bcro ofrijt, b trie Jftarct). &Iitu' |H rccclxiiiti. QUORUM 
ANIMABUS PROPICIETUR DEUS. AMEN. 

According to this tablet Richard Skinner died in 1407, and his wife in 1499. Sixty 
years, however, after his reputed death, Richard Skinner was bound in a recognizance 
of 100 pounds to his tailor,* and according to another authority^ he was livingin 1492, 
when he made a will, wherein he mentions his wife Agnes. The probability is that 
the inscription is misdated a century. " If there had been no error in the dates," 
observes Lysons, " it would appear that his sons William and Michael, who died in 
1497 and 1498, survived their father, the one ninety and the other ninety-one years,. 
and that John Scott, his son-in-law, who died in 1532, survived him one hundred and 
twenty-five years." 

The precatory expressions which formed the beginning and conclusion of almost 
every epitaph before the Reformation were carefully obliterated in the inscriptions on 
the monuments of the Skinners and others in the church. J 

The ill-directed zeal of Elizabeth's reformers was checked by a proclamation wherein 
the over-zealous were forbidden " to demolish or deface any monuments whether of 
stone or metal, they being set up for memory and not for superstition." 

The Skinners and Scotts were connected by marriage ties, as Elizabeth, daughter of 
Richard and Agnes Skynner, became the wife of John Scott, one of the barons of the 
Exchequer ; and one "Master Skynner, sqwyre, one of the vi clarkes of Chansere," 
probably a son of Richard and Agnes Skinner, was buried in " Flett-street Nov. 26th ? 
1558." Machyn tells us there were " many morners and all they of the Chansere." 

It appears from a " certificat of all y c hable horse and geldings now redie furnished 
w th armor shot w th in the County of Surrey as anye pson w'in ye same ys bounde 
to fynde by the Laws and Statues of the Realm," that John Skynner, Esq., of Cam- 
berwell, in 1573, furnished " one case of pistolats, one coate of plate, one light stafte, 
with other furniture to y e same meet for a light horseman." 

John Skynner's contribution was according to valuacons appearing in the subsydie 
books as for his wife's aparell. 



THE SWINGFIELDS. 

The Swingfields of Peckham at one time held considerable property in this 
parish, and the names of various members of the family occur from time to time as 
taking part in local affairs. In 1636 Thomas Swingfield served the office of church- 
warden. The son of this Thomas Swingfield was present at the surrender of Wor- 
cester, and was granted a pass to his home at Peckham by Sir Thomas Fairfax on 
the 23rd July, 1646, and he was cast in a fine of .300 for his loyalty to the king. 



* Lysons. t Bray, 

t In 1492 Richard Skinner gave 12 pence for a 
light to burn before the image of the Virgin in the 



south aisle, and the sum of ScZ. for a light to stand 
before the image of St. Nicholas. 
Machyn's Diary, p. 179. 



C2 Y* PAEISH OF CAMERWELL. 

According to a statement made to the Commissioners, lie was " seised in fee to him 
and his heirs in possession of two messuages and two small tenements with a barn 
and other howsinge situate in Peckham." 

FROM CHURCH REGISTER. 

1591. Dec. xiv, mar., Thomas Swingefield & Bridget, dan. of Henry Pyke. 

1593. Sep. i, bap., Stephen, sonne of Thomas Swingtiell. 

1601. Maye iij, bap., Thomas, sonne of Mr. Thomas Swingfield. 

1601. Maye iij, bap., Elizabeth, dau. of Thomas Swinfield. 

1602. Feb. vj, bur., Elizabeth, dau. of Thomas Swingfield. 

1603. Nov. iij, bur., Stephen, sonne to Thomas Swingfield. 

1603. Nov. ,bur., ffrancis Swingfield. 

1604. Sept. ij, bap., Stephen, sonne to Thomas Swingfield. 

1607. Jany. , bap., John and Francess Swingfield, sonne and dau. of Thomas 

Swingfield. 
1609. Ap. xxv, bap., John, sonne to Thomas Swingfield. 

1611. Oct. xj, bur., John, sonne to Thomas Swingfield. 

1612. Jan. , bap., Bridgett, dau. to Thomas Swingfield. 
1614. Dec. x, bur., William, sonne of Thomas Swingfield. 
1626. Oct. xviij, bur., Bridget Swingfield. 

1628. Aug. xx, bap., Frances, dau. of Thomas Swingfield. 
1631. Mar. xi, bur., Stephen, sonne of Thomas Swingfield. 

1643. Jan. xxvj, bap., John, sonne to Thomas Swingfield, and bur. March xiij. 

1644. Oct. xiij, bur., Thomas Swingfield y e elder. 

1645. Mar. xxxj, bap., Thomas and Elizabeth, dau. & sonne to Mr. John Swing- 

field. 

1646. Ap. xvij, bur., Mr. John Swingfield. 

1646. Maye xxv, bur., Thomas, sonne of Mr. John Swingfield. 
1646. Aug. viij, bap., Joyce, dau. of Mr. John Swingfield. 
1665. Feb. x, bur., Mr. Thomas Swingfield. 



THE TREVORS. 

Thomas, first Lord Trevor, was a resident of Peckham, where he had a splendid 
mansion, formerly the residence of the Bonds. He was a liberal contributor to the 
local charities, and was one of the early supporters of the Green Coat School. He 
was appointed Solicitor-General in 1692 ; was knighted in 1695, and made Attorney- 
General in the same year. On the accession of Queen Anne he was advanced to be 
Chief Justice of the Common Pleas. In 1711 he was one of the twelve new peers 
about whose creation so much stir was made at the time. Baron Trevor, of Bromham, 
in the County of Bedford, died at the age of 72, and was buried at Bromham. His 
daughter Letitia was married to Peter Cock, Esq., of Camberwell. 

ENTRIES IN CHURCH REGISTER. 

1693. July 19, bap., Joseph, son of Richard Trevor, Esq., and Mary his wife. 

1695. Aug. 27, bap., John, son of Sir Thomas Trevor, Knt. 

1697. July 21, bap., Letitia, dau. of Sir Thomas Trevor. 

1702. May 29, bur., Dame Elizabeth, late wife of Sir Thomas Trevor, L. C. Justice 

of y e Common Pleas. 

1707. Oct. 3, bap., Richard, son of Sir Thomas Trevor. 
1709. Oct. 3, bap., Richard, son of Sir Thomas Trevor. 
1713. Aug. 28, bur., Edward, son of the Right Honourable TKbmas Lord Trevor. 



OLD FAMILIES. 63 



THE TURNERS. 

Sir Jeremy Turner,* of Camberwell, Knt., who is styled Muster-master by 
Alleyne in his disbursements at Dulwich College, was the son of Richard Turner, 
of Westminster, by Elizabeth, daughter of Duckett, of Leicester. His brother 
was Cupbearer to Queen Elizabeth. Sir Jeremy was Captain of the Surrey 
Militia, or trained bands, and was knighted by King James I. at Chatham Dock- 
yard, July 4th, 1604. He was one of the original Governors of the Camberwell 
Free Grammar School, nominated by the founder, Mr. Edward Wilson. He 
jnarried Alice, daughter and heiress of John Underdown, of the Isle of Thanet. 

FROM CHURCH REGISTER. 

1584. June i, bur., John Turner. 

1584. Aug. iij, bur., Dunstan Turner. 

1585. Jany. xxx, mar., Roger Turner and Jefferey Joyce. 
1600. Jan. xxv, bap., Barbara, dau. of Mr. Turner. 

1600. Julye, y e xiij daye, bap., James Turner, sonne of Robert Turner. 

1603. Dec. xxvi, bur., John, sonne of Jeremy Turner, gent. 

1606. July xxx, bap., Katherin, dau. to Sir Jeremy Turner. 

1610. Oct. ix, bur., Barbara, dau. to Jeremy Turner. 

1613. Nov. xviij, bap., Francis, sonne to Sir Jeremy Turner. 

1621. Ap. v, bur., Eliza, dau. to Sir Jeremy Turner. 

1624. Mar. xxx, bur., Sir Jeremy Turner. 

1632. Aug. viij, bur., Mr. Walter Turner. 

1634. May xxiij, bap., Marey, dau. of Mr. Robert Turner. 

1637. Oct. xiv, bur., Alice, dau. of Mr. Robert Turner. 

1638. May ix, bur., Winnifred Turner, wife of Robert Turner, of the pi' she of 

Lambeth. 

1640. Oct. xxiv, bur., Robert Turner. 
1644. July vii, bur., Thomas Turner. 
1647. Mar. x, bur., Richard Turner. 
1659. Dec. vi, mar., Mrs. Margaret Turner, wid., and Mr. Thomas Adey. 



THE VERNONS. 

In Sir Edward Bysshe's Visitation of 1662, Mr. Wm. Vernon is described as son 
of Robert Vernon, of Whatcroft, Cheshire (son of Oliver, of the same place), by 
Jane, daughter of John Vaudray, of Branch, Co. Cest. He is styled " of Camberwell, 
.gent.," and by Mary, daughter of Sir Charles Howard, of Clun, Co. Salop, had 
Howard Vernon, his son and heir. Lady Vernon, wife of Sir Robert Vernon, was 
buried in Camberwell Church, 1627, and on the 21st December, 1613, Eliza, one of 
the daughters of the Vernons, was baptized at Camberwell Church. f 

* Arms: Sable, a chevron Erm. between three These arms are almost identical with those as- 

lers-de-molme Or. Crest : A castle breached Argent. signed to " Vernon of London, the blind machant- 

T uver it was a neat escutcheon with the arms stapler, who died Noveb'r. 1616 sine prole, a great 

or Vernon : Or, on a fess Azure, 3 garbs of the first. benefactor to the Marchant Tailors' Company." 



64 



Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 



A memorial raised to this lady by Sir Robert Vernon is as follows : 
HERE LYETH INTERRED Y e BODY OF DAME ANN VERNON, 
DIED THE FIRST OF MARCH, 1627. 

WIFE SHE WAS OF SIR ROBERT VERNON, KT., AND CLERKE OF 
THE GREENCLOTHE TO HIS MAIESTIE, AND MOTHER OF SEVEN 
CHILDREN TO HER SAID HOWSBAND YETT LIUING. HER VER- 
TUOUS LYFE AND GODLY END GOD GRANT THAT ALL MAY 
IMITATE THAT AS SHE IS DEPARTED IN PEACE BY GOD'S MERCY 
THRO' CHRIST HIS MERITS, THEY MAY ALL AT THE LAST DAY 
MEET AGAIN IN IOYE. 

THE WAITHS. 

R. Waith, Esq., Paymaster of the Navy in Charles II.'s time, the friend of Pepys, 
was a gentleman who took an active part in parochial matters in CamberwelL He 
was bnried in Camberwell Church, as also were other members of his family, and 
whose monument bore the following inscription : 

M.S. 

HERE LYE THE BODYS OF ROBT. WAITH, GENT. PAYMASTER OF 
Y e NAVY TO KING CHARLES Y e SECOND, WHO DIED ON THE 28TH 
DAY OF OCT. 1685, AND OF ELIZABETH HIS WIFE WHO DYED ON 
Y e 13 DAY OF APRILL, 1667, AND OF ROBERT WAITH, GENT. THEIR 
ELDEST SON AND HEIR, WHO DIED Y e 16TH OF DECEMBER, 1686, 
IN THE 25TH YEAR OF HIS AGE, AND OF ROBERT WAITH, HIS 
SON, WHO DIED ON THE FIFTH DAY OF OCT. 1686. 

RESURGEMUS. 

Robert Waith, the paymaster, served the offices of overseer (1674) and church- 
warden of this parish. 

The following letter,* written by the Paymaster on business matters, is not without 
interest f : 
MR. HATTER,! 

I sent yesterday to request you to mind Mr. Burrough and Mr. Poynter to 
come down about the books according to the Princip 11 Officer's appointm* and their 
promise : but as yet I heare nothing fro them or of them. 

If they be not come forth this morning (as I doubt they are not), I pray acquaint 
Mr. Pepys with the contents hereof, and let him know y* Sir G. C. is so much 
concerned, for to proceed without delay in makeing up his bookes, that he sent a 
messenger this morning on purpose to know if they were here. I pray returne a lyne- 
or two in answer. In hast, I rest 

Yo r friend & Ser', 

Camerwell, R. WAITH. 

Tuesday Morning 8 o'clock, 
ffor Mr. Thomas Hayter, 
at y c Navy Office, 

Seething Lane. 

* State Papers, D. 8., vol. cxcv., No. 112. D. S., vol. civ., No. 108. 

t There is also in the Record Office a letter from In the Memoranda (from the Signet books) of 

S r John Hebden, of Peckham (1666), to the Ad- warrants passed during the month of Ap. 1667. is- 

miralty, offering to purchase hemp or other naval a note that Sir John Hebden, Envoy to Russia, 

stores in Russia, "whose Emperor, beinge his had 300 for his "equipage to Russia." D. S 

Ma' ie8 most deare and loveinge brother, will, upon Green, 1667. 

my certaine knowledge, give his majestic all { Clerk to Navy Commissioners, 

assistance y l hee cann off y nature." State Papers, Sir George Carteret. 



OLD FAMILIES. 



65 






In a letter written to Mr. Sam. Pepys, Jan. 3, 1664, Mr. Waith writes that lie 
has purchased 15 tons of tallow, at 44 per ton "ready money upon delivery at 
Porter's wharf;" will be a loser unless .46 be allowed on delivery thereof at 
Deptford, but will take 45 rather than keep it. 

There are numerous other letters of a business character, written by Mr. Waith to- 
Mr. Secretary Pepys and others, in the Harl. Coll. MSS. 

FROM CHURCH REGISTER. 

1667. Ap. xv, bap., Timothy, son of Mr. Robert Waith. 
1667. Ap. xv, bur., M ris - Elizabeth Waith. 

1685. Oct. xxxi, bur., Robert Waith. 

1686. Dec. xx, bur., Mr. Robert Waith, gent. 



VOLUNTEERS PAST AND PRESENT. 



HE valiant men of Camberwell were not very numerous in the " ffirst 
yere of the Reign of our Souvrain Lady Queen Elizabeth." According 
to a return made to the " Right Noble Henry, Erie of Arundel, lord 
leuten'nt to the Queeny's highnes w th in the said Countie of Surry," 
by Richard Scott and John Bovvyer, Esquyres, justices of the peace, 
of all the " able men, harneys, weapons, munycons, w th in the hundred of Brixton," 
it apppears that Camberwell valour was represented as follows : * 




Richard De 
Humfry Vincent 
Willm. Netlyngham 
John Cope 
Gyles Becke 



Wm. Seston 
Nichas Cooke 
George Arden 
Willm. Henley 
Thomas Crofte 



Walter Symonds 
Richard Wright 



CAMERWELL. 

Robert Austembe 
S Gryffyn ap. Rice 

^3 Henry Pyke 

^ George Eton 

John Bromley 

PECKHAM. 

Mack Dalton 
Richard Hawkins 

DULWYCHE. 

John Hempsall 
Richard Taylo r 



Billman. 
Gonns. 



I BiUmen. 



In the second year of Elizabeth's reign, the " hable " men within the county of 
Surrey were said to muster 2724, of whom 767 were pikemen, 768 archers, and 260 
billmen.f 

In the year 1573, Commissioners were appointed to take musters in Surrey as 
well as in other counties, and from their reports it appears that within the county of 
Surrey there were in the years 1574-75 as many as 6000 able men, 1800 armed 
men, and 96 demi-lances.! 

The great increase which took place in the number of armed men within the 
county was attributable in a measure no doubt to the intrigues of the Papists against 
the person and prerogative of the Sovereign. 

The anathema which Pius V. fulminated against the Queen in 1570 aroused the 
loyalty of the English Protestants, and an association was formed in Surrey for the 
preservation of the Queen's life, which the members of the association declared " had 
l)een most traitorouslie and develishlie sought, and the same foUowed most danger- 
ouslie to the perill of her person, if Almighty God her perpetual defender had not 
revealed and withstood the same." They therefore vowed, "in the presence of the 
-eternal and everlasting God, to prosecute such person or persons to the death, with 

* State Papers, Dom, vol. v. t State PaperSj D . S ., voL xii< 

J Peck's Desiderata Curiosa. 



VOLUNTEERS-PAST AND PRESENT. 67 

their joint or particular forces, and to take the uttermost revenge of them by any 
means they could devise for their overthrow or extirpation." 

This declaration was signed by about 180 of the principal gentry and inhabitants of 
the county.* 

The following muster-roll f of the Camberwell military force, taken forty years 
after the one given above, will give the reader an idea of the loyalty of our forefathers 
of the Elizabethan era : 

CAMBERWELL. 



Edwarde Scotte Esquiar 
John Bowyer EsquP 
Mathew Drap Esquier 



pikemen of y ( 
best sort 



} 

( Willm Wylde gent s r vant to y e ) . 
\ Busshop of Oanterburie } J 

| ij pikemen of y e best sort. 



Roger Roberts s r vant to 

Henrie Pike 
f Wyllm Nettlinghm 

pikemen Wyllm Edwards s r vant to Edward Scot esq r 
of y e 
second 
sort 



billmen 
of y e 
second 

sort 



bowmen 



t^chard Edwards s r vant to Edward Scot Esquier 
rchas fflecher 
illm Batte 
/c Hipsie 

'John Mallet s r vaunt to John Bowyer Esquier 
Nychas Angell 
George Cornewey 
WiUm Ward 
Rychard Percyvall 
Gryffyn a Pryse 
Henrie Shexster 
Willm Bryan 
Steven Sayer 
, John Peryer 

{James Paching s r vant to John Bowyer Esquier 
Tho Whippe 
Charles Mawnsell 
Raffe Ward 
Cristofer Synke 

PECKEHAM. 

pikemen ( ffraunees Muschamp gent 
ofy e ^ Willm Scotte gent 
best sort ( Willm Morant s r vant to y e 1 of Ammdell 

pikemen f R 7 cliarcle Taw e 
f e I John Harryson 

best sort 1 Willm Henlie 

(John Wicksted s r vant to Edward Scott Esqui r 

/Raffe Betts 

Tho Monke 

I George Hardyn 

| Robert Allyn 

Nychas Cocke 

VW'illm Mekyns 

'Rycharde Hopkyns 

Reynold ap Rychard 

Marks Dawten 

John ffryer 

John Netlinghm 

Johe Heathe 

James Teale 

John Prentis 

Robert Taylo r 

See Kempe's Loseley Manus., p. 224. f state Papers, D. S., vol. 1. 



pikemen 
of y e 
second 




IX 



F 2 



Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 



"bowmen /Henrye Clif 
of y e I John Hansfield 
best 
sort 



pikemen 
of y e 
best 
sort 

pikemen 
ofy e 

second 
sort 



billmen 
ofy e 

second 
sort 



bowmen 
ofy c 
best 
sort 



] Rychard Nayler 
(Hamlet Gossedge 

(Wyllm Marger 
Gyles Abecke 
Xpofer Custon 
John Shotte 

iRychard Shotte 

(Nycholas Inks 
\ Rychard Tuckey 
I Henrie Hustrofte 

I'Wyllyam Dawton 
Henrye Kingston 
Willm Smythe 
Henrye Mathew 
Henrye Dove 
George Hill 
Phillip Davise 
Robert Nelson 
Robert Bager 
Tho Dawton 
John Mathew 
John Dove 
Willm Manynge 
Rye Wrytte 
Jasper Writte 
Jolm Corbatte 
Robert Broxbye 
George fFynche 
^Thomas Odde 



mj 



DULLWYCHE. 



IX 



The spontaneous rising of the Surrey men called forth a special word of commen- 
dation from the Queen, who, in a letter addressed to the Sheriffs and Commissioners- 
of Musters for the County of Surrey, dated from Greenwich, April 9th, 1585, made 
known her pleasure that they should, at the next county meeting, return thanks to 
the men of Surrey for the good disposition they had manifested, in their readiness to 
exert themselves for the " preservacion of ther naturall Countrye." It would seem,, 
indeed, that the exuberant loyalty of the people proved somewhat inconvenient ; and 
new orders, addressed " To o r very loving frends the Gent n and Capitans that have the 
chardge of the leading and conducting the ffootemen that are sent out of the Countye 
of Surrey," were issued "from the Court of S*. James," Aug. 8, 1588. These 
orders were signed by Lord Burghley, Sir Francis Walsingham, and other members 
of the Council, and were as follows : 

" Wheras you were directed to have the conduction of those companies w ch are- 
sent hither out of the countie of Surrey, forasmuch as the forces w ch are to- 
repaire hither out of divers other counties of the realme, to furnish those armies 
w ch her Ma tic hath p'pared as well as for the resisting and w th standinge the 
attempts of the enemie, as for the safe gard and defence of her Ma ties person, 
doth grow to so great nombers as that speedy provision cannot be made for the 
victelling of them here, and convenient lodginge as so great a nomber will require, 
in so short a time as was first lymitted by o r 1'res for their repaire hither, We have 
thought good to lett yo u understand y* it is her Ma t5es pleasure, and so by vertue 
hereof doe require yo u uppon sight of theise our 1'res, to retourne againe unto the saide 
countie, w th those forces yo u have brought from thence, and that nevertheless order 



CAMBERWELL MILITARY ASSOCIATION. 

AT a Time when these Kingdoms were involved in an arduous and extensive War, and the revolutionary Spirit, which gave 
it Birth, had infused its baneful Influence into the Minds of many of our Countrymen, voluntary armed Associations were formed 
throughout the Kingdom, in Defence of our Religion, Laws, anti Liberties. 

The Inhabitants of the Village of CAMBBKWELL, evinced their Loyalty and Patriotism, at this important Crisis, by forming 
themselves into a Military Corps, on the 5th MAY, 1793. It WPS supported by voluntary Subscription, and continued its Services 
with unabated Zeal, until the Definitive Treaty of Peace with France, was signed at AMIENS. Ou that Event, EARL ONSLOW, 
Lord-Lieutenant of this County, transmitted to the Commanding- Officer, the following Vote of Parliament, and Abstract of a Letter 
from the Right Honourable LORD HOBART, one of his Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State. 



" RESOLVXD, Nemine Contradicente, " Mtrth, 6- Die Aprilis, 1802." 

" XH AT the Thanks of this House be given to the Officers of the several Corps of Yeomanry, and Volunteer Cavalry and Infantry, and of 
" the Sea Fencibles, which have been formed in Great Britain and Ireland, during the Course of the War, for the seasonable and eminent Services they 
" have rendered to their King and Country." 

" RESOLVED, Nemlne Contradicente, 

" That this House doth highly approve of, and acknowledge, the Services of the non-commissioned Officers and Men of the several Corps of 
" Yeomanry, and Volunteer Cavalry and Infantry, and of the Sea Fencibles, which have been formed in Great Britain and Ireland, during the Course 
" of the War; and that the same be communicated to them by the Colonels and other Commanding Officers of the several Corps, who are desired to 
" thank them for their meritorious Conduct." 

" ORDERED, 

" That Mr. SPEAKER do signify the said Resolutions, by Letter, to his Majesty's Lieutenant of each County, Riding, and Place, in Great 
" Britain; and to his Excellency the Lord-Lieutenant of that Part of the United Kingdom called Ireland." 

" J. LEY, Cl. D. Dom. Com." 

Abstract of * Letter from the Right Honourable LORD HOBART, one of his Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State, to the Right Honourable 

EARL ONSLOW, Lord-Lieutenant of the County tf SURBY. 
" MY LORD, " Damning-Street, April 19, 1802." 

" IN Consequence of the Conclusion of the Definitive Treaty of Peace, I have received his Majesty's Commands to convey his warmest 
" Acknowledgments to the several Corps of Yeomanry and Volunteer Cavalry, and Volunteer and Associated Infantry, and to express the Satisfaction 
" with which he contemplates the steadfast Attachment to the established Constitution of the Country, and the unshaken Loyalty and Affection to his 
" Person and Government, by which those Corps have been distinguished, and the just Recollection which he shall ever retain of their Services during 
" a Period of unparalleled Difficulty and Danger." 

" It ii hu Majesty'* Pleasure, that your Lordship should signify these his Sentiments to the Commanding Officers of every Establishment of 
" Yeomanry and Volunteer Cavalry, and Volunteer and Associated Infantry within the County of SIHIEY, to be by them communicated to their 
" respective Corps." 

" In making this Communication to the Corps of Volunteer and Associated Infantry, your Lordship will particularly explain, that in declining 
" the Offers of those which have proposed a Continuation of their Services, his Majesty has acted up^n a firm Persuasion, that should Circumstances at 
" any future Time render it necessary for him to call for them, the same Principles and Sentiments which they have already evinced, will be 
" manifested with equal Ardour and Alacrity in the Support of their Sovereign, and the Defence of their Country." 

" I have the Honor to be, &c. 

(Signed) " HOBART." 

After receiving these honourable Testimonies of steadfast Attachment to the established Constifutioji of the Country, and their 
unshaken Loyalty and Affection to his Majesty's Person and Government, the Assopiation was dissolved ; and the Colours; which had been 

presented to the Corps by the Major Commandant's Lady, were deposited in the Parish Church, with due Solemnity: 

RESPICIANT EXEMPLAR POSTERI. 



List of the Namet of the Inhabitants of the Village of CAMBEBWELL, who enrolled themselves m the abtvr. Occtsitn: 



CLAUDE CHAMPION CRESPIGNY, Esq. MAJOR COMMANDAKT. 
FIRST COM PAN*. SBCOND COMPANY. THIRD COMPANY. STAFF. 
Henry Smith, Captain. Thomas Jackson, (cice G. Suart) Capt. W. Hammond, Captain The Rev. G. SanJby, M. A. Chaplain. 
Henry Ward, First Lieutenant. Thomas Harding, First Lieutenant. W. Croughton, First Lieutenant. J. C. Lettsom, M. D. Physician. 
Joshua Savage, Second Lieutenant. J. Mallough, Second Lieutenant. W. Woodbridge, Second Lieutenant. 


%* The Figure preceding the Name denotes the Company to which the Member Mongs. 


A. 


Clark Edward 


Havill Thomas 


1 Lightfoot Thomas- 


Q. 


Seller William 


2 Aveline Charles 


1 Clarke William 


Havill James 


1 Loscomb William 


Quin Charles 


] Strong Edward 


B. 


Crowfoot William 


Havill Thomas 


M. 




T. 


1 Ball John 
.Barlow Richard 
2 Beachey Henry 
2 Bean Fowler 
Bold James 
3 Buckwell Jos. 
1 Buchanan James 
Burgle Walter 
3 Burls Edward 
1 Blackwell Jos. 
Brasier James 
3 Brasier Samuel 
Brown Timothy 
1 Browne Tobias 


D. 

Dahmer J. P. 
1 Dance Francis 
Day John 
1 Day Daniel 
2 Davey Thomas 
Dibdm Jos. 
3 Douce William H. 
3 Doughty Henry 
1 DolbeJohn 
Donkin William 
Dunkin , jun. 
Drewry Samuel 


Heaphy John 
Hearsey William 
Hooke John 
2 Holyock William 
3 Howard Barnard 
I. 
3 Isleton Charles 
3 IvesJohn 
J. 
J ees Lewis 
Johnston Robert 
Jordan Jos. 
Jowett Benjamin 


1 May Jos. 
May Joseph, jun. 
2 Mallough J. jun. 
1 Mercer John 
MillJ. 
Mills John 
M'Michael James 
1 Mould William 
Munyard James 
N. 
1 Nash Thomas 
3 Nash Thomas, jun. 
3 Nucella Thomas 
Nucella Tim. sen. 


3 Rabaudy Peter 
2 RaynerT. 
2 Reade William, jun. 
Reade William 
2 Ric'hards'on Thomas 
Ring Stephen, jun. 
Robinson William 
Roffcy Richard 
1 Roffey William 
3 Ross Gilbert 
S. 
1 Sadler Jos. 
Savage William 


Tanner John 
Taverner Charles 
Tennant John 
Tomkins Benjamin 
2 Towell William 
Thernell George 
2 Tremain Christopher 
Truemam Robert, juu 
2 Tyler John 
V. 
3 Vincent William 
W. 
Wade James 


C. 


Fassett K D. 


K. 


O. 


Silverthorne William 


1 Wade Samuel 


S Campin John 
2 Cannon Thomas 


Fasson Thomas 
3 Forbes William 


3 Keen James 
2 Kennedy James 


Ody George 


Suart George 
Schreiber J. C. 


2 Wanostrocht N. 
3 Wanostrocht V. 


Carter John 
Carpenter Robert 
Castleman Robert 


3 Fynmore Thomas 
G. 
2 Goad Charles 


Knight George 
Knight Richard 
L. 


Paul Matthew 
Palmer Jos. 
Parker William 


Sharp William 
3 Sharp George 
Skinner Ambrose 


Wansey John 
] Ward William 
Weston Thomas 


3 Cattlcv Thomas 
! Cattley Stephen 
Collins James 
2 Collar William 
1 Courtney Jainos 
3 Costin James 


Gowland J. jun. 
2 Goring George 
GutteridgeJos. 
Green Thomas 
2 Grinsteed John 
H. 


S Lambert Henry 
?. Lambert N. jun. 
Lambert Piercy 
2 Lancefield George 
2 Lane Benjamin 
3 Lewis William 


Perrin Thomas 
2 Piercy John 
Portal Edw. Yates 
Portal William 
Portal Charles S. 
Power William 


Skinner Thomas 
Slater John 
Smith John 
2 Sinale James 
Smith Richard 
3 Smith William 


Weston Samuel 
1 Wilkinson Jos. 
1 Woodbridge John 
Wood William 
Wheatley William 
1 Whiffen William 


Cox James 


2 Haics Jos. 


Latham ThomM 


Phillips John 


Smallbon William 


Wright Thomas 


3 Cnrtcis William, jun. 


3 Hammond H. 


Lees William 


3 PlummerJohn 


Smith John 


Y. 


Cut teis William" 


1 Harford Benjamin 


Lewis Gideon 


Plummer Thomas 


Speed Thomas 


! Yeldham William 


1 Cheatle George 


Harris Nathaniel 


Lickfold Charles 


Prince Joseph 


1 SpillerJohn 


Young Thomas 



'Gria as Photo-Iith 



VOLUNTEERS PAST AND PRESENT. 69 

bee taken that they may bee in good readiness w th all their armor and weapon nppon 
such direction as you shall receive from hence upon a new warninge to repaire 
hither." Two months previously the clergy of Surrey were ordered to provide 100 
men to be in readiness for her Majesty's service, within fourteen days after the receipt 
of the mandate, issued by express order of the Queen, and communicated to Thomas 
Cooper (Bishop of Winchester) through the Archbishop of Canterbury. The ladies 
too contributed their quota towards the national defence, under an act passed in the 
33rd year of Henry VIII., by which it was decreed that every temporal person whose 
wife " shall were any goun or peticote of sylke," or " any Frenche hood or bonnett of 
velvett," or " any chayne of gold about her nekk or in her partlett, or in any apparell 
of her bodie," or wear any velvet in the lining or other part of her gown, " other 
than in the cuffes or perfels," or " ells were any velvet in her kyrtell," should keep 
and sustain " one such trotting horse for the saddill, able for the warres." 

In 1798,* when military associations were springing up all over the country to 
defend the rights and even, as some thought, the homes of old England, the parish 
of Camberwell displayed a great amount of enthusiasm and loyalty, which bore 
practical fruit in the formation of the " Camberwell Military Association " in May, 
1798. 

The interesting facsimile which is given (see Plate W) will furnish our readers 
with all necessary information concerning this association. To the credit of 
the local gentry be it said, this patriotic movement was liberally supported by 
voluntary subscriptions, and it was enabled to continue its services under the most 
favourable circumstances until the treaty of Amiens in 1802. 

The names of the officers and men of this old military association will be read 
with interest at the present time, especially by the lineal descendants of those who 
exhibited such patriotism and devotion. 

The major-commandant, Claude Champion de Crespigny, Esq., was exceedingly 
popular with his men, and his lady on many occasions manifested the utmost interest 
in the affairs of the regiment. The regimental colours, which were said to be the pride 
of the men, and the envy of other military associations, were presented to the corps by 
Mrs. De Crespigny. They were beautifully embroidered, and on one was the cypher 
C. A. (Camberwell Association) ; the other bore the motto " Concordia victrix," to 
which sentiment Mrs. De Crespigny made the following allusion on presenting the 
colours : " The motto chosen for the colours I am now to have the honor of pre- 
senting you will, I hope, meet your approbation. The justice of the sentiment it 
conveys cannot, I think, be denied. It has been truly said that a kingdom divided 
against itself cannot stand. It is, I believe, not less true that a people united together 
in concord shall not fall, but will be triumphant over all enemies." 

The dress of the corps was blue with scarlet facings ; a helmet-cap crested with a 
black plume, pantaloons and gaiters. The physician was the well-known Dr. Lettsom, 
and the chaplain the Rev. G. Sanby, M.A., vicar of the parish. 

Captain Henry Smith, of the 1st company, a most efficient officer, was appointed 
Colonel of the Volunteer Corps subsequently formed in the parish. 

The local authorities were particularly active during these troublous times in 
seeking out volunteers for_the army, navy, and local militia. 

On March 31st, 1795, a vestry was specially called to take into consideration the 
most speedy and effectual means of raising ten men for the service of the navy, in 

* The Metropolis and its volunteers began again the City soldiery in the days of George I. ; it re- 

to look like old London and its trained bands, and presents " St. George's yolunteers charging down 

caricatures on the soldier-citizens soon became Bond Street, after clearing the ring in Hyde Park 

numerous. One by Gilray, published about this and storming the dung-hill at Marybone." 
tune, may be compared with the satires s.gainst 



70 



Y c PAKISH OF CAMEKWELL. 



pursuance of an Act of Parliament for that purpose. A sum of twenty pounds was 
voted to each of the men, whose wives also received the sum of four shillings per 
week with an extra allowance of two shillings per week for every child under fourteen 
Years' of ae The men were enrolled within a fortnight of the passing of the above 
resolutionand on the 30th April, 1795, another resolution was passed by the vestry, 
agreeing to allow the churchwardens interest on the ^200 which they had advanced 
for the above purpose. 

It also appears from the vestry minutes (Dec. 8, 1795) that the churchwardens 
were authorized to hire men for the militia, and to pay all expenses connected 
therewith out of the poor-rate. Again, on the 5th Dec. 1796, the churchwardens 
and overseers were empowered to raise fourteen men for the army, and to levy a rate 
of 6d. in the pound upon the inhabitants, to meet such an additional charge upon 
the parochial purse. A subscription was raised at the same time for the purpose of 
providing substitutes for parishioners who might be drawn for the supplementary 
militia, each journeyman, servant, or labourer subscribing five shillings, a tradesman 
or mechanic ten shillings, and a person not carrying on business in the parish, but 
residing as a gentleman, fifteen shillings. A non-subscriber being drawn was naturally 
excluded from all benefit in the subscription, and in the event of the fund raised 
proving insufficient, the churchwardens were empowered to make up the deficiency 
from tne poor-rate. 

In 1798 a subscription was opened at the Mansion House for national defence 
purposes, and in less than one month, so hearty were the people of Caniberwell in 
support of such a patriotic movement,* that the sum of ,1035 was raised in the 
parish.f As an evidence of the fear of invasion which seized men's minds at that 
time, it may be mentioned that on the 19th June, 1798, conductors of waggons were 
appointed by the vestry for commissariat purposes. There is also an entry in the 
vestry minutes (14th July, 1803), authorizing the churchwardens to receive the 
subscriptions of the inhabitants for the purpose of providing substitutes for such 
of the subscribers as might be drawn to serve in the army of reserve, then in course 
of formation. The terms of subscription were as follows : For every servant or 
journeyman, 7s. 6d.; for every tradesman or shopkeeper declaring himself not worth 
.500, fifteen shillings ; for every gentleman or person not carrying on any business 
in the parish, two guineas. 

A patriotic indignation was raised throughout the country in March, 1803, by the 
publication of an official document, signed by the First Consul, in which he declared 
that "England alone cannot now encounter France." A royal message was laid 
before both Houses of Parliament, stating that the king had received positive informa- 
tion that very considerable military preparations were being made in the ports of 
France and Holland, and recommending that additional measures of precaution be 
taken for the defence of the country. At the same time proclamations were issued 
encouraging the enlisting of seamen and landsmen, calling up the militia and volun- 
teers, and ordering the formation of encampments in the maritime counties. The 

* Tho enthusiasm of the English nation was enemy. This is the only method left to bring them 

rouaed to the utmost by the publication, in the to terms. When they are humbled, then we shall 

English papers, of the following address of General dictate what terms we think proper, and they must 

Hoche, tine commander of the French army of in- accept them. Behold what our brave army in 

vasion, which had been circulated throughout Italy are doing they are enriched with the plunder 

France : of that fine country, and they will be more so when 

" Courage, citizens, England is the richest country Borne bestows what, if she does not, will be taken 

in the world and we will give it up to you to be by force. Your country, brave citizens, will not 

plundered. You shall march to the capital of that demand a particle of the riches you shall bring 

haughty nation. You shall plunder that national from Great Britain. Take what you please, it shall 

bank of its immense heaps of gold. You shall seize be all your own. Arms and ammunition you shall 

upon all public and private property upon thei have, and vessels to carry you over. Once landed, 

warehouses their magazines their stately man you will soon find your way to London." 
sions their gilded palaces : and you shall return" t The sum raised in the county amounted to 

to your own country loaded with the spoils of the 14,274 9s. 4d. 



VOLUNTEEES PAST AND PRESENT. 



volunteer associations, which had been formed two years before, in anticipation of 
invasion, also began to reassemble. 

On the 16th of August, 1804,* a resolution was passed by the vestry ordering that 
bills should be "stuck up" throughout the parish, inviting men to serve in the 
" Army of Defence." In the meantime, partly from enthusiasm and partly perhaps 
through fear of being drawn to serve in the army or militia,f the volunteer force, 
which had been raised in the parish, received a considerable accession of members. 
Two companies were formed in Camberwell, one at Peckham, and one at Dulwich, 
mustering about 360 strong, all told. The dress consisted of scarlet jacket with blue 
facings, pantaloons of grey mixture, low shoes and gaiters. 

Battalion drill was held in Grove Park, adjoining Colonel Smith's house ; com- 
pany drill in various barns and outbuildings in the parish, every non-commissioned 
officer and private receiving a shilling for each attendance at drill. Grand field- 
days were occasionally held in Hyde Park, in several of which the Camberwell 
volunteers took active part. On the 23rd of October, 1803, there was a grand muster 
of metropolitan volunteers in Hyde Park, which was honoured by the presence of 
the king. 

It is stated that as many as 27,000 men took part in the day's proceedings. On 
the 26th of May, 1804, another grand field-day was held in the same place, under 
the auspices of H.R.H. the Commander-in-chief, attended by Lord Harrington and 
other military officers, the Camberwell volunteers being under the immediate 
command of Lieutenant-Colonel Gaitskill. In addition to these grand field-days, 
which must have had a beneficial effect upon the respective corps, the enthusiasm of 
the Camberwell corps was roused to the utmost extent by the following powerful 
and soul-stirring address of Colonel Hardy, for some time inspecting field-officer for 
the county of Surrey : 

"TO COLONEL SMITH,! AND THE CAMBERWELL CORPS UNDER HIS 

COMMAND. 

" FRIENDS AND FELLOW SOLDIERS, 

" The situation of Europe is truly calamitous : that of Britain peculiarly 
awful. Your inveterate and most powerful Enemy, having extinguished the 
liberties, and overthrown nearly the whole of the Sovereignties of the civilized 
"World, finds in us the sole obstacle to his attainment of universal Dominion. We 
are therefore, and he professes us to be, the Objects of his most rancorous and 
implacable hatred. We alone have held his Menaces in contempt ; we have foiled 
and dishonoured his Arms ; we have swept his Fleets from the Ocean ; we have 
destroyed his COLONIES and COMMERCE. Be assured, that while his Power 

* In July, 1804, the Paris papers as quoted in friend the late Sir Bernard Turner, then Major, 
our newspapers said : ' ' The invasion has only been greatly contributed to improTe its management and 
more terrible when the whole military discipline. Sir Bernard Turner, who died 



deferred to render it more terrible when the 
strength of the French Empire, destined to make 
the attack, shall be collected. " 

t An Act of Parliament was passed on the 6th July, 
1303, entitled "An Act for enabling his Majesty 
more effectually to raise an additional force for the 
better defence and security of the United Kingdom, 
and for the vigorous prosecution of the war," &c. 
Under the Act each parish was required to furnish 
a certain quota of men for the Army of Reserve, 
whilst Volunteers were specially exempt from such 
service. 

{ The following obituary notice of Col. Smith ap- 
peared in the Gentleman's Magazine, Nov. 1826 : 
" HENRY SMITH, ESQ. 

"Oct. 3. Aged 85, Henry Smith, Esq., of Peckham 
House, Surrey. He was formerly partner in the 
house of Devisme and Smith in Turnwheel Lane. 
In the year 1784 he was a very active member of 
the Court of Assistants and a captain of the Hon. 
Artillery Company, and in conjunction with his 



in the same year, while serving the office of sheriff 
with T. Skinner, Esq., was attended to the grave at 
Thirfield by the whole corps, on which occasion 
Mr. Smith was one of the pall-bearers, and was 
afterwards unanimously elected by the court to 
succeed him as Major. He resigned the majority in 
1787. During the late war he was honoured with 
a commission as Colonel of the Camberwell Volun- 
teer Corps. His respectability as a merchant raised 
him by election to the Court of Directors of the 
Bank of England, from which he had retired not 
many months previous to bis death. There are few 
men in his station of life who have evinced more 
active zeal in the fulfilment of all their relative or 
general duties few who have ever been dis- 
tinguished by a greater urbanity of manners by 
a more agreeable amenity of tern per and dispbsition, 
or acquired to themselves a larger share of public 
respect ; if he was beloved in his domestic circle, 
he was esteemed by all who knew him." 



72 Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

exists, it will be exerted for our destruction. This is the grand and ultimate scope 
of his' Ambition. British Power, British Liberty, and British Happiness are Poison 
in his Cup, and line his Crown with Thorns. 

" Flatter not yourselves with hopes of Security from ought but your own Firm- 
ness and Intrepidity ; look Danger boldly in the face ; above all despond not. Our 
Resources are incalculable. Call to your Remembrance the Destruction of that 
formidable ARMADA, which was to have overwhelmed your Country ; recollect 
more recent and perhaps as signal Instances of the Blessings of Providence on our 
gallant and patriotic Efforts ; the Discomfiture of the French power in EGYPT, in 
SYRIA, and in ITALY ; in every Quarter where we were not overpowered by 
Multitudes. Of this Advantage our insular Situation deprives our Enemy. Though 
he may invade from many Points, he cannot command, not all his Power can insure 
him, the assistance of regular Supplies of Men and other Resources. We can 
ascertain his Force, and know what we have to contend with ; we can bear against it 
from all Points, harass and destroy it, should his Fleets escape the vigilance of our 
triumphant Navy. 

"Arm yourselves with Fortitude and all will be safe. Above all deceive not 
yourselves with the vain Expectation of Peace. Recollect the Peace, the Bondage 
rather, which this Usurper threatens to impose upon us. He has dared to say, * he 
will not make Peace with us until we shall restore our Conquests, and reduce our 
Navy ;' in other Words, until we shall deliver ourselves bound Hand and Foot into 
the Power of our insatiable Foe, and cease to be a Nation. Then indeed would we 
be doomed to drink the Dregs of Misery : Our Country desolated, our Property 
destroyed, our Females polluted by an insolent and lustful Soldiery. But I turn 
from the horrid Prospect. Before that Day, may the waves of the Atlantic swallow 
up these Islands, and cover us from Wretchedness and Shame ! 

" These Thoughts flow spontaneously from the Subject, but, in addressing them to 
YOU, I feel they require an Apology. Can I doubt the Spirit, the Alacrity of the 
Volunteers of Britain, whose Disposition has been so amply proved? It has not 
abated, and must be invincible. Little more than three Years have elapsed since the 
numerous and victorious Hosts of our Enemy, led by experienced Officers, and com- 
manded by the ablest General this Age has produced, menaced our Shores. What 
was the Result 1 In a few Weeks did we not raise such a Band of Patriotic Soldiers 
as deterred this proud Conqueror, and astonished the World 1 

11 Suffer not the hasty or misinterpreted Expressions of Individuals to damp your 
Exertions, or lessen your military Confidence in one another ; your Country required 
your Services ; for her you armed ; she now again demands them ; again you will 
prove that Englishmen are ever prompt to do their Duty. To those Volunteers who 
during the Interval of comparative Repose did not relax, every Praise is due ; they 
are, indeed, the Bulwark of their Country. 

" Let all reflect upon the present Situation of France compared with what it was 
in 1803, when this magnanimous Spirit so nobly burst forth. Shall we not find 
that Spirit still more necessary now, should France succeed in her present attempt, 
and render all the Continent of Europe subservient to her will ? She will then have 
no other Power to contend with. I wish not to anticipate Evils, but prepare you for 
the worst. Will not that Army encreased in numbers and experience, buoyed up 
with almost universal Conquest and an enflamed mind, recoil against this Country ? 
Can we, I repeat it, under such Circumstances, reasonably hope for Peace ; or would 
it afford us one Month's Security, or lessen our Debt one Million ? Delude not 
yourselves with the Expectation that France will change her system of warfare, or 
abate in her hostility to us ; she would appear to do so, only to deceive ; and that 



Head Ouarttft, JJermcidiey, April 23rd, 1810. 



R. O. 



Notwithstanding the Honor the First Surrey Regiment oj 

Volunteers did its*!i, by tho very targe Musters on the 7th, 8lh, 9th, 10th, and llth Instant, 
when called upoa, by the Secretary of State, to suppress Riots and Tumults ; the Commnnaing 
Officer, with pain, noticed the Absence of some of its Matters on those particular Days, and 
was, therefore, compelled to institute Courts of Enquiry to investigate the Cause of such 
Absence, which met at the 'irmoury on the 18th and 19th Instant, and reported as follows: 

" That Lieutenant Rose, of the 7th Company, was unworthy 

of holding a Commission, in the First Surrey Volunteers, and that the Commanding Officer 
should mark, in thestrongest Mannr, his disapprobation of Lieutenant Rose's Conduct 



That the following Members, "1z. 

Pri v* res HOLME R, Light Company, 

ALS1PT,) 

BOOTH, $ Rifle Company. 



had acted in violation of Military Discipline, and of (he Engagements which, as Volunteers, 
they had entered Into with their Country ; thtfc they were therefore descrying of the strongest 
Censure, and should be expelled the Regiment. 

" That 

O-oi*l JEWSTER, 
Pr MANDEVIL / 

HnMPHKIES, /Gtenadrers. 

HOOPER, I 

JOHNSON, 

JACKSON J 

ROGERS, ^st Company. 

C ATT A MORE,) 
LANGTON, f 4th Company. 
SPENCE, ) 

Corporal DAY, Light Company. 
Private CAWTHORNE, Rifle Company. 

not having accounted satisfactorily for their Absence, ought to be struck off the Roll of 
the Regiment." 

The Commanding Officer having approved of the ahove Report, 

will take the necessary Steps for carrying the Recommendation of the Court irto Effect, and 
has given Orlers that the Decision be printed, and a Copy sent to each Member of the 
Regiment: likewise that it be posted at the Armoury, Orderly Rooms, and Montpelier; and 
that it be read at the Head of the Regiment at the next FieJd Day. 

THOMAS GAITSKELL, 

Lieut. Col. Com. Fint S. R. V. I. 



J. K. Vwden, Borough. 



VOLUNTEEKS PAST AND PEESENT. 73 

moment when she shall find you off your guard, she will pounce upon you with 
accumulated Force. It is in vain to deny our Situation is critical ; if we despond we 
fall for ever ! 

" Call therefore into action the Courage and Energy of a great and independent 
Nation. Oppose the Enemy on our Shores ; suffer not a Frenchman that shall land 
to exist, unless he yield to the irresistible Force of the British Bayonet ; emulate 
MAIDA. Be unanimous and firm, and all shall be secure. In this struggle for our 
very existence, every loyal and good Subject must, and no doubt will cheerfully 
submit to many Sacrifices and great Privations ; I have already had a large Share, I 
am willing to submit to more. 

" Commanders, my former associates once more quit domestic ease ; every Man 
who prefers Liberty to Slavery will train himself to Arms. Recruit your Ranks 
from Men of Property (when your Country is in danger you can have Choice), inter- 
fere not with such as may compose a part of our regular Establishment ; thereby 
making both formidable ; and by your own Exertions invigorate their Minds. Your 
civil Constitution, that beautiful Structure that gives freedom to all, the work, 
if not of wiser r at least of more tranquil Ages, the Admiration and Envy of the 
Universe, operates against large standing Armies ; furnish a Substitute ; convince 
our Foe^that if we are more usefully employed in Peace, we have the more to defend 
in War ; and what you are deficient in Experience, make up in Zeal. 

'' The succeeding Year will probably prove one of the most eventful periods of 
English History ; commence it with vigour, and follow that up with Determination. 

" I hope, though my Military Employment amongst you has ceased, that you will 
still consider me an honorary Member of your Corps ; and be assured I will, when- 
ever necessity requires, exert amongst you, that little Military Knowledge I have in 
above thirty Years' Service acquired ; and shall most cheerfully contribute my best 
aid towards disciplining and bringing to perfection, an Establishment to which this 
country owes its SALVATION. 

" In Days of Peace, I am your Brother Farmer ; 

" In Times of Trouble, your FeUow Soldier, 

"JOSEPH HARDY, 
" Late Inspecting Field-Officer, SURRY and KENT. 

"COBHAM LODGE, 
" IST JANUARY, 1807." 

A regimental order,* copied from the original in the orderly room of the 1st 
Surrey, will show volunteers of the present day that absence from duty received its 
due reward, " when George III. was king." 

The volunteers, in 1804, when this force was exceedingly popular throughout the 
country, numbered 410,000,f of which 70,000 were Irish. 

In 1798, 500,000 was voted by Parliament for the volunteer corps of cavalry 
and infantry, and in 1806 it was stated in the House of Commons that in three 
years and a half the volunteer system had cost the Government five millions, and 
that as much more had been subscribed by private individuals. 

In 1814 it was resolved to disband the volunteer army, and on the 17th June in 
that year, seventeen days after the treaty of peace was signed, Lord Sidmouth, in a 
letter praising " this valuable defensive force," commanded the lord-lieutenants of 
the several counties to notify that the corps of volunteers would, after the 24th of 
June, be released from their military engagements. 

* See facsimile X. 

t The return for Surrey is as follows : Cavalry, 944 ; Infantry, 7801. 



74 Y- PAKISH OF CAftERWELL. 



The rise and progress of the volunteer movement of recent days must still be 
fresh in the recollection of our readers. For some time previous to 1859, when the 
movement was taken up again in all parts of England, a valuable nucleus of a 
volunteer regiment had already been formed in Peckham. In 1849 a society was 
formed in that place for the encouragement of out-door exercises, such as archery, 
bowls, quoits, curling, &c., and the members had a most commodious club-house and 
grounds at Hanover Park. Mr. Boucher was the secretary of the society, and being 
a military man, the idea occurred to him that the object of the society would be still 
further promoted were the members instructed in drill and in the use of the rifle. 
The proposition of Mr. Boucher, though a somewhat novel one at the time, met with 
encouragement, and the Hanover Park Rifle Club was organized early in 1852, the 
members meeting at Hanover Park for the purposes of drill and having the use of 
the Government range at Plumstead. 

The drill-ground was well adapted for the purpose, being at least five acres 
in extent, and within easy access of town, and the writer well remembers the 
curiosity excited amongst the ladies of Peckham and Camberwell by the early drill 
of the Club. Indeed a Hanover Park drill was something to be remembered. The 
patronage of the ladies was liberally bestowed, but it is much to be feared that 
simple curiosity would account in a great measure for their presence, as well as a 
desire perhaps to see how men qualified for admission to a lunatic asylum. 

In spite, however, of the jeers which their praiseworthy endeavours at times 
excited, the members of the Hanover Park Rifle Club held their own, and the 
Peckham residents began to think that some good might perhaps be evolved after 
all out of the marching and counter-marching which they had witnessed. But 
recruits came slowly, and a valuable organization, which, with Government support, 
would have established itself on a firm and popular basis, was allowed to dwindle 
almost into a mere shooting-club. A mistake was no doubt made by the com- 
mittee in fixing the cost of the uniform at .14, and the fees and incidentals 
were also high, so that very many eligible young men of the middle class 
were debarred from joining. Another item of expense was the rifle, which might 
very well have been supplied by Government, for though six guineas was not a 
large sum to pay for a rifle in 1853, it was a heavy additional charge upon the 
member's pocket. In the Club prospectus this rifle is described as "most 
powerful, having a range of 1200 yards, of superior workmanship and pattern, 
manufactured expressly for the Club by one of the longest-established and most 
respectable firms in London, John Blanch & Son." 

And so, what with rifle-shooting, manual and platoon exercise, varied now and 
then with athletic sports in summer and balls in winter, the Hanover Park Rifle 
Club went quietly on its way, and if not successful in educating the many in military 
tactics, it succeeded most thoroughly in preparing the few. It made officers, men 
who afterwards took an active part as officers in the 1st Surrey Rifle Volunteers, a. 
corps of which we have all reason to be proud. And notably would we mention 
the name of Mr. Rolla Rouse, a gentleman who shared the fortunes of the Club, and 
who afterwards as Captain Rolla Rouse took a leading part in organizing the 1st 
Surrey. The old club-house proved a capital rendezvous for the new regiment, 
and having a nucleus round which to rally, the 1st Surrey literally sprang into 
existence the moment Government authority was obtained for its formation. In 
June, 1859, the services of the 1st Surrey were accepted by Her Majesty, and the 
corps claim the honour of being the first metropolitan corps whose services were so 
accepted. But the 1st Surrey was not allowed to remain long unmolested, for railway 
companies are not respecters even of Volunteer head-quarters, and the regiment was. 




CO 



VOLUNTEERS PAST AND PRESENT. 75 

soon compelled to find quarters elsewhere. On the 17th December the foundation- 
stone of a new storehouse in Flodden Road, Camberwell New Road, was laid by 
Colonel M'Murdo, Inspector-General of Volunteers, Ensign J. T. Lepard, a member 
of the corps, being the architect of the new buildings. It was a subject of much 
regret at the time, not only to Major Irvine but to the regiment generally, that incon- 
sequence of severe indisposition their much-respected and gallant commander, Colonel 
Macdonald, was unable to be present. The new buildings were opened by the lord- 
lieutenant of the county, the Earl of Lovelace, on the 1st July, 1865, in the presence 
of Sir George Pollock, G.C.B., the honorary Colonel, and a brilliant and distinguished 
company, the 1st Surrey under Colonel Macdonald mustering in great force. 

Since its formation the 1st Surrey has always been to the front in the Volunteer- 
service, and has taken part in almost all the great gatherings in Hyde Park, at 
Brussels, at the annual Easter Review, and at the National Rifle Association's meetings 
at Wimbledon, where the " 1st Surrey Camp " is a local institution, familiar to all 
visitors to Wimbledon as "household words." 

Much of the success which has attended the regiment may no doubt be attributed to 
the fact that it has always possessed hard-working and efficient officers, gentlemen of 
education and ability, who have brought to the discharge of their duties a conscien- 
tious desire faithfully to perform the same. In Captain Rolla Rouse and the late 
beloved Colonel the corps possessed not only able officers, but downright thorough 
men, who carry success with them in all they attempt. The same may also be said 
of Major Irvine, whose energy, devotion, and ability can never be forgotten by the 
members of the corps. The gallant Colonel who has recently accepted command 
attended battalion drill for the first time on Wednesday, October 15th, 1873, 
when a most enthusiastic reception was awarded him. Colonel Gardiner (3rd Buffs),, 
as Major Irvine remarked in the course of a stirring address, is an officer " of high 
military rank, whose long service in distinguished regiments entitles him to the 
absolute confidence and support of all who may have the honour of serving under him 
in the 1st Surrey." 

The 1st Surrey (or South London) Rifles has an establishment of six companies, 
each of which is connected with, and draws its recruits from, a certain district, as- 
under : 

No. 1 Co Camberwell. 

2 .... Kennington and Clapham. 

3 .... Camberwell. 

4 .... Peckham. 

6 .... Brixton. 

7 .... Newington. 

No. 5, the Clapham company, has been absorbed in No. 2. 

On the original establishment of the corps, there were two other companies, viz. : 

No. 8 New Cross. 

9 Dulwich. 

No. 8 is now amalgamated with No. 3, and No. 9 with No. 1. 

Lieut.-Col. commanding : 

Col. Thos. G. Gardiner, late Lieut.-Col. 3rd Foot. 
Date of commission, 24th Sept. '73. 

Major : 

Alex. L. Irvine, late British Foreign Legion. 
Date of commission, 23rd Dec. '62. 



76 Y PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

Captains. Date of com. 

*3 Travers B. Wire 17 May, '61. 

2 Richard Plews 11 Dec. '65. 

1 Jas. D. Doulton 7 Nov. '67. 

6 Wm. Henry Thomas 9 June, '68. 

7 Arthur Styan 9 Nov. '72. 

(1 vacancy). 
Lieutenants. 

3 John C. Sidebotham 26 Dec. '63. 

1 Albert S. Fletcher 20 Mch. '67. 

7 Chas. H. Nevill 1 Oct. 70. 

6 Douglas Fourdrinier 16 Oct. J 72. 

1 John C. Hardy 1 June, '73. 

2 Jas. H. Pulman 1 June, '73. 

7 Geo. Waterall 1 June, 73. 

6 Jas. J. Anderson 1 June, '73. 

3 Jas. Hepburn Hastie 1 June, '73. 

2 Horace Geo. Bowen 1 June, '73. 

(2 vacancies). 
Adjutant : R. Maunsell, 

late captain 7th Foot. 

Paymaster : Lieut. Herbert Puckle. 

Quartermaster : T. Woodbridge Carnell. 

Surgeon : Eugene F. Cronin, M.D. 
Hon. Chaplain : Rev. Jas. Fleming, B.A. 

* The numbers prefixed to the officers' names are at present three vacancies for officers 
-denote the Companies to which they belong. There No. 4 Co. 



POPULATION. 




HE rapid strides which this parish has made in population during- 
the present century is one of the most interesting facts in connection 
with the marvellous growth of this great metropolis. Although other 
suburbs of London, in direct contravention of all law,* persisted in 
growing apace during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, this- 

parish, which has always been law-abiding and constitutional, put off its latent 

power until the dawning of the present century. 

The Church Register supplies us with the following, showing the average number of 

births and deaths in Camberwell, at stated intervals, from the sixteenth century to 

the nineteenth : 



Years. 


Average of Births. 


Average of Deaths. 


15801589 


23 


26 


16801689 


36 


52 


17801789 


120 


143 


17901799 


169 


152 


18001807 


208 


184 



In the last period Dulwich is included : very little parochial duty was performed 
there before the present century. 

In the year 1787 the inhabitants of the parish were accurately numbered ; they 
amounted then to 3762. In 1789 the number of houses was about 770, exclusive 
of Dulwich College and the workhouse. Those in the Camberwell district were 
then 344. 

The increase in population from the commencement of the present century has. 
been most extraordinary, as the following table will clearly demonstrate : 



Tear. 


Population. 


Increase. 


Inc. per cent. 


1801 


7,059 








1811 


11,309 


4,250 


60-20 


1821 


17,876 


6,567 


58-06 


1831 


28,231 


10,355 


57-92 


1841 


39,868 


11,637 


41-22 


1851 


51,667 


11,799 


29-59 


1861 


71,488 


19,821 


38-36 


1871 


111,306 


39,818 


55-69 



* By a proclamation of the 22nd Elizabeth, 
which appears to have been so little attended to, she 
did " charge and straightly command all manner of 
persons, of what quality soever they be, to desist 
and forbear from any new buildings of any houses 
and tenements within 3 miles of any of the gates 
of the said City of London, to serve for habitation 
or lodging for any person where no former house 
hath been known to have been in the memory of 
such as are now living. " 

And on the settlement of the Commonwealth, 
building was carried on with such rapidity, that in 
1656 an Act was passed by the Parliament for pre- 
venting the erection of houses in the suburbs and 
within a distance of 10 miles of the city. The pre- 
amble sets forth how "the great and excessive 
number of houses, edifices, and out-houses, and 



cottages erected and newly built in and about 
the suburbs of the City of London and the parts 
thereunto adjoining 1 , is found to be very mis- 
chievous and inconvenient, and a great annoyance 
and nuisance to the Commonwealth ; " and, oil ac- 
count of this " growing evil" having "so much 
multiplied and increased," the Act proceeds to in- 
flict upon the builders and occupiers of such 
erections the penalty of paying to the use of the 
Commonwealth one year's rack rent for every 
house erected since Mar. 25th, 1620, and having four 
acres of land attached to it ; and of paying for every 
house erected since the passing of the Act a penalty 
of 100, and 20 per month for the use of the 
poor so long as it was upheld from the date of it. 
erection. 



78 Y c PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

POPULATION OF CAMBERWELL AND SURROUNDING PARISHES. 



Parish. 


Jjjj 


1801. 


1811. 


1821. 


1831. 


1841. 


1851. 


1861. 


1871. 


ils 


hi 




k%* 


















J-BS 




* Camber well 


4450 


7,059 


11,309 


17,876 


28,231 


39,868 


51,667 


71,488 


111,306 


104,247 


1476-79 


Lambeth . 


3941 


27,985 


41,644 


57,638 


87,856 


115,888 


139,325 


162,044 


208,342 


180,357 


644-47 


Newington . 


632 


14,847 


23,853 


33,047 


44,526 


54,606 


64,816 


82,220 


88,722 


73,875 


497-57 


Bermondsey 


626 


17,169 


19,530 


25,235 


29,741 


34,947 


48,128 


58,355 


80,429 


63,260 


368-45 


St George's, 
Southwark . 


J284 


22,293 


27,967 


36,368 


39,769 


46,644 


51,824 


55,510 


56,077 


33,784 


151-54 



NUMBER OF HOUSES (CAMBERWELL).f 



Year. 


Houses. 


Increase. 


Increase 
per cent. 


1801 


1,224 








1811 


2,061 


837 


68-38 


1821 


(3,309 


1,248 


60-55 


1831 


5,753 


2,444 


73-85 


1841 


7,230 


1,477 


25-67 


1851 


10,572 


3,342 


46-22 


1861 


12,964 


2,392 


22-62 


1871 


19,066 


6,102 


47-06 



HOUSES HALF A CENTURY'S INCREASE OF CAMBERWELL 
AND SURROUNDING PARISHES. 



Parish. 


Houses. 


Increase. 


Increase 
per cent. 


1821. 


1871. 


Caniberwell 


3,309 
9,919 
6,384 
4,691 
5,543 


20,066 
31,137 
13,268 
10,629 
7,347 


16,757 
21,218 
6,884 
5,938 
1,804 


506-40 
213-91 
107-83 
126-58 
32-54 


Lambeth 


Newington 


Bermondsey 


St. George's, Southwark . 



The following table shows the growth, according to the number of assessments, of 
the three districts of the parish for 100 years, from 1732 to 1832 : 



Year. 


Camberwell. 


Peckham. 


Dulwich. 


Total. 


1732 


117 


163 


50 


330 


1742 


134 


182 


60 


376 


1752 


149 


214 


61 


424 


1762 


160 


227 


80 


467 


1772 


205 


249 


104 


558 


1780 


246 


276 


110 


632 


1792 


432 


339 


129 


900 


1806 


697 


540 


159 


1,396 


1832 


3,066 


1,605 


309 


4,980 



* This return of areas is given in the Census re- 
turns, 1871, on the authority of Major-General Sir 
Henry James, R.E., Director of the Ordnance 
Survey Department. Hitherto the area of this 
parish has always been quoted in official returns at 
4342 statute acres a fact which, on the face of it, 



speaks volumes for the zeal of our churchwardens 
and overseers in perambulating the bounds of the 
parish. It is not for us to inquire from which 
parish the 108 additional acres have been taken. 

t This return includes empty houses and houses 
in course of erection. 



POPULATION. 



POPULATION OF DISTRICTS, 1861-71. 





i 




Houses. 


Population. 




3 














1 


1861. 


1871. 


Persons. 


Males. 


Females. 




.a 


i*d 


JS'C 




LJ 


*T* 


-A 
















3 


11 


a * 




|1 


fi.g 


^ a 


1861. 


1871. 


1861. 


1871. 


1861. 


1871. 




E 

3 


-52 


S 3 


Q- 


fl.3 


s* 


S-i 














CAMBERWELL. 




























1. DULWICH . . 


f Camberwell, part of Parish ] 
1 Dulwich . . . -Hamlet j 


1450 


294 


6 


8 


646 


49 


23 


1723 


4041 


730 


1566 


993 


2475 


2. CAMBERWELL 


Camberwell, part of Parish . 


1378 


3444 


93 


52 


5000 


477 


68 


21297 


31254 


9119 


13677 


12178 


17577 


3. PECKHAM . . 


( Camberwell, part of Parish ) 
t Peckham . . . Hamlet ) 


1175 


4948 


425 


107 


7031 


896 


215 


28135 


42160 


12485 


19523 


15650 


22037 


4. ST. GEORGE . 


f Camberwell, part of Parish ) 
(. St. George. District Parish J 


447 


3412 


146 


29 


5095 


513 


53 


20333 


33851 


9301 


16048 


11032 


17803 



WARD POPULATION. 







18 


31. 


18 


"1. 


18 


n. 


Parishes and Wards. 


Area 
in 
Statute 
Acres. 


Inha- 
bited 
Houses. 


Popu- 
lation. 


Inha- 
bited 
Houses. 


Popu- 
lation. 


Number 
of Rated 
House- 
holders. 


Rateable 
Annual 
Value of 
Property. 


1. St. George's West Ward . 
2. St. George's East Ward . 


207 
229 


1,769 
1,643 


10,368 
9,965 


3,128 
1,967 


20,913 
12,938 


3,202 
2,060 


62,740 

48,908 


3. Camden Ward 


272 


2,276 


14,321 


2,804 


17,804 


2,989 


61,791 


4. North Peckham Ward 


351 


2,590 


14,377 


3,725 


22,466 


3,566 


86,185 


5. South Peckham Ward . 


851 


2,358 


13,758 


3,306 


19,694 


3,285 


87,251 


6. Camberwell and Dulwich Ward 


2,540 


1,462 


8,699 


2,842 


17,491 


2,826 


147,697 


Total . . . 


4,450 


12,098 


71,488 


17,772 


111,306 


17,928 


494,572 



INMATES OF PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS, APRIL, 1871. 





Total 
number in 
Institution, 
including 
Officers, <bc. 


Number of 
Special In- 
mates, such 
as Paupers, 
Patients, 
Lunatics, &c. 


Institution. 







1 


2 




S 




1 


1 

*c5 




1 


1 


3 

a 




iS 


S 
~ 










1 


Camberwell Workhouse 


462 




~ 


451 


223 


~ 


Camberwell House Lu- \ 
natic Asylum . . ) 


473 


182 


291 


421 


156 


265 


Peckham House Luna- t 
tic Asylum . . . ( 


348 


109 


239 


288 


93 


195 


Bethel Asylum . 
Aged Pilgrims' Asylum 


15 

45 


3 


15 

42 


12 
43 


2 


12 
41 


Nazareth House Auxi-) 
liary Workhouse . . j 


111 


107 


4 


108 


106 


2 


St. Mary's College 


36 


31 


5 


28 


27 


1 


Friendly Female Asylum 


41 





41 


38 




38 



* The increase of population in the hamlet of 
Dulwich is attributed to the extension of the edu- 
cational advantages of Dulwich College since. 1859 ; 



to building operations on the College property, 
and to a great improvement in railway communica- 
tion. 



80 



Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 



The parish of Camberwell contains nearly a ninth part of the whole population of 
Surrey, although it is only about 108th part of the county area. The average number 
of inhabitants dwelling on a county acre in 1871 was 2 against 25 on an acre of 
ground in Camberwell. From the following table it will be seen that the rateable 
value of the county, according to the valuation lists, 1871, amounted to 5,358,465 ; 
whilst that of Camberwell at the same time was .494,572, so that this parish 
furnished nearly one-tenth of its rateable value. 





Area in Statute Acres. 


Population, 1871. 


Rateable Value. 


County . . . 
Camberwell . 


483,178 
4,450 


1,091,635 
111,306 


5,358,465 
494,572 



At the beginning of the present century, St. George the Martyr, Southwark, 
contained three times, and Newington twice, the population of Camberwell ; 
whereas this parish now contains nearly one and a half the population of Newing- 
ton, and nearly double that of St. George the Martyr ; Lambeth, which, in 1801 r 
was nearly four times as densely populated as Camberwell, now contains only about 
twice the number of inhabitants ; whilst Bermondsey, which more than doubled 
Camberwell in 1801, contains now only two-thirds the population of this parish. 

Turning to electoral statistics, this parish with its 111,306 inhabitants has barely 
a third share in returning two members ; whilst the following boroughs, with a less 
aggregate population than Camberwell, return 16 members viz., Banbury, An- 
dover, Bewdley. Bodmin, Bridgenorth, Bridport, Buckingham, Calne, Chippenham > 
Cockermouth, Devizes, Dorchester, Evesham, Eye, Guildford, and Midhurst. 




TRAVELLING PAST AND PEESENT. 

T may seem an extraordinary statement, but it is one nevertheless which 
can be thoroughly substantiated, that even at the latter end of the eighteenth 
century there were parts of the parish of Camberwell farther removed from 
the City than Dover is at the present day ; whilst some portion of the town 
of Camberwell was as distant from the hamlet of Dulwich as the queen 
of watering-places is now from the metropolis. 

To the spoilt traveller of the present day, the difficulties and expense of locomotion 
in the olden time reads like a chapter of romance. 

In 1744 a coach was advertised* to leave the " Cross Keys and Spread Eagle," 
Grasschurch Street, "every day" to Peckham, but as no times of starting were 
specified, we are unable to state whether the coach made one or more journeys daily. 
That the number of journeys made every day must have been limited, is evident 
from the fact that in 1796 the Camberwell coach was advertised to leave the " George 
and Gate " during the summer only',t and that up to 1 P.M. only one journey had 
been made. 

The Camberwell West-End coach was advertised in the same year to leave the 
"Anchor and Vine," Charing Cross, daily at 11.30 A.M. and 7.30 P.M., and another 
left the " Kings and Keys," Fleet Street, daily at 12 noon and 3 and 8 P.M. 

The Peckham coach started from the " George and Gate," Gracechurch Street, daily 
at 11 A.M. and 1, 4, and 7 P.M. From the " Kings and Keys," Fleet Street, daily at 
12 noon, and 1, 3, and 8 P.M., and the "Red Lion" Alehouse, Strand, daily at 11 A.M. 
and 7 P.M., and the " Horseshoe and Magpie," Bridge Street, Westminster, daily at 
11 A.M. and 7 P.M. 

The Dulwich coach left the "Pewter Platter," Gracechurch Street, daily at 11 A.M. 
and 6 P.M. in summer, and at 5 P.M. only during winter. 

The length of time occupied by these coaches in their journeys to and fro was no 
doubt attributable in the main to the wretched state of the roads, and to the fact 
that, instead of proceeding direct on their journey, the coach was driven to the 
houses of the fortunate passengers who had been successful in booking a place. 

To the heavy state of the roads must also be attributed another cause of delay, 
as it was almost a matter of necessity to bait the horses once or twice on the 
journey. 

The Peckham coach invariably made a halt at the "Red Cap," Camberwell Green,. 
and to be detained for twenty minutes at that well-known hostelry was an everyday 
occurrence. 

Added to the inconvenience and annoyance of this mode of travelling was the 
danger of being molested by highway robbers, who were bold enough to carry on 
their depredations within even two or three miles of the metropolis. 

* Osborn'a Complete- Guide, 1744. t Kent's London Directory, 179(5. 

G 



82 



PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 



The principal coachmasters of the parish at the "beginning of the present century 
were Messrs. Tanner,* Prince, Wilson, and Glover, of Peckham, and Messrs. Lancefield, 
Banks, and Merry, of Camberwell. Merry, who was a hatter in the Walworth Road, 
drove a white coach, which was a great favourite with the inhabitants. George 
Banks, whose smart appea.rance is still fresh in the memory of many old residents, 
was noted for his eccentricities. He appropriately named his coach " The Thorn," 
and such it proved to be to his competitors. It was his invariable habit to change 
his clothes at least three times a day ; but to his credit, be it said, Banks not only 
lavished much attention on his personal appearance, but bestowed an equal regard 
to the condition of his team. Though eccentric, his cheerful and obliging disposition 
made him exceedingly popular with the leading gentry, who were his principal 
patrons. 

Charles Dickens could hardly have seen Banks in the flesh, nor even read of him in 
history, or he would never have written so slightingly of the Camberwell coachman. 
The elder Weller is made to say that he " never knew any coachman do well as 
wrote verses, except one as wrote an affectin' copy o' werses the night afore he was 
hung for a highway robbery ; but that goes for nothing, as he was only a Camberwell 
man." 

An anecdote concerning Prince, one of the Peckham coachmasters, is well worth 
recording : 

Tanner, whose family had held a monopoly of the road for many years, like many 
other monopolists imagined himself secure from all opposition. On the return 
journey from London, if only one passenger remained to be conveyed to Peckham 
Rye or East Dulwich, he was informed on reaching Peckham that the coach would 
proceed no farther. Mr. Bailey, of East Dulwich, who was a man of considerable 
means and influence, was once treated in this way ; he refused, however, to submit 
to what he considered was an unfair proceeding, and acting under Tanner's instruc- 
tions, the coachman drove him to the stables, where, it is stated, he remained a 
considerable time. This event put an end to the monopoly, and an active opposition 
was immediately commenced by Mr. Bailey and his East Dulwich friends. 

The expense of starting another coach was in a measure defrayed by a local sub- 
scription, and the yellow coach of Mr. Prince became a formidable rival to the red 
one of Mr. Tanner. 

Yet another rival was destined soon to appear upon the scene. Owing doubtless 
to the wants of an increasing neighbourhood, another coach was started in 1830 by 
John Glover, who takes pride in mentioning the fact that, although the cost of his 
first coach, "The Regulator," was mainly advanced by four gentlemen, he was 
enabled within twelve months of the purchase to call it absolutely his own. 

Glover's fares were Is. outside and Is. M. in, and 2s. 6d. was charged from the 
Plough Inn, East Dulwich, to the City. 

Within five years of the starting of Glover's coach, Prince, whose business had 
somewhat declined through excessive competition, started an omnibus, "The Duke of 
Richmond," from the " King's Arms," Peckham Rye, to the City at a shilling fare. 
Omnibuses had been introduced into other parts of the metropolis six years pre- 
viously. Mr. Shillibeer, in his evidence before the Board of Health, stated that on 
July 4, 1829, he started the first omnibus in the metropolis from the Bank to the 
"Yorkshire Stingo," in the New Road. Each of Shillibeer's vehicles carried 
twenty-two passengers ; it was drawn by three horses abreast, and the, driver was 
the only outside "passenger." 



* There is a tradition in Peckham that Tanner's 
announcement stated that his coach would leave 



for London, and return the same day, 
weather permitting. " 



: wind and 



TEA YELLING PAST AND PRESENT. 83 

The fare was Is. for the whole journey, and 6d. for half the distance, and for 
?some time the passengers were provided with periodicals on the journey. 

The introduction of omnibuses into Camberwell was not received with universal 
favour, as, in consequence of the reduced fares, they were deemed to be somewhat 
plebeian in character, and a considerable time elapsed before they were generally 
adopted. The reduced fares, however, naturally drew a large amount of support, 
and after a feeble resistance the coaches became a thing of the past. 

Glover, Tanner, and other coachmasters then followed the example of Prince, and 
started rival omnibuses. Glover's first omnibus, the " Little Wonder," was named 
after a winner of the Derby, to which race Glover had driven a number of his 
patrons. 

Since this time the number of omnibuses has greatly increased, in accordance with 
the requirements of the locality. 

Lancefield, Sheppard, Drew, Pope, Bar wick, Doust and Ross, Goodwin, W. S. Jones, 
Creed, Tilling, and others, are names familiar to us, as past and present omnibus 
proprietors. 

The reduction of fares from Is., charged by Prince in 1835, to the 4d. fare of 
the present day, cannot be a matter of surprise when we consider the increase of 
population and the great decrease in the duty upon horses and vehicles,* together 
with the repeal of the mileage duty and the abolition of the toll-bars. 

The establishment of Mr. Tilling f is now an institution in Camberwell, and from 
a very small beginning he has raised himself to an unrivalled position in hig 
particular trade. Some idea may be formed of his extensive business when it is 
stated that his " stock " comprises nearly 700 horses. , 

Of railways within the parish, the South London Line has four stations, viz., Old 
Kent Road, Queen's Road, Peckham Rye, and Denmark Hill, opened for passenger 
traffic on the 13th August, 1866 ; length of line, 2m. 5 ch. The South London and 
Sutton Line opened on the 1st Oct. 1868 ; length of line in Camberwell, 1 m. 67 ch., 
and two stations, Champion Hill and North Dulwich ; and the West End and Crystal 
Palace Line opened 1st Dec. 1856 ; length of line in Camberwell, 22 ch. 

The London, Chatham, and Dover Railway has stations at Camberwell New Road, 
Denmark Hill, Peckham Rye, Nunhead, Honor Oak, Lordship Lane, Crystal Palace, 
Dulwich, and Sydenham Hill. It enters the parish from Newington, and leaves it at 
the Camberwell New Road ; re-enters the parish at the Camberwell New Road Station, 
and leaves it in Myatt's Fields ; passes through a portion of Lambeth, and re-enters 
Camberwell at Denmark Hill ; proceeds to Nunhead, where it passes through the 
parish of Lewisham, and reaches Camberwell again, near Honor Oak; and after 
passing through Sydenham touches Camberwell again at the Crystal Palace Station. 
The length of the lines in Camberwell is as follows : 

From Newington to Camberwell New Road, 3 fur. 4 ch. 
Camberwell New Road to Myatt's Fields, 2 fur. 7 ch. 
Denmark Hill to Nunhead, 1 m. 7 fur. 3 ch. 
Honor Oak to Sydenham, 1 m. 5 fur. 4 ch. 
Sydenham to Crystal Palace Station, 3 fur. 7 ch. 
Herne Hill to boundary near Duiwich Wood, 1 m. 7 fur. 6 ch. 

The Main Line portion was opened July 1st, 1863 ; the portion to Camberwell New 
Eoad, Oct. 6th, 1862 ; the Crystal Palace Line, August 1st, 1865. 

* The duty on horses is now entirely removed. being the " Times," purchased of W. Stevens. At 

t Mr. Tilling commenced business in Walworth the present time Mr. Tilling employs about L'GO 
in 1845, with une horse, and when his stock men, and last year he supplied carriages for more 
numbered five, they all died. In 1S50 he re- than 600 wedding parties, 
moved his bu mess to Peckham, his first omnibus 

G 2 



84 Y PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

The tramway* lias recently been introduced into Camberwell. There are nearly 
four miles of tram-line in this parish, and it is estimated that nearly 5,000 tickets are 
issued daily to passengers riding in our local cars. The line from Camberwell Green 
to Westminster was opened Sept. 25th, 1871 ; and from New Cross to Camberwell 
Green, Jan. 28th, 1872. The Tramway Company keep in good repair the roads on 
which their cars run, and it has been stated that as much as 2,000 a year is thereby 
removed from our parochial burdens. The company also pay rates on a rateable 
value of .450 per mile. 

* It is generally imagined that the tram-line is so word tramway was given to the road prepared to 

called from the father of the late Sir James Outram, receive them. " And to go back farther still, Roger 

the founder of the Butterley Ironworks. He was North, writing about 1680, mentions the " strange 

said to be the first to lay down an iron way in con- histories" he heard at Newcastle about the coal- 

nection with his works. Before Mr. Outram's works, and proceeds to describe the " laying of 

time, however, Mr. Homfray obtained an Act of rails of timber from the colliery down to the river 

Parliament (1794) for the construction of an "iron exactly straight and parallel, and bulky carts 

dram-road, tram-road, or railway," between made with four rowlets fitting these rails, whereby 

Cardiff and Merthyr Tydvil ; ' and in Buchanan's the carriage is so easy that one horse will draw 

Technological Dictionary the word "tram" is thus de- down 4 or 5 chaldron of coals, an immense benefit 

scribed: ''A local name given to coal- waggons in the to the coal merchant." 
neighbourhood of Newcastle -upon-Tyne ; hence the 



POLITICAL HISTOKY. 




Y an Act of Parliament to amend the Eepresentation of the People of 
England and Wales, passed the 7th June, 1832 (2 Will. IV. c. 45), 
fifty-six boroughs therein enumerated were disfranchised, and in lieu 
thereof forty-two new boroughs were created. The preamble of the 
Act recites that it was expedient to take effectual measures for 
correcting divers abuses that had long prevailed in the choice of members to serve in 
the Commons " House of Parliament ; " to deprive many inconsiderable places of the 
right of returning members ; to grant such privilege to large, populous, and wealthy 
towns ; to increase the number of knights of the shire ; to extend the elective 
franchise to many of his Majesty's subjects who had not hitherto enjoyed the same ; 
and to diminish the expense of elections. 

Under this Act certain boroughs which, previous to its passing, re turned two members, 
were thereafter to return one only, and many large towns in the country, which had grown 
into great importance from the amount of trade and number of their population, were 
constituted boroughs. The large metropolitan population inhabiting the parishes named 
in the schedule of the Act, including the Tower Hamlets, Finsbury, Maryleboiie, and 
Lambeth (of which Camberwell was made a portion), were constituted boroughs, each 
of which had the right of returning two members. In the same session of Parliament 
another Act was passed to settle and determine the divisions of counties, by which 
the hamlet of Dulwich is placed in the eastern division of the county of Surrey. 

The following are the members who have from time to time been elected for both 
borough and county since the passing of the Reform Act. The names of the unsuc- 
cessful candidates are printed in italics : 

1832. Dec. Charles Tennyson (L.) 2,716 

Benjamin Hawes (L.) 2,166 

Daniel Wakefield (L.) 819 

John Moore (L.) . . . . . . .155 

1835. Jan. Benjamin Hawes (L.) 2,008 

Right Hon. C. Tennyson (afterwards Tennyson 

D'Eyncourt) (L.) ...... 1,995 

C. Farebrother (C.) 931 

1837. Aug. Benjamin Hawes (L.) 2,934 

Right Hon. T. D'Eyncourt (L.) . . . .2,811 
diaries Baldwin (C.) 1,624 

1841. July. Benjamin Hawes (L.) 2,601 

Right Hon. T. D'Eyncourt (L.) .... 2,558 

Charles Baldwin (C.) 1,999 

Thomas Cabbell (C.) . . 1,763 

Charles Pearson (L.) 4,614 

Right Hon. T. D'Eyncourt (L.) .... 3,708 

Benjamin Hawes (L.) 3,344 

On Mr. Pearson's acceptance of the Chiltern Hundreds. 



1847. 



Aug. 



86 



Y c PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 



1850. July. 

1852. July. 

1857. Mar. 

1859. April. 

1862. April. 

1865. July. 



William Williams (L ) 3,834 

Sir Charles Napier (L.) 1,182 

John Hinde Palmer (L.-C.) . . . . .585 

W. Arthur Wilkinson (L.) . . . . 4,732. 

William Williams (L.) . . . .. . . 4,022 

Right Hon. T. D'Eyncourt (L.) . . . '. 3,829 

William Eonpell* (L.). . '- '.' 9 >318 

William Williams (L.) . . . . . ; . 7,648 

W. Arthur Wilkinson (L.) . . . . . 3,234 

William Boupell (L.) . . . . , 

William Williams (L.) 

On Mr. Roupell's acceptance of Chilteni Hundreds. 

Frederick Doulton 5,124 

W. Campbell Sleigh. . . .-..".. 754 

W. Arthur Wilkinson 347 

On the death of Mr. Williams, Mr. Alderman J. C. 
Lawrence was returned unopposed. 

Thomas Hughes (L.) 6,373 

Frederick Doulton (L.) 6,280 

J. C. Lawrence (L.) 4,743 

James Haig 514 



* The history of William Roupell is a remarkable 
one His father, Richard Palmer Roupell, was a 
lead smelter in Gravel Lane, and had a suburban 
mansion called Aspen House, Brixton. He had a 
family of five children, only one of whom, Richard, 
was born subsequent to the marriage, which took 
place at St. Giles's, Camberwell, September 6tb, 
1838. John, the eldest son, went abroad, but the 
next child, William, appears to have become more of 
a favourite with his father, obtaining his confidence 
in a great measure, and was trained up to the law. 
When he arrived at man's estate he probably saw 
the terrible position in society which his father's 
late marriage placed him in, and that by the laws 
of the land, should his father die without making 
him a gift, he would never be able to touch an acre 
of the large property which had been amassed. 
Ambition, too, led him on until in 1857 he was 
elected, at the top of the poll, M.P. for Lambeth, 
unseating in the contest Mr. Wilkinson, of Short- 
lands, near Beckenham, and formerly of Camber- 
well. This gentleman was the son of Dr. Wil- 
kinson, of Queen's Road, Peckham. Those who 
recollect that election were reminded at the time 
of the polling days of a bygone age. With such 
an elevated position William Roupell required 
ample means, and it does not appear that his 
father had ever encouraged the rising man by 
money allowance. The result was that an indi- 
rect way of obtaining funds was resorted to 
as early as the year 1853. He forged a deed by 
which the Roupell Park estate, in the parishes 
of Lambeth, Norwood, and Streatham, was given 
to him by his father and mother. He mort- 
gaged the property to the Guardian Assurance 
Company for 100,000, but in order to fully carry 
out his plans he told his father that the Unity 
Assurance had appointed him their building 
trustee, and that they desired to purchase his 
estate. The old gentleman at last agreed to let it 
to them at 2,750 a year rental, upon condition of 
their expending 50,000 in buildings, and this. 
rental William Roupell actually paid his father for 
seven years. In 1855 William was much pressed 
for money, and, consequently, he had to scheme 
afresh. He advised his father to purchase an ad- 
joining property to Roupell Park for 5,000, and 
obtained his father's cheque for that amount in the 
name of the seller, a Mr. Treadwell. He appro- 
priated this cheque to his own use by forging this 
gentleman's name. He next stated that the Unity 



desired the property, and would rent it at 250' 
a year. He obtained the original deeds of the 
estate belonging to his father on pretence of taking 
them to their lawyers for examination, but instead 
of this he had copies made, forged them, and while 
he retained the originals, gave the forged ones to 
his father, who confidently replaced them, as he 
thought, in his strong box. With these deeds Wil- 
liam raised 7,000 upon the Norbiton Farm estate. 
Kingston, and then he pocketed 2,000 and paid 
Mr. Treadwell the 5, 000 for the Streatham property. 
On September 12, 1856, his father died, and William 
then found in the strong box his father's will, dated 
1860, in which the Roupell Park and other estates 
had been left in trust for the youngest and only 
legitimate son. William knew his ruin was come if 
he Jaced the three executors named, so he forged a 
new will revoking the old one, and appointed him- 
self and his mother executors, and to her the 
ownership of the property. He then obtained his 
mother's authority to sell the estates ; that was 
more easy with her than it had been with the 
father, for she too had faith in her son, and from 
first to last, upon his own admission at the trial, 
which took place in August, 1862, he raised about a 
quarter of a million of money, of which 135,000 
had been obtained on the Roupell Park estate. 
And yet, with all this wealth, he had got further 
into debt; he suddenly left England, and as 
suddenly returned, when some one raised the 
question that the Norbiton property was held under 
a forged deed. He gave voluntary evidence at the 
trial ; admitted the forgeries, startled the world at 
large by the clear account of his terrible career, was 
finally convicted at the Old Bailey on the 24th 
September, 1862, and sentenced to transportation 
for life at the early age of 31. 



in value to 200,000. Amidst all the excitement of 
those ten years, he had managed to make that pro- 

?erty one of the most valuable in South London, 
hat he committed a terrible crime everyone 
admits; that he deserved punishment everyone- 
is agreed upon ; but a doubt still lingers in the 
public mind whether the law has not been 
sufficiently satisfied, and whether criminals con- 
victed of even graver crimes than Roupell have not 
been less punished. [T, C. NOBLE.] 




o 

>-H 

H 



I 



POLITICAL HISTORY. 87 

1868. Nov. J. C. Lawrence (L.) 15,051 

W. McArthur (L.) 14,553 

Morgan Howard (C.) 7,043 

1874. Sir J. C. Lawrence (L.) 12,175 

W. McArthur (L.) 11,788 

Morgan Howard* (C.) 11,201 

. The number of plumpers received by Mr. Morgan Howard was 10,030 ; Mr. 
McArthur, 400 ; and Sir James C. Lawrence, Bart., 285. 

Lambeth is now one of the largest constituencies in the country, and the cost of 
contesting it is necessarily very great. According to the advertised expenses of the 
1874 election (the first under the Ballot Act), the total cost amounted to <8,067 3s., 
divided amongst the candidates as follows : 

s. cl 

Messrs. Lawrence and McArthur ..... 5,725 7 8 
Morgan Howard, Esq. ....... 2,341 15 4 

The advertised expenses of the election held in 1868 wer3 as under : 

s. d. 

Sir J. C. Lawrence 3,352 10 10 

Mr. McArthur 4,592 3 9 

Mr. Morgan Howard 3,093 11 5 

The number of votes polled at this election was unprecedentedly high, in conse- 
quence, no doubt, of the Irish Church question, which was then under discussion ; 
and both as regards the expense and the number of votes polled, was in striking 
contrast to that which preceded it in 1865, when Mr. Thomas Hughes, author of 
Tom Brown's School Days, was returned at the head of the poll with 6,373 votes. 
The advertised expenses of this election were as follows : 

s. cl 

Mr. T. Hughes . ' 1,108 3 

Mr. F. Doulton 1,585 7 6 

Mr. J. C. Lawrence 1,693 11 9 

Mr. J. Haig 651 6 10 

It will be seen from these figures that whatever advantages have been obtained by 
the adoption of the ballot, a reduction of expense has not been one of them. 

The election of 1857, of which we give an illustration, was one of the most memor- 
able in the annals of local electioneering. Without in any way suggesting that the 
Lambeth elector is an advocate for lavish expenditure at elections, we may go so far 
as to say that the candidate who has no objection to spend money liberally ensures 
consideration. Mr. Roupell started well in 1857, for in addition to his willingness 
to take into his service an unlimited number of electors and non-electors, he had 
much to recommend him youth, dash, local connections, and a gentlemanly address. 
Nine thousand three hundred and eighteen was a great number to poll in 1857, and 
a Committee of the House of Commons was called upon to find out how it was done, 
but Mr. Roupell came out of the ordeal with credit, and the petition was declared 
" frivolous and vexatious/' and the large army of canvassers employed by Mr. Roupell 
were not, in the opinion of the Committee, brought within the provisions of the 17 & 
18 Viet. c. 102. 

* Mr. Morgan Howard lias recently been raised abilities and commanding eloquence are acknow- 
to the dignity of a Queen's Counsel, an honour ledged even by his political opponents, 
which perhaps no one can begrudge him, as his great 



88 Y c PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

Mr. W. A. Wilkinson, who was defeated by Mr. Roupell, was returned at the head 
of the poll in the previous election of 1852, his colleague on that occasion being Mr. 
Williams, the great advocate of economy in the House of Commons. Mr. Wilkinson 
was a resident of Camberwell, and took part in local affairs. 

Although it does not fall within our province to deal with the future, we may 
perhaps be allowed to express an opinion that Camberwell, with its population of about 
125 000 a rateable value of more than half a million, and an area of 4,342 statute 
acres,* is fairly entitled to a larger share of political privileges ; and further, that the 
time has arrived when it may fairly be allowed to stand alone, returning its own 
member. 

The following are the members which have been returned for the county since 
1832 : 

1832. John J. Briscoe (L.) 1,643 

A. W. Beauclerk (L.) 1,155 

J. T. Allen (C.) ....... 835 

John Lainson (L.) ....... 244 

1835. Richard Alsager (C.) 1,578 

A. W. Beauclerk (L.) 1,324 

JoluiJ.BriscoeCL.} 1,200 

1837. Richard Alsager (C.) 2,176 

Henry Kemble (C.) 2,155 

Hon. P. J. L. King (L.) 1,865 

John Angerstein (L.) ...... 1,823 

On decease of Mr. Alsager. 

1841. Feb. E. Antrobus, jun. (C.) 2,635 

Thomas Alcock (L.) 1,436 

1841. July. Henry Kemble (C.) 

E. Antrobus, jun. (C.) 

1847. Hon. P. J. L. King (L.) . . . 

Thomas Alcock (L.) . . . . . . 

1 852. Thomas Alcock (L.) 2,508 

Hon. P. J. L. King (L.) 2,500 

E. Antrobus, jun. (C.) 2,064 

Anthony Cleasby (C.) 1,928 

1857. Thomas Alcock (L.) 

Hon. P. J. L. King (L.) 

1859. Thomas Alcock (L.) 2,953 

Hon. P. J. L. King (L.) 2,926 

Anthony Cleasby (C.) 2,050 

1865. Hon. P. J. L. King (L.) 3,495 

Charles Buxton (L.) 3,424 

H. W. Peek (C.) f 3,333 

Hon. W, Brodrick (C.) 3,226 

16C8. Hon. P. J. L. King (L.) . . . ... 4,162 

Charles Buxton (L.) 3,941 

W. Hardman (C.) 3,557 

J. Lord (C.) 3,549 

* See note page 78. Surrey. Mr. Peek has since been created a 

t Messrs. Peek and Brodrick were afterwards baronet, 
returned for the new county division for Alid 



POLITICAL HISTORY. 



89 



1873. James Watney (C.) . 
Hon. Leveson-Goioer (L.) 

1874. *J ames Watney (C.) . 

W. Grantham (C.) 
Hon. P. J. L. King (L.) 
J. P. Gassiott, jun. (L.) . 



3,912 
2,749 
5,673 
5,579 
4,292 
4,115 



The advertised expenses of this election were 
.tis follows : Messrs. Watney and Grantham, 
9,006 17s. 10t<. ; Messrs. King and Gassiott, 
5,267 12s. 2c*. 



In the 18t>8 election, Messrs. Hardman and 
Lord's expenses were 5,064 17s. 9cZ., and Messrs. 
Locke Kiug and Buxton, 4,653 3s. 7c(. 



LOCAL NAMES AND PLACES. 




N the Domesday Book this parish is called " CA'BREWELLE." Subse- 
quently the B was dropped, and from the eleventh to the sixteenth century 
the name of the parish is generally quoted in official documents as Camwell,. 
Cammerwell, or Camerwell. In the seventeenth century the B found its 
way "back again,* but it was not until the middle of the eighteenth century 
that Camberwell as it is now written was officially and locally recognized. 

It is generally supposed that this parish owes its name to a famous well ;t and 
Dr. Lettsom, whose villa on Grove Hill is elsewhere noticed, laid claim to the 
honour of possessing the identical well on his charming estate. Salmon, the Surrey 
historian, says, " it seems to be named from some mineral water which was anciently 
in it," and Bray adopts the same idea, 

" It has been conjectured," says the writer of a " short historical and topographical 
account of St. Giles's Church/' published in 1827, "that as the name of St. Giles, 
conveys an idea of cripples, the well which gave part of the name to the village 
might have been famous for some medicinal virtues, and might have occasioned the 
dedication of the church to this patron saint of cripples and mendicants." 

This interpretation is not by any means an improbable one, and it assists us some- 
what in the solution of the hrst part of the name. Given the well, it does not call 
for a violent exercise of our imaginative faculties to suppose it to be cambered over 
for protection. Again, cam J is a very crooked word, and is applied to anything out 
of square, or out of condition. Having regard, therefore, to the fact already noticed, 
that the church is dedicated to the patron saint of cripples, we are certainly justified 
in assuming the word " cam " to be in this instance descriptive of individual con- 
dition ; and the well would then become the well of the " crooked " or crippled. 
Numerous other wells might be mentioned which are found connected with some 
religious* foundation, such as St. Clement's Well, Chadwett, Bridewell, and Holywell. 
The name of ClerJcenwell carries us back to the ecclesiastical origin of the drama ; 
and Skinner's Well, adjoining, was the scene of similar Scriptural representation* 
performed by the Skinners of London. 

Other solutions of the etymology of Camberwell have been advanced. Here is 
one " and something more." All honour," says a witty writer, " to St. Giles, 
whose miraculous springs gave a name to the spot ; unless, indeed, our friends in the 
parish will accept a theory of our own that, as Camber was the name of a son of the 



* In the Minutes of the Green Coat School, 
Camberwell is first spelt with B on 2Sth May, 1712. 

t There was formerly a fine brick well on the De 
Creepigny estate, Denmark Hill. The wells of 
Dulwich are fully described elsewhere. 

J In Coriolanus, Act iii. , Scene 1, Sicinius Velutus 
says, of the crooked reasoning of Menenius Agrippa, 
" This is clean kam ; " to which Brutus replies, 
"Merely awry." The root appears in the phrase, 
nrms in kembo, or a-kimbo. To cam, in the 
Manchester dialect, is to cross or contradict a 



person, or to bend anything awry. 

Tfte word cam, crooked, is found in the CAM in 
Gloucester and Cambridgeshire, in the CAMIL in 
Cornwall, the CAMLAD in Shropshire, the CAM- 
BECK in Cumberland, the CAMLIN in Longford, 
and the CAMON in Tyrone. Morecambe Bay is- 
the crooked-sea-bay, and CAMDEN is the crooked 
vale. 

We have also the rivers KAMP and CHAMP iit 
Germany, and the KAM in Switzerland. Taylor's- 
Words and Places. 



LOCAL NAMES AND PLACES. 91 

Trojan Brute who is said to have conquered this tight little island about 4,000 years 
ago, perhaps that prince discovered the wells as Prince Bladud did the waters, of 
Bath, and so unwittingly handed his name down to posterity and the panels of 
omnibuses." * 

The writer is obliging enough to add that he " attaches no importance whatever" 
to his theory ; but then he only stated half his case. It might have been finished 
thus : " Camber, the son of Brute, fixed upon a delightful spot south of the Thames, 
which he made his wile, and from Camber-ville the name of the place became sub- 
sequently corrupted into Camber-well." And our friend might have referred to 
Prittlewell and Hawkswell, in Essex, and Singlewell, in Kent, and other places in 
England, as probably containing at one time the suffix mile, likewise corrupted into 
well. But in all seriousness one must come back to the popular interpretation as 
the most feasible solution of an etymological difficulty. 

Peckham is another etymological enigma, as it certainly is not that which its name 
at first implies the village on the hill. In the Domesday Book the place is called 
" Pecheha," which in all probability was an incorrect description. One theory is> 
that the village of Peckham took its name from its proximity to the hills now known 
as Forest Hill and Oak of Honour Hill, for Peckham Rye is mentioned in docu- 
ments as early as the fourteenth century, and the little Aaraf or village under the 
shadow of the hills above mentioned was evidently a place of some little importance 
at the time of William the Conqueror. 

The word Eye, assuming the above theory to be correct, would then be traced to 
the Welsh word rhyn, a projecting piece of land ; and Peckham would be the village 
under the rhyn or Eye. 

But in all probability the Rye took its name from a watercourse or river ; for 
before the Roman invasion, and the embankment of the Thames, the country sur- 
rounding the Rye was no doubt partly submerged, and streams more or less rapid 
abounded. The root Rhe or Rhin is connected with the Gaelic rae, rapid ; with the 
Welsh rhe, swift ; rhedu, to run; rhin, that which runs ; and the English words "run" 
and " rain." J From this root, too, we have the R YE in Kildare, Yorkshire, and Ayr- 
shire ; the REA in Salop, Warwick, Herts, and Worcestershire ; the REY in Wilts ; 
and the RAY in Oxfordshire and Lancashire. 

Holinshed derives the name of Reading in Berkshire from " rhe or ree," the 
Saxon word for a watercourse or river, which, says he, " may be seen in Overee or 
Suthree ; for over the rte, or south of the rhee, as to the skilful dothreadileeappeare." 
The term rhe, he further affirms, " not only to the course of everie water itself ; but 
also this overflowing was, in time past, called rhe by such Saxons as inhabited in 
this island ; and even to this daie in Essex I have often observed that when the lower- 
grounds by rage of water have been overflowen, the people beholding the same have- 
said, ' all is on a rhe/ as if they should have said, ' all is now a river.' " 

In the portion of the map of Camberwell by Roques, given elsewhere, Cold 
Harbour Lane is there called Camberwell Lane ; the Queen's Road, Peckham Lane ; 
Southampton Street, Rainbow Lane ; and Rye Lane is described as South Street. 
Jenner's Brewery, at that time conducted by Mr. Silverthorne, appears in the main 
road, near Southampton Street, as " The Brew House." Friern Manor Farm is in- 

* London : How it Grew, p. 303. them. It was the supreme reverence for the 

t Ham signifies an enclosure, a home, that which sanctities of domestic life which gave to the 

hems in. It expresses the sanctity of the family Teutonic nations the power of breathing a new life 

bond ; it is the home, the one secret and sacred into the dead bones of Koman civilization. Taylor's 

place. This word, as well as the feeling of which Words and Places, p. 82. 

it was the symbol, was brought across the ocean } "The Rain-deer is the running-deer." Seo- 

by the Teutonic colonists, and it is the sign of the Taylor's Words and Places, p. 137. 
most precious of the gifts for which we thank 



92 



Y* PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 



correctly described as "Fryum Farm," and the Oak of Honour as the "Oakof Arnon." 
St. Thomas a Watering, which is fully described elsewhere, is shown in what is now 
known as the Old Kent Road, and which is borne out by old leases. Dog Kennel Lane 
extended from Goose Green to what is now known as Church Street, Camberwell. 

Of names and places now in existence, Champion Hill and De Crespigny Park re- 
mind us of the fact that Sir Claude Champion de Crespigny, of Champion Lodge, 
was once a power in Camberwell. Wren Road is doubtless intended to keep up a tra- 
dition that Sir Christopher Wren resided in Camberwell during the building of St. 
Paul's. Bowyer Place, in the Camberwell Road, was once the property of the wealthy 
family of that name, who were lords of the manor of Camberwell. Wyndham Road, 
formerly Bowyer Lane, connects the families of Wyndham and Bowyer together, 
whilst Mansion House Square is another souvenir of the Mansion House of the 
Bowyers. Grove Lane, which in the last century bore the name of Dog Kennel 
Lane, reminds us that it is a lane in close proximity to the Grove, and near College 
Street in the Grove formerly stood the Camberwell Collegiate School. 

Church Street, Camberwell, is within the shadow of St. Giles's Church ; Stirling 
Terrace and the " Stirling Castle " were built by a person of the name of Stirling ; North 
Terrace is a row of buildings on the north side of the Peckham Road ; Havil Street 
was named after Havil House, which stood at the corner of Workhouse Lane, as it 
was called before Mr. Havil's time. The freehold of Havil House was purchased by 
the vestry of this parish a few years since for .1,740, and the ground now forms the 
site of the new vestry hall. 

Diamond Row, Southampton Street, was built by a plumber, whose diamond 
brought him the means of building it. Edmund Street recalls to mind the great 
market gardener of New Cross, who purchased a large amount of property in this 
parish from the Bowyers. Tilson Road (formerly Gatton Road) is no doubt intended 
as a compliment to a late member of the London School Board, Sir Thomas Tilson ; 
New Church Road will perhaps some day be known as Old Church Road, as the 
new church (St. George's) after which it was called is no longer new. St. George's 
Church has also given name to St. George's Road ; Wells Street * is named after 
a builder and contractor of that name, who was a well-known resident there in 
days gone by ; Dowlas Street recalls to mind the Dowlas Common of the eighteenth 
century ; Thornhill Square was built by Mr. James Thornhill, well known as a 
parish officer for many years. The Melon Ground (Peckham) takes us back many 
years when this portion of Peckham produced melons fit for the king's table ; the 
Orchard (Peckham) at one time was a delightful spot to ramble in when attached to 
the great mansion close by ; and Bell's Gardens' Road also was perhaps a more 
sequestered retreat when it formed a portion of Mr. Bell's gardens. 

Queen's Road was formerly known as Deptford Lane, and was altered in honour 
of her present Majesty, who has often passed through it on her way to the Naval 
School at New Cross. And Albert Road (Queen's Road) is also, we presume, to be 
traced to a desire to compliment royalty ; Cow Walk was its former not euphonious 
appellation. Harder's Road (Queen's Road) was christened after Mr. Harder, a 
gentleman who once held freehold property in the neighbourhood ; Athearn Road 
is also a personal reminder ; and Heaton Road calls to mind Heaton's Folly and its 
benevolent owner. Choumert Road (Rye Lane) was so called after Mr. George 
Choumert ; and Hanover Street (Rye Lane) was intended as a compliment to the 
House of Hanover, some members of which were great patrons of Dr. Collyer, whose 
chapel was also known as Hanover Chapel. Basing Yard (in rear of Hanover Street) 

Mr. James Wells settled in Camberwell in 1803, and died in the parish in 1853. In partnership 
with Mr. Berriman, he built St. George's Church.} 



LOCAL NAMES AND PLACES. 93 

is a souvenir of the Basing Manor, a well-known residence in the time of the 
1st and 2nd Charles ; Meeting House Lane* (Peckham) was formerly the rendez- 
vous of the dissenters of this parish ; Shard Square carries us back to the middle of 
the eighteenth century, when the Shards were installed in Hill Street, then known 
as Lord Lane, Peckham, as large landed proprietors. 

Peckham Park and Peckham Park Road remind us that within the present century 
Peckham rejoiced in a park of considerable extent, extending at one time from High 
Street, Peckham, to the Old Kent Road. The Asylum Road (Old Kent Road) is a 
very proper reminder of the munificence of the licensed victuallers, who have erected 
here a magnificent asylum for their decayed brethren. Neate Street was named 
after an owner of property of that name, and St. Thomas's Street hard by keeps us 
in mind of St. Thomas a Watering, where the pilgrims rested on their way to Canter- 
bury ; Wilson Road (Camberwell) carries us back to the beginning of the seventeenth 
century (1615), when Edward Wilson founded his Free Grammar School ; and Grace, 
Dagmar, and Maud Roads are doubtless named after members of the late Mr. Purkis's 
family. 

Myatt's Fields (Camberwell New Road) remind us of the celebrated market 
gardener whose strawberries were once so well known in the London market. The 
late Mr. Cuthill, the florist of Denmark Hill, has given his name to a new road 
Cuthill Road on the Denmark Hill Grammar School estate ; Goldsmith Road is 
doubtless named from its proximity to Goldsmith House, where good-natured Oliver 
Goldsmith acted as usher, and played the fool at one and the same time. 

Mr. John Grummant, a large owner of property in this parish, has given his name 
to Grummant Road (Peckham Road) ; and Chad wick Road (Lyndhurst Road) is also 
named after another wealthy freeholder. Grove Vale and Wood Vale sufficiently 
explain their particular nomenclature. Within a stone's throw of the Vestrv Hall a 
legal quarter has sprung up in the roads dedicated to Lords Lyndhurst, Denman, 
and Selborne, and to Mr. Justice Talfourd. One part of Peckham, the district 
surrounding St. Mary's Church, was formerly known as the " duck's nest ; " and 
Herne Hill, part of which is within our boundary, is generally supposed to have 
derived its name from the herons which formerly found a resting-place there. 
Ancient history gives us Cato Street, and a small cluster of cottages off Peckham 
Rye actually bears the imposing title of Troy Town ! 

Cold Harbour is taken to have originally signified a place of entertainment for 
travellers and drovers, who only required rest and fodder for their horses or cattle, as 
distinguished from the warm lodging and provisions of an inn.f The ruins of 
deserted Roman villas were no doubt often used by travellers who carried their own 
bedding and provisions, as is done by the frequenters of Khans and Seraia in the 
East. Such places seem commonly to have borne the name of Cold Harbour. In 
the neighbourhood of ancient lines of road are to be found no less than seventy 
places bearing this name, and about a dozen bearing the analogous names of Calde- 
cot, or cold-cot. J 

Amongst names abolished by the Metropolitan Board of Works may be mentioned 
Fountain Terrace, Camberwell Grove a spot associated with the story of George 
Barnwell ; Grove Hill, which Dr. Lettsom made his own ; Burdett Place, Old Kent 
Road, named after the famous baronet of that name ; St. Mary-le-Strand Place, so 
called from the workhouse of the parish of St. Mary-le-Strand, a building since pur- 
chased by Messrs. J. A. & W. Lyon for their bleaching works ; Church Terrace 
(Church Street, Camberwell), where the Camden Schools formerly stood ; Windmill 

* Now occupied by a Ladies' School, conducted f Archaeol., vol. xl. p. 437. 

by Mr. Tattersall. J Taylor's Words and Places. 



94 



Y e PAKISH OF CAMERWELL. 



Place (Camberwell Road), close to which the well-known mill stood, as a capital 
l)ounclary-mark between Camberwell and Newington ; Union Row (Camberwell 
Road), a place from which Thomas Hood sent forth some of his wittiest productions ; 
Blenheim Place (High Street, Peckham), which took its name doubtless from the 
associations suggested by Marlborough House ; Shard's Terrace (High Street, 
Peckham), a remnant association of the Shard family ; and South Street, the 
former designation of Rye Lane. 




CAMBERWELL UNDER THE COMMONWEALTH. 

URING the civil war, in tlie time of Charles I., the gentry of Cam- 
berwell were found taking an active part both in the civil squabbles 
and military movements of the day. On the 14th February, 1642-43, 
an ordinance was passed by the House of Commons for raising 500 
dragooners in the county of Surrey, under the command of Nicholas 
Stoughton, for the defence of the county ; and in the following month Parliament 
issued a An Ordinance sequestriiig the Estates of Delinquents, Papists, Spyes and 
Intelligencers ; together with instructions for such persons as are employed in 
sequestring such Delinquents' Estates." From the preamble to this ordinance it 
appears that, under the designation of delinquents were comprehended the bishops, 
deans, and other ecclesiastical dignitaries, " with all other person or persons, eccle- 
siasticall or temporal, as have raised or shall raise arms against the Parliament ; or 
have voluntarily contributed, or shall voluntarily contribute (not being under the 
power of any part of the King's army at the time of such contributing), any money, 
horse, plate, arms, munition, or other ayd or assistance for or towards the main- 
tenance of any Forces raised against the Parliament ; and all such as have joyned or 
.shall joyn in any oath or act of association against the Parliament ; or have imposed 
or shall impose any tax or assessment upon his Majestie's subjects for or towards the 
maintenance of any Forces against the Parliament." To this ordinance is appended 
a list of commissioners or sequestrators for the execution of the decree in the various 
counties, and the name of William Muschamp, of Peckham, is found amongst the 
number appointed to act for the county of Surrey. It will readily be imagined from 
the terms of the above decree that men of property were easily brought within one 
or other of its provisions, and numerous were the " Delinquents " in Camberwell, 
and many the petitioners to be allowed to compound for their sins against the 
Parliament. 

The petition of Isaac Moimtaigne and George Mountaigne, his " sonne and heire 
apparent," must surely have received consideration, since Mr. Mountaigne, sen., 
wished it to be known that although he " sent an horse to supply the fforces raised 
against the Parliam te in the beginninge of theis trouble," he had since lent 250 to 
the Parliament. Isaac Mountaigne held estates " lyinge and beinge in ye towne and 
pish of Camerwell " * and elsewhere, to the annual value of 263 3s. 8d. The petition 
is endorsed as follows : "Father's fine, 540 ; the sonne's fine, 250 ;" but the 250 
previously lent to the Parliament was evidently allowed as a kind of set-off, for at a 
later date it is stated that "Upo n a reveu, the fine is for both 357 10s." 

Another delinquent was Thomas Swingfield, of Peckham, who is described as 
having left his "habitacon and went to Worcester and lived there whiles it was a 
Garrison holden for the Kinge against the Parliam tc , and did assist those fforces raised 
against the Parliam te , and was there at the tyme of the Surrender and to have the 

* R. C. Papers, Second Series, vol. xvi. t R. C. Papers, Second Series, vol. xxxii. 



96 Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

"benefit of those Articles, as by S r Thomas ffairfax Certificate of the 23 rd July, 1646,. 
tloth appeare. He hath taken the Naconall Covenant before W m Barton, Minister of 
John Zacharies, the second of October, 1646, and the Negative oath heere this 19 th 
day of January, 1646. He is seized in fee to him and his heires in possession of two 
messuages and two small Ten'ts, with a Barn and other howsinge situate in Peckham 
in the parish of Camerwell. He alledgeth that he owes ,700 for the materialls that 
built theis howses, out of which he craves to be allowed." Fine, 300. It is evident 
that Mr. Thomas Swingfield did not lend .250 to the Parliam tr . The certificate of 
Sir Thomas Fairfax was as follows : 

Sir Thomas Fairfax, Knight Generall of the Forces raised by the Parliament. 

Suffer the bearer hereof, Thomas Swingfield, Esqr., who was in the city and 
garrison of Worcester, at the surrender thereof, and is to have the full benefit of the 
articles agreed unto upon the same, quietly and without let or interruption, to passe 
your Guards with his servants, three horses, Arms, Goods, and other Baggage on 
Horse-back, and to repaire unto London or elsewhere upon his necessary occasions. 
And in all places where hee shall reside, or where hee shall remove, to be protected 
from any violence to his Person or goods, according to the said articles, and to have 
full Liberty at any time within two months, to goe to any convenient Port and to Trans- 
port himself, with his Servants and Necessaries, beyond the seas. And in all other 
things to enjoy the benefit of the said Articles, hee havinge engaged himselfe not to 
1 >eare Armes against the Parliament of England. Hereunto all due obedience is to be 
given by all Persons whom it may concerne. 

Given under my Hand and scale, the 23rd day of July, 1646. 

FFAIRFAX. 

To all Ofiicers and Souldiers under my command, and to 
all others whom these may concerne. 

The petition of Robt. Ballett, of Dulwich,* in y c County of Surrey, gentleman, 
discloses the awful fact that the petitioner subscribed forty shillings towards the im- 
poverished exchequer of the king, for which rash act " ye Lords and other ye Com- 
missioners for compounding with Delinquents " did, on "ye 6 th day of August, 1646," 
proceed to sequester the estate of the said Robert Ballett. 

The petitioner made a most touching appeal to their Lordships, and duly set forth 
the fact that he had " ever bin very moderate ; and further, that he had 8 children and 
a wife to maintain." He threw himself upon the " accustomed clemency " of the 
Commissioners, who had u hitherto accorded to others of his Condicon a favorable 
Composicon." 

He affirms that he was not a " Papist, nor Popishly affected, nor ever a member of 
the hono blc house of Commons." The petition was referred to a sub-committee, 
which perhaps may account for the fact that the decision was considerably delayed, 
if indeed anything further was done in the matter. The sub-committee may have 
thought that the extenuating plea mentioned in Mr. Ballett's petition viz., his non- 
connection with the House of Commons a sufficient set-off to the crime of giving 
forty shillings to the king. 

The " accustomed clemency " referred to by Mr. Ballett was evidently something 
more than an empty compliment, for petitions poured in upon the Commissioners, not 
only from the gentry, whose estates had been sequestered, but also from others who, 
not much involved, perhaps, in the troubles of the time, were anxious nevertheless, 
by the payment of a small fine, to make their property secure, and Richard Crymes r 
of Peckham, f may be taken as a fair representative case. In his petition Richard 
Crymes states that he was never " sequestred, nor individually impeached for any 

* R. C. Papers, vol. xxxii. t R, C. Papers, Second Series, vol. Ixii. 



CAMBERWELL UNDER THE COMMONWEALTH. 97 

Delinquency against the Parliament, nor was engaged in either warre, but doubtinge 
hee may hereafter bee lyable to sequestracon. for something said or donne in relacon to 
the first warre, doth in pursuance of the late vote of y e 21 of March, 1648, humbty 
addresse himselfe to this hon ble Comittee, and humbly prayeth to bee admitted to 
composicon according to the said votes, as being himself the first discouerer." 

According to a well-known authority,* the famous Surrey petition in favour of 
Episcopacy was presented to the House of Commons by Sir Edmond Bowyer,of Camber- 
well, but the Journals of the House say (vol. v. p. 561) that it was delivered in by 
Mr. Price, who with other freeholders had been admitted to bring it into the House of 
Commons ; and Mr. Price is reported to have said " that he was commanded to 
desire a speedy and satisfactory answer thereunto." The petition had scarcely been 
read when the officer on guard, Lieut-Col. Cobbett, requested entrance, and informed 
the House " that the Surrey petitioners enforced the Guard and knocked down some 
of the soldiers, and gave out words 'that they would have a speedy and satisfactory 
answer, or else they would have the blood of this House,' and are withdrawn into the 
Fields." The petitioners afterwards published an account of the proceedings, 
admitting that some of the royalists, who had joined them, had given provocation to 
the soldiers, which brought about the tumult and the loss of life, but affirming at the 
same time, with greater earnestness, the prayer of their petition, and declaring that 
" neither King nor Parliament should oppress the people at their pleasure, either by 
committees, taxes, or free-quarter." 

Fighting of some kind appears to have taken place in the streets of the parish, as 
there is an entry in the Church Register, dated Aug. 1, 1647, to the following 
effect : 

" The same day was buryed a man that was killed upon the highway by the 
souldyers." 

* Mr. Bray. 




PAEOCHIAL HISTOEY. 



GENERAL REVIEW. 

.HE earliest minute extant of the parochial doings of the parish is that of 
June 2nd, 1674 (see Plate A g), and the committee which was then 
appointed, and which was described as " a committee to be chosen 
from the constant inhabitants, to meet monthly to consult with the 
minister and officers about the affairs of the parish for the preser- 
vation of good order and such other matters as relate to the parish and to com- 
municate from time to time, as occasion may be, what they have inquired into, and 
debated of, to a general meeting of the parishioners at the church," became a great 
institution in the parish, and as a committee retained its vitality, with certain 
modifications, until 1834. 

The meetings of the parishioners in the seventeenth century were generally held but 
once a year, 011 Easter Tuesday, and very little was discussed except the appointment 
of churchwardens and overseers. The poor had not yet become an object of anxiety ; 
and as to systems of drainage, the ethics of dust, and the mysteries of lighting and 
watching, and other modern parochial inventions, they were not allowed to disturb 
the harmony of the vestry proceedings. 

The accounts of the churchwardens and overseers afforded an outlet for parochial 
zeal, and many and fierce were the contests to be elected an auditor, the cause of 
which zeal may perhaps be found in the fact that the auditing of accounts was a very 
small affair ; whilst the real business of the day, by which it was succeeded, was 
much more serious.* It is a matter of fact, however, that the auditors were selected 
from the leading gentry of the neighbourhood, who invariably took an active part in 
.all local questions. The vicar, Dr. Parr, kept the minutes of the vestry till his 
death (1691), and took a very active part in parochial questions and served as auditor 
of the parish accounts, along with Sir Edmond Bowyer, John Scott, Esq., Anthony 
Bowyer, Esq., and other leading residents. 

The proceedings of the vestry held on the 14th day of April, 1696 (Plate A i) are 
interesting from the fact that the pensioners of the parish are there requested to 
report themselves to the churchwardens " after the sermon in ye afternoone," in 
order that their cases might be inquired into. These pensioners wore badges,f were 
few in number, and were tolerably well cared for. 

In the facsimile (A c) the name of the parish is spelt with & ; and since the date 
there given (1726) the parish has always been known as Camberwell. Until the 
passing of the Local Management Act of 1855 ; the parish was managed by an open 
Testry. 

* Auditing the accounts of the present day each about one halfpenny per hour ! 
-usually occupies about thirty evenings, and the au- t See Churchwardens' Accounts, 

ditora are handsomely rewarded with one guinea 




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PAROCHIAL HISTORY. 99 

Local self-government has made wonderful strides in Camberwell in the past 
thirty years, and through its agency much practical good has been accomplished. 
With the present generation has sprung up not only the true theory of local govern- 
ment, but the capacity to understand it in all its details. Whereas, previously to 
1844, the parochial mind was chiefly occupied with local duties thrust upon it by 
imperial legislation, a new state of things is strongly apparent after that date. It may 
perhaps best be described as an obtrusive and aggressive feeling, which gradually but 
surely took possession of men's minds. Not satisfied with existing local duties, 
there was a craving to go out into the highways and byways of public life in search 
of a larger sphere of usefulness. 

There were, of course, occasional excesses committed ; great disputes over little 
subjects ; and religious animosity and party feeling too often marred the doings of 
our active local reformers ; but in spite of all this, there was the unmistakable 
evidence of .life, which with all its passions and follies is preferable to parochial 
death, as represented by the stagnant pool of unanimity. 

It was not, perhaps, generous to oppose the election of the organist of St. Giles's 
Church every year ; to fight over the emoluments of the beadle ; to poll the parish as 
to whether the church-rate should be one penny or three halfpence ; to fight over 
the salary of the vestry clerk and the election of a churchwarden once a year ; but 
men who did these things were capable of doing greater things, for the agitation 
which was set on foot in Camberwell, and carried on so energetically against the 
chaotic absurdity of local mal-administration, resulted in the passing of the Local 
Management Act of 1855. 

In ten years, from 1844 to 1854, our local reformers were ever active, holding 
special vestry meetings, preparing elaborate reports, and petitioning both Houses of 
Parliament in favour of a better system of local self-government. The greatest 
grievance connected with the subject was the defective system of drainage under the 
control of the Commissioners of Sewers. In 1844 the Highway Board, in their 
report, directed the attention of the vestry " to an existing evil which has claimed 
much of their serious and anxious attention, as well from their own observations as 
from the continued applications for remedy in the matter of drainage in many 
densely populated districts of this parish, the state of which your Board feel it a 
disgrace to a civilized metropolitan parish, engendering filth and disease, and it is a 
source of much regret that they are powerless in the matter." 

In addition to the power exercised by the Commissioners of Sewers, the ratepayers 
were governed by Lighting Trusts, the Highway Board, by guardians, overseers, and 
other local powers. 

The desirability, however, of having a more efficient control locally in the matter 
of drainage was the principal inducement to continue the agitation for an improved 
local government. 

The cholera/ which raged in the metropolis in 1849, convinced the parishioners of 
Camberwell of the necessity for reform. 

On June 13th, 1850, a public vestry was called " to consider the present most in- 
efficient and most injurious management of the public sewers of this parish," with a 
view to petition Parliament for immediate redress on the subject. This requisition 
was signed by about 250 of the most influential ratepayers. In the course of the dis- 
cussion it was stated by the surveyor to the Highway Board that there were no less 
than twelve miles of open sewers actually receiving house drainage in Camberwell, 
and that the contributions of the parish to the Commissioners of Sewers had not been 

* The number of deaths in London for the week of deaths from iVth June to 2nd October, in London, 
ending Sept. 15th, 1849, was 3,183 ; and the number alone, 13,161. 

H 2 



100 Y c PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

less than ^6,000 a year for the three past years, whereas the amount spent by the 
Commission for permanent improvements in Camberwell did not exceed ,500 during 

that time." 

The resolutions which were passed at the meeting so clearly foreshadowed the 
system of local government which was adopted five years later, that Camberwell may 
claim to have exercised a great influence in the promotion of the Local Manage- 
ment Act of 1855. 

The resolutions were as follows : 

" That this vestry is satisfied that the necessary arrangements for cleansing this 
vast district can only be effectually carried out by a division of labour, and that the 
inhabitants can and ought constitutionally to require that the requisite fund should 
be raised and applied under the management of local boards appointed by and ac- 
cessible to the ratepayers having a certain amount of responsibility, and subject to a 
modified control by a central court, such local board to consist of persons duly 
qualified at least by local knowledge, business habits, and some scientific and 
practical attainments as regards this subject, and by their ability and willingness to 
devote the necessary time and attention to its details." 

"That,* impressed with these views, this vestry considers an immediate application to 
Parliament for some alteration in the existing laws, relating to this subject, is in- 
dispensably necessary, and the parish officers are hereby requested, in conjunction 
with a committee of ratepayers, to prepare a petition to both Houses of Parliament in 
accordance with the foregoing resolutions." 

Another vestry meeting was held on the 2nd January, 1851, at which a resolution 
was carried 

" For the entire removal of the present irresponsible, arbitrary, and most unconsti- 
tutional system, and its replacement by another which shall be alike simple, respon- 
sible, and constitutional." 

The effect of all this agitation we now know. The Local Management Act of 
1855, by giving more power to local bodies, has placed Camberwell in the van of 
metropolitan parishes ; for the admirable system of drainage carried out under the 
personal supervision of the surveyor, Mr. J . C. Reynolds, has completely revo- 
lutionized the sanitary statistics of the locality. 

As an evidence of what has been done since the passing of the above Act, it 
appears from a report presented to the Metropolitan Board of Works in April, 1871, 
that the extent of sewerage works, &c. , executed since 1st January, 1856,. exceeded 
fifty miles, at a cost of ,101,828. The report states that in 1856 the parish was 
almost wholly undrained, except into offensive open sewers several miles in extent. 
The quantity of paving, &c., executed since the same time, 460,582 feet ; cost of 
same, .15,352 ; while the amount expended in works of improvement amounted to 
.40,781 14s. 9d. 

The mileage of streets under the control of the vestry in 1871 was forty-three miles. 

The roads watered by the parish extended to thirty-nine miles ; the charge for 
water by the water company is stated to be from 35 to .50 per mile, according to 
width of road, and whether on high or low levels. The cost of cartage, horse hire, 
&c., for watering purposes, from 28s. to 34s. per mile per week. As regards 
lighting, it is stated that the charge for supplying public lamps with gas varies 
from 4 5s. to 4 12s. per year, and 724 additional lamps have been put up since 
1856. 

The following return made by the Vestry to the Metropolitan Board of Works 

* This resolution was moved by Mr. John Andrew Lyon, who took a very active part in furthering 
sanitary and other reforms. 



PAEOCHIAL HISTORY. 101 

(Dec. 1874), shows the extent and cost of works executed by the Vestry from 
Jan. 1st, 1856, to 25th day of March, 1874 : 

Miles. 

1. Total length of new sewers constructed from 1st January, 
1856, to 25th March, 1874 





Total cost of the same 

2. Total cost of any other sanitary works executed by the 

Vestry or District Board 2,000 

Square Yds. 

3. Total superficial area of paving laid down from 1st January, 
1856, to 25th March, 1874 

Total cost of the same 

4. Total cost of any other street improvements executed by the 
Vestry or District Board ...... 

5. Number of additional street lamps put up from 1st January, 

1856, to 25th March, 1874 No. 910 

6. Present mileage of the streets and roadways under the juris- Miles. 

diction of the Vestry or District Board *. 52 

(Signed) E. Dresser Rogers, Chairman of the General Purposes Committee. 

Frederick Fermor, Chairman of the Sewers and Sanitary Committee. 
J. C. Reynolds, Surveyor. 
16th December, 1874. 

The following is the total amount expended in sewerage, paving, lighting, and other 
improvements, 1856 71 : 

s. cl 

Sewerage 206,221 10 4 

Paving and repairing, and other general im- 
provements t 235,609 7 1 

Lighting 92,578 17 1 

.'534,409 14 6 



LIGHTING AND WATCHING. 

Keeping watch by night and ward by day was a very serious, if not very successful, 
undertaking in days gone by. The putting out of fire and candle at 8 o'clock by the 
sound of bell remained in force only during the reigns of the Conqueror and William 
Rufus. Henry I. restored the use of fire and lights, " and in consequence," says an 
authority,^ " many men gave themselves to robbery and murders in the night." 
Writing of 1175, Roger Hovedon recounts in quaint manner the excesses committed 
by the fast well-to-do young men of that time, who made night hideous with their 
drunken orgies. Amongst the young men concerned in one of the midnight robbery- 
brawls, was one John Senex, who is described as a " citizen of great countenance, 
credit, and wealth, who not being able to acquit himselfe by the Water-Doom (as 
that law was then termed), offered the King 500 pounds of silver for his life. But 
forasmuch as he was condemned by Judgment of the Water, the King would not 

* The footpaths under the management of the and Taylor's Bridge, crossing the Grand Surrey 
Vestry extend to 104 miles, It) miles of which have Canal ; widening Grove Lane, Wells Street, and 
been [flag-paved at the public cost, 20 miles have Havil Street ; the purchase and laying out of Cam- 
been flag-paved at the cost of owners, 45 miles berwell Green, the purchase of Peckham Rye, Goose 
have been tar-paved, and 30 yet remain to be dealt Green, and Nunhead Green, as open public spaces, 
with. and sixty new roads equal in length to 7| miles. 

t Included in the above improvements are the J Seymour's Survey, 
rebuilding of St. George's Bridge, Buck's Bridge, 



102 Y" PAKISH OF CAMERWELL. 

take the offer, but commanded him to be hanged at the gallows, which was done, and 
then the city became more quiet for a long time after." As a remedy for " enormities 
of the night," Henry III. commanded night-watchers to be kept, " for the better 
observance of peace and quietness " among his people. 

In addition to the standing watches, "all in bright harness," there was a "marching 
watch," which passed through the principal streets. This nocturnal march was 
illuminated by 940 cressets, two men being appointed to each cresset, one to carry it, 
and another to bear a bag with light, and to serve it, so that the men pertaining to 
the cressets, taking wages, besides having a straw hat, with a badge painted, and a 
breakfast in the morning, amounted in number to nearly 2,000. An early black-letter 
poet notices these cressets borne in pageants : 

"Let nothing that's magnificent 
Or that may tend to London's graceful slate 
Be unperformed, as shews and solemn feasts, 
Watches in armour, triumphs, creaset-lights, 
Bonfires, bells, and peals of ordnance 
And pleasure." 

The night marches were suppressed by Henry VIII. in 1539,* on account of the 
great expense of maintaining them. 

In Stow's day there was a regular watch kept, and the bellman, he tells us, " espe- 
cially in the long nights, went through the streets and lanes ringing a bell, and 
saluting his masters and mistresses with some rhymes suitable to the festival and 
season of the year, at the same time bidding them look to their lights." But the 
watchman was of a much earlier period. The chroniclers tell us that in 1416 the 
mayor, Sir Henry Barton, ordered lanterns and lights to be hung out on winter 
evenings betwixt Allhallows and Candlemas. 

The watchman's cry was : 

" Lantern, and a whole candle light ! 
Hang out your lights ! Hear ! " t 

In Stow's time all housekeepers were bound to keep watch in their own district 
after nightfall, or provide a substitute for the purpose. " Then and there," says the 
historian, " one went all night with a bell, and at each lane's end gave warning of fire 
and candle, and to help the poor, and pray for the dead." 

"Watching and warding " in Camberwell about this time was carried out much in 
the same way as in the city of London. Householders were compelled to perform 
the duties, or to provide a substitute. It will be seen from the following returns that 
the leading residents in the reign of the first Charles were brought within the pro- 
visions of the Act of Parliament, for not only is the vicar's name on the list, but we 
find also that of Sir Edmond Bowyer and Mr. Dennis Fleming. 

The retorne of the names of such Houskeapers by the Constables of Cam r well & 
Peckham w ch doe eith r watch them selves or appoint able sufficient men as there 
servants or houskeapers, whose names are here sett downe according to the contents 
of the warrant from the High Constable for the same service bearing date the first of 
Aprill 1639, and also the names of the warders w ch doe ward in the Day tyme for the 
same service. 

* They were again set on foot in 1548, during the flout by the Lord Mayor was taken in ill part, and 

mayoralty of Sir Henry Amcoats, who succeeded Sir for the same offence Hobson was sent to the 

John Gresham ; and in about twenty years after this Counter ; but being released the next night follow- 

marching watch and its procession were entirely ing, thinking to amend his call, the bedell cried 

remodelled, and a standing watch, much more out with a loud voice, 'Hang out your lant ernes 

useful and less expensive, appointed in its stead. and candles ! ' Maister Hobson hereupon hung 

t In the Pleasant Comments of Old Holson, the out a lanterne and candle imlighted, as the bedell 

merry Londoner, 1006, we read that when ' the again commanded ; whereupon he was sent again 

order of hanging out lanterne and candle-light front to the Counter; but the next night the bedell, 

of all was brought up, the bedell of the warde being the better advised, cried out, 'Hang out 

where Maister Hobson dwelt, in a darke evening, your lanterne and candle-light," which Maister 

crieing up and downe, ' Hang out your lanternes ! Hobson at last did, to his great commendation, 

hang out your lanternes ! ' using no other wordes, which cry of ' lanterne and candle-light ' is in right 

Maister Hobson tooke an emptie lanterne, and, manner used to this day. " 
according to the bedell's call, hung it out. This 



PAROCHIAL HISTORY. 103 

CanVwell Monday night the j th of Aprill. 

Sir Edmond Bowyer, for him Roger Spavell his servant. 

Dennis ffleming Esqui r e for him John Braston houskeaper. 

Mr. Lawrence Brinley for him J ohn Sheappeaul houskeaper. 

Mr. (blank) Blackwell for him John Cotterell his servant. 
Peckham Monday night. 

Markes ffeild houskeaper. 

Thomas Smith houskeaper. 

John Clayton houskeaper. 
Cam r well Tuesday night the 2 th of Aprill. 

Mr. Peter Dawson vicar for him Thomas Selby his servant. 

Mr. Thomas Large for him Thomas Lewis houskeaper. 

Mr. Nicholas Hunt for him Raph Maken his servant. 

Mr. (blank) Cade for him Georg Needham houskeaper. 
Peckham Tuesday night 2 th of Aprill. 

Thomas Banckes houskeaper. 

John Barton houskeaper. 

James ffrime houskeaper. 

Warders for the Day tyme George Needham & John ffloyd houskeapers. 

past prudence Harmon, the 24 th of January from Cam'well to Willton in Willshire 
who had receaued corection according to law at Gillingham in kent. 

Past Richard Williams from Cam r well to lewton in the Countie of Som r set who 
had receaued correction according to law at Gillingham in kent. 

past Elyzabeth bell and An Bell from Peckham to Douer in kent who receaued 
Corection accordin to law. 



(Endorsed) 
rel 
warding.* 



James Drap ) , < , , -, 

& John Stratffeild > Constables. 



The retorne of the Constables of Cam'well and Peckham for watching and 






Right Hoble. 

According to yo r Lop s Comand for Watching, Warding, punishing and passing 
away of Vagarants (in his Ma ts absence) w th in the Burroughe of Southwark & hundred 
of Brixton in the County of Surrey wee humbly certifie yo r Lop s as followeth : 

In Cam'well pishe ) 8 Watchmen ) every 
in like manner } 2 Warders } night & day. 

punished & passed away in that pishe 4 psons. 

The SQU r all Stages & places of theire Watchings & wardings attended w th the 
Constables w th in the pishes and Libties aforesaid may more plainely appeare unto yo r 
Lopps by theire Certificates hereunto annexed- ; And for the better execucon of this 
service the seu r all Highe Constables ryde up & downe every weeke to see the Petty 
Constables perform theire duties. 

Tho. Crymes.f 

John Lenthall. 

Abraha. Dawes. 

Fra poulton. 

Daniel Featley. 
Southwark 3 Apr 
1639. 

* State Papers, D. S., vol. ccccxvii., No. 25, iii. f Sir Thomas Grymes, of Peckham. 



104 Y PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

To the right ho able S r Francis Crauley K* one of ye Judges of his Ma tles ho al)le 
Court of Comon Pleas and S r Richard Weston K* one of the Barrens of his Ma ties 
Exchequer his Ma ties Judges of Assize for the Countie of Surry. 

Maie it please your Good Lo pps 

In most humble obedience unto his M tics Royall Comauiid declared in the printed 
booke of Orders Anno 1630. And accordinge to the Directions of the right ho able the 
Lordes of his Ma ties most ho able privie Councell expressed in theire ho able Letters 
formerlie directed unto us. And in Pursuance also of yo r Lo pps Directions : wee have w th 
all delligence endevored his Ma ties Princely Comaundes and the Directions aforesaide 
w th in o r division of this Countie, w eh is the Burrough of Southwark and y e Hundred 
of Brixton, ffor accompt wherein, since July last, Wee humblie present unto yo r 
Lo pps Theis perticulers followinge 

That wee haue sente fourth our warrantes to the severall Constables of the saide 
Burrough and Hundred for the due execucon of the saide printed booke of Orders, 
and required theire severall Certificatts unto us under ye ir handes touchinge the 
premisses w ch wee haue receaved from them Wherein wee finde 

That theere watches and wardes are in most places reasonablie well kept & thereby 
the nombers of Rogues and Vagrants are in some measure Lessoned Also by the 
saide Certificatt it appeareth 

That w th in the tyme aforesaide, there haue byn taken, Punished, and conveyed 
awaye accordinge to the Lawe w th in the Division aforesaid 279 vagrants. 

That within the tyme aforesaide, there haue byn placed and bound out Apprentizes 
to severall Maisters and Dames 12 poore Children of the pishes aforesaide And 

That within the Division aforesaide there are many poore Children w ch are yet too 
younge to be put fourth to service Besides a great nomber of are lame, and impotent 
poore people : both w ch sortes of poore, are kept and maynteyned by the Care and 
Charge, of the Inhabitants of the severall parishes aforesaide. 

Wee have also abated the nomber of Alehowses lycensed, and will contynewe yerely 
so to doe, untill they be reduced to convenient nomber. And the unlicensed Alehowse 
keepers wee haue punished accordinge to Lawe. 

We haue likewise Levied of severall Alehowsekeepers and other persons w th in y e 
division aforesaide to the use of the poore of the severall pishes ffor swearinge and 
Drunckennes and sufferinge to tipple in Alehowses 6" 12 s Also 

Wee finde by the saide Certificates That in divers of the saide pishes, there are 
divers persons, that Devide theire howses and receave in under sitters & Inmates a 
greate meanes of increasinge the poore. Theis Delinquents wee haue also resolved to 
proceed agaynst by Indict mte at the next Sessions. 

All w ch wee humblie Leaue to yo r Lo pps grave wisdoms* and humbly take our 
Leaves. And rest 

Att yo r Lo pps Comaundem te 

Tho: Crymes. 
1 Marcij 1635. John Lenthall. 

Edw: Bromfeilde. 

Surr Hundred de Brixton 

The certificatt of the names of all suche Rogues Vagabounds &c as were taken in the 
watche and searche made w th in the Hundred and Ly mitts herafter ensuynge the xij th 
of October 1571 acordinge unto Ires unto me and others directed from the Quenes 

* State Papers, D. S., rol. cccxv., No. 15. 



PAROCHIAL HISTORY. 



105 



Mats honorable p r vie 
pounyshed as followetli 



Councill in that behalf the xxx th of July last and 



Surr 

Hundred de 
Brixton et 
Wallington 



Hevve Crandatt 
George Ogle 
Elsabeth Kentt 
Alse Stanlay 
Symonde Istlipp 
Willm Stewarde 
John Whitt 
Edwarde Johnes 
Thomas Wilson 
Alse Styuens 
Willm Tofte 
John Hawoode 
Edwarde Attodam 
John Garforde 
Roger Weight put to s r vic e 
* by me Edwa r d Scotte. 



The certificate of all the names of all suche Rogues vagabounds as 
were taken in the Watche made w th in the hundred & lymits herafter 
ensuynge the xx th of Auguste 1571 accordinge unto Lres unto us 
and others directed from the Quenes ma ts honorable p r vie Councell 
in that behalf the xxx th of July Last and punyshed as followetli 



John Jenkens 
Davie Jonnes 
Phillipp Jonnes 
Johon Bloiner 
Margarett Leett 
Hariy Peycok 
Byran Brudlow 
Edward Hastely 
ffrauncs Clark 



s Whipped 



Roger Milles .... stocked 

ffrauncs Pas 
John Benne 
Tegg Bryan 



ffrauncs Paston "} 

John Bennett > put to S r vice 



t by me Edwa r d Scotte. 

Burglaries have been but too common in the past history of this parish. In the 
early part of the last century, in consequence of numerous acts of violence and 
robbery, which were during the winter months almost of daily occurrence, the 
parishioners in vestry assembled determined by public subscription to do something 
to assist the churchwardens in convicting the evil-doers (see facsimile A e). The 
resolutions passed at a later period (Oct. 1789) are, to say the least of them, amusing, 
and worthy of perusal. From a book kindly placed at our disposal, it appears that 
these subscriptions were made annually until the year 1823, and the following items, 
amongst others, occur in the statement of accounts : 



1797. Expenses on Acco. Titchener's robbery . .... 

1814. Expenses on apprehending Admiral Knight's gardener for stealing 



1816. Expenses attending attempt for discovering housebreakers 



s. d. 
15 

5 12 
490 



* State Papers, D. S., vol. Ixxxi., No. 



t State Papers, D. S., vol. Ixxx., No. 44. 






106 Y c PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

1817. A moiety of the expenses attending the prosecution and conviction s. d. 

of Turner for a robbery at Mr. W. Reade's,* he having pre- 
viously broken into an outhouse of Mr. Acland's, on which 
account Mr. R. joined in the prosecution . .' : ..1884 
Howard and others, reward in apprehending Turner . . 10 

1818. Feb. 3. Expenses attending the prosecution of Dawkins, at the Old 

Bailey, for privately stealing a shirt and three handkerchiefs 
from Mr. Acland's laundry, for which he was sentenced to seven 
years' transportation 198 

Mar. 4. Mr. Ely, for expenses incurred by him in the prosecution 

to conviction of J. Johnson for pot stealing, in May, 1817 . 2 18 

Sept. 9. Reward for apprehending three men who robbed Mr. 

"Wanostrocht's garden 500 

1823. By Lewis, for convicting Barnes of robbing Mr. Wanostrocht's farm 1 14 

FROM VESTRY MINUTES. 
BURGLARIES, ETC., IN THE PARISH. OCT. 29ra, I789.f 

" Several houses having lately been broke open in this parish, this vestry is held to 
consider of proper measures to prevent the same for the future." 

Adjourned to November 5th, and handbills of the following purport be printed 
and delivered at the houses of the parishioners : 

" Whereas divers burglaries and robberies have been lately committed in the parish 
of St. Giles, Camberwell, the same having been considered at a vestry held in and 
for the said parish on the 29th of October, and having been proposed at the said 
vestry to appropriate a sum out of the assessment called the poor-rate, as a reward 
for apprehending and convicting offenders Notice is hereby given that an adjourned 
vestry will be held on the 5th of November next at 3 o'clock in the afternoon, in the 
vestry room of the church, at which time the said proposal will be fully considered 
and determined upon. 

ADJOURNED VESTRY, Nov. 5TH, 1789. 

The question being put That it is the opinion of this vestry that rewards, in ad- 
dition to the rewards given by Act of Parliament, should be paid by the church- 
wardens of this parish for the apprehending and convicting of persons committing 
felonies in the said parish, the same was carried in the affirmative, and it was 
ordered 

That a reward of twenty pounds be paid by the churchwardens for the time being, 
upon conviction of the person or persons who were lately concerned in sacrilegiously 
breaking into and robbing the parish church, or upon conviction of any person or 
persons who shall for the future break into and rob or intend to rob the same. 

For every person convicted of burglariously (or by night) breaking into or out of 
any dwelling-house, shop, warehouse, granary, barn, stable, coach-house, cow-house, 
dairy, fowl-house, or outbuilding (appurtenant to the dwelling-house) within this 
parish, or robbing, or intending to rob, the same, .20. 

For every person convicted of a highway or footpad robbery within this 
parish, ^20. 

For every person convicted of stealing in the daytime from or in any dwelling- 

* This house in the Peckham Road, next Mr. "Wednesday night last Capt. Lambert was 

K. A. Gray, J.I., is now occupied by Mr. G. R. stopped by three footpads, between Peckham and 

Camberwell, and robbed of a sum of money and 

t In Lloyd s Evening Pott, Jan. 16-19, 1701, is the his gold watch." 
following entry : 






PAEOCHIAL HISTORY. 107 

house, shop, warehouse, &c., within this parish, goods to the value of Jive shillings or 
upwards, 20. 

For every person convicted of stealing any horse, bullock, cow, or sheep from any 
field or common of pasture within the parish, Ten pounds. 

For every person convicted of wilfully and maliciously setting fire to any 
dwelling-house, shop, warehouse, outhouse, or to any stacks or cocks of hay, straw, 
corn, or wood, .20. 

Stealing corn, hay, straw, or wood in faggots from any field or homestall, 5. 

Breaking into any garden, garden ground, orchard, or fishpond, and robbing the 
same, or of breaking down, cutting or pulling up, or otherwise destroying any trees, 
shrubs, fence, hedge, gate, stile, or barr, pails, rails, or post, or of stealing the same, or 
any iron or lead belonging to the same, or affixed to any dwelling-house or outhouse, 
&c., within this parish, 5. 

For every person convicted of stealing any linen at the wash, bricks from the 
grounds, or poultry or hogs depasturing and feeding within this parish, 5. 

For every person, if inhabitants of this parish, convicted under the statute 5th 
Queen Anne, of receiving goods knowing them to be stolen, or of harbouring or 
abetting felons of the above description, .10 ; and for other larcenies above specified, 
2 10s. 

If any of the above offences are aggravated by the crime of murder, a further 
reward of .20 over and above all other rewards will be paid on conviction. 

As a further encouragement for apprehending offenders, the charge of prosecuting 
them to conviction shall be defrayed by the said churchwardens, provided such suit 
is conducted by and under their direction." 

In the year 1804 a man named George Heeles was tried at the Surrey Assizes 
(March 24), and convicted of robbing the house of Mr. Epps, of Camberwell, of a tea- 
pot, and was sentenced to be hanged. Eleven other persons were convicted at the 
same time for petty robberies, and sentence of death was passed in each instance. 

In 1807 a reward of forty guineas was offered by the vestry " for the conviction of 
the person who committed a daring outrage upon a poor girl in the north fields." 

On the 18th September, in consequence of the great increase in the number of 
robberies of a grave kind, another special meeting of the vestry took place, when the 
following resolutions were passed : 

ROBBERIES. SEPTEMBER 18TH, 1816. 

" It is the opinion of this vestry that burglaries and robberies have of late in- 
creased in this parish to an alarming extent, and that it is necessary some measure 
should be adopted, more effectual than those which at present exist, to secure the 
lives and properties of its inhabitants during the ensuing winter. 

" It is the opinion of this vestry that endeavours should be made to procure this 
parish to be included within the limits of the Bow Street patrol ; the efforts of which 
have been found eminently successful within those districts to which it has been 
extended in the prevention of criminal depredations. 

" That a committee be formed to consider the best and most efficacious means of 
establishing a system of police within this parish, and also to consider of a plan for 
an association for giving rewards upon the discovery, apprehension, and conviction 
of offenders. 

" That the thanks of this vestry be given to the Rev. Edward Smyth and John 
Bowles, Esq., the acting magistrates, for their prompt interference in establishing a 
patrole of constables whereby many criminal persons have been in the course of a 
few nights apprehended, and now stand committed for various burglaries and rob- 
beries committed in the neighbourhood." 



108 



PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 



We must not omit to mention that two Acts of Parliament had been obtained, one 
in 1776 and the other in 1787, for " Lighting and Watching the villages of Camber well 
and Peckham, and certain roads leading thereto ; and for establishing a Foot Patrole 
between Peckham and Blackman Street in the Borough of South wark." The Cam- 
berwell Trust met at the " Golden Lyon " in Canibervvell, and the Peckham Trust at 
" The Red Ball," High Street, Peckham. The powers vested in the respective trusts 
were rather extensive, for the collectors could apply for a warrant of distress against 
the debtor, without first summoning him to appear to show cause of non-payment, 
three days after the rate became due ! Houses under .10 rent were exempt from 
rates. 

The following were the published rules to be observed by the watchmen of the 
village of Peckham : 

1. All the watchmen are required to receive their coats and arms from the con- 
stable every night at the watch-house, and to return them to the same place in the 
morning ; and to be on duty during the hours specified in the table hereunto 
annexed. 

2. All the watchmen are directed to call the half-hours, and the road watch to 
strike every hour on their bells. 

3. All the watchmen are required attentively to watch in their respective districts 
during their hours of duty, to take care that peace and order be everywhere kept, 
and to take into custody and deliver over to the constable of the night all disorderly 
persons. 

4. All the watchmen are required particularly to obey the orders of the constable 
on duty. 

The patroles are to go and return every half-hour, from the "Bull " in Peckham 
to the "Green Man " turnpike, in the Kent Road ; from the 1st to the 15th Sept., 
from eight to half-past nine ; from the loth of Sept. to the 1st of April, from six to 
nine ; and from the 1st to the 15th of April, from eight to half-past nine o'clock ; and 
they are to protect all passengers on the road ; also when they go off their duty, they 
are to deposit their arms and coats with the constable at the watch-house. 

HOURS OF THE WATCHMEN BEING ON DUTY. 
From Sept. 30 to Nov. 4. 



Nov. 4 to Feb. 19. 

Feb. 19 to April 16. 

April 16 to May 7. 

May 7 to Aug. 6. 

Aug. 6 to Aug. 27. 

Aug. 27 to Sept. 30. 



Town 


watch 


from . 


Road 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


Town 


J? 


53 


Road 






53 


3) 


33 


Town 


33 


33 


Road 


33 


33 


33 


33 


3) 


Town 


35 


)) 


Road 


55 


33 


Town 





33 


Road 


55 


31 


Town 


35 


33 


Road 








33 


33 


Town 


5> 


33 


Road 


3> 


3J 



9 


to 


5 


7 


33 


12 


12 


33 


6 


8 


3> 


6 


5 


33 


12 


12 


33 


7 


9 


33 


5 


7 


33 


12 


12 


)) 


5 


10 


33 


4 


9 


33 


5 


10 


33 


4 


9 


J3 


4 


10 


33 


4 


9 


33 


5 


9 


33 


5 


7 


33 


12 


12 


3 1 


5 



PAROCHIAL HISTORY. 109 

In the year 1816 the inhabitants of Camberwell, notwithstanding " Watching and 
Lighting Trusts," " Watchmen/' " Patroles," and other means of defence, complained 
loudly of the dangerous state of the roads after dark, and various suggestions were 
made for improving the alarming state of affairs. It was suggested by some that the 
watchmen should be deprived of their boxes, in order to compel them to " move on," 
against which it was urged that in wet weather the watchmen were too often not to 
be found, their excuse being that Mr. So and So's servant had called them in for 
shelter. Others again suggested that the high roads of the parish should be placed 
under the surveillance of the Bow Street patrol, " the benefit of which," says a report 
published about this time (1816), " in the prevention of highway and footpad robberies 
has of late been found highly effectual in most parts of the neighbourhood of the 
metropolis." 

In 1828* the trustees of the Camberwell and Peckham New Lighting Trust 
entered into arrangements with the Phoenix Gas Company to light their portion of 
the parish with gas at 1 7s. per lamp per annum, subject to a deduction of 10s. 6d. 
per lamp for every thirty private lights supplied by the company within the trust. 
Five per cent, was also allowed for prompt payment. This contract lasted for seven 
years, and then the Lighting Trust in their wisdom retrograded into " oil " and 
" spirit of naphtha." The oil lamps not proving satisfactory, after the adoption of gas 
for seven years, the Lighting Trust looked about for an inflammable compound which 
would give as much light as gas and at the same time prove as cheap as oil. The oil 
lamps were said to have had a very short nocturnal existence, and that extremely 
sickly, and so a committee was appointed to meet at the " Crown and Sceptre," Green- 
wich, to discuss the merits of a " new inflammable matter," patented by Messrs. 
Enderby and Co., of Greenwich. The committee were perfectly charmed with the 
newly-patented "indian rubber lights," inspected and reported accordingly to the 
other members of the Lighting Trust, but strange to relate, when negotiations were 
sought to be opened with the Messrs. Enderby, no notice was taken of the application. 
Perhaps the " new indian rubber light patent " had burnt itself out ! Advertisements 
were subsequently inserted (Aug. 1835) in the Morning Advertiser, Times, Morning 
Chronicle, and Morning Herald, inviting tenders for lighting the Camberwell and 
Peckham New Trust with " gas, oil, or other materials." Amongst other tenders 
received were an " oil '"' tender at 2 10s. per lamp per annum, and a " spirit of 
naphtha " tender at .3 10s. per lamp per year, with an additional 5s. per lamp per 
year for lamp repairs. The gas companies were sulky, and refused to tender, and in 
the end the " spirit of naphtha " tender was accepted. Three specimen lights were 
ordered to be exhibited " adjacent to the bridge, near St. George's Church." 

The new lights proved a failure. They were, after seven years of gas, a great 
mistake, and loud and long were the complaints of the ratepayers, and indignation 
meetings on the subject were held in various parts of the parish, and ultimately gas 
was again adopted as a lighting power.t At the present time there are 1,933 public 

* Gas was first introduced into London (at And called for better light ! 
Golden Lane) 16 Aug. 1807; Pall Mall, 1809; When straight a cry was heard, 
generally through London, 1814-20. Haydn, ' No Popery no mass- 
Dictionary of Dates. Our glorious constitution 

The horror of certain individuals against the No Gas no gas.'" 
introduction of gas is thus depicted (Poems : by 

W. C. Bennett) : t The clerk to the trust, in his record of the 

proceedings, was most profuse with his ad- 

" Only half a century since, jectives in describing the qualities of the chairman. 

Fifty years or so, The chairman of a Lighting Trust was perhaps 

Safely through our London streets more "enlightened" than the chairman of any 

At night, you couldn't go ; other local organization, for no other chairman was 

Oil lamps and Charlies so honoured. In the votes of thanks, with which 

Strove with thieves and night ; the meetings concluded, the chairman is described 

The public got the worst of it, as "obliging," " able," " very able," "attentive," 



HO Y c PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

lamps within the parish, 1,728 of which are lighted by the South Metropolitan Gas 
Company, 103 l>y the Crystal Palace Gas Company, and 102 by the Phoenix Gas 

Company. 

The South Metropolitan Gas Company charges 4 5s. per annum per lamp, less a 
discount of 12 per cent. ; the Phcenix Company, 10s. per lamp ; and the Crystal 
Palace Company, 4 Us. per lamp. 

The parish now contributes about ,11,000 annually for police protection.* 



THE CHURCHWARDENS' ACCOUNTS. 

THE churchwarden is a kind of parochial peer, with one eye upon the church and 
the other on the rates. His duties seem originally to have been limited to such 
matters only as concern the church considered materially as an edifice, building, or 
place of public worship, the duty of suppressing profaneness and immorality having 
been entrusted to two persons, chosen by the parishioners as assistants to the church- 
wardens, who, from their power of inquiring into offences detrimental to the interests 
of religion, and of presenting the offenders to the next provincial council or episcopal 
svnod, were called questmen or synod's-men, which last appellation has been con- 
verted into the name of sidesmen. 

In course of time, however, the duties of questman devolved upon the church- 
warden, and it would seem, from the canons of 1603,f that at the date of those 
canons the offices of churchwarden and questman were one and the same. Church- 
wardens are also ex-ojficio overseers of the poor, and many additional temporal duties 
have also from time to time been thrown upon the churchwardens by modern Acts of 
Parliament. 

A mere enumeration of the duties cast upon the churchwarden in days gone by is 
positively appalling ! 

He was required to see that the church ways be well kept and repaired ; to levy 
penalties on persons exercising their calling on the Lord's day ; to suffer no plays, 
feasts, banquets, suppers, church ales, drinkings, temporal courts or leets, lay juries, 
musters, or any profane usage to be kept in the church or churchyard ; to see that 
parishioners resort to church and continue there orderly during divine service, and 
present the defaulters ; to see that idle persons abide not in the churchyard or 
church porch during the time of divine service or preaching, but to cause them to 
come in or depart ; to levy the forfeiture of I2d. a Sunday on the goods of persons 
not coming to church ; to levy the penalties for being present at unlawful con- 
venticles ; to present at the Sessions, on pain of ,20, all recusants who absent them- 
selves from church, together with the names and ages of their children above nine 
years old, and the names of their servants. And if the party presented shall be 
indicted and convicted, the churchwarden received a reward of 40s. to be levied 011 

" impartial," "very impartial," "courteous," "very by Mr. (afterwards Sir Robert) Peel, by lOGeo. IV., 
courteous," "kind and obliging," "able and at- 19 June, commenced duty 29th Sept. 1829; Lon- 
tentive," "zealous and attentive," "able and im- don Police Improvement Acts passed 3 Viet. 1839, 
partial ;" and then, having exhausted the stock and 4 Viet. 1840, which were amended by 19 & 20 
rung the changes so often adjectively, we are treated Viet. c. 2. Haydn, Diet, of Dates, 
for a few months to a run of substantives, and are f Canons 85, 89, 90 ; but however this may be, 
told of the chairman's "politeness," "urbanity," there can be no doubt that originally these officers 
"attention," " condescension," " ability," &c. were distinct. In Stutter v. Frcston, 1 Str. 52, the 
* The jurisdiction of twenty-one magistrates, Court said: " Churchwardens were a corporation at 
three to .preside in each of the seven divisional common law, and they are different from quest- 
offices, commenced 1 Aug. 1792 ; the Thames Police men, who were the creatures of the Reformation, 
was established 1798 ; the London Police, remodelled and came in by canon law. " 



PAROCHIAL HISTORY. Ill 

the recusant's goods ; to keep all excommunicated persons out of the church ; to see 
that the church has a large bible, book of common prayer, book of homilies, a font 
of stone, a decent communion table, with proper coverings, the ten commandments 
set up at the east end, and other chosen sentences upon the walls, a reading-desk and 
pulpit, and chest for alms ; to levy the penalty of 5 for an incumbent not reading 
the common prayer once a month ; not to suffer strangers to preach, but such as shall 
appear qualified on showing their license ; to apply to the magistrate for conviction 
of offenders not burying in woollen ; to see that persons who murder themselves, or 
who die excommunicated, are not buried without special license from the bishop ; to 
levy penalties for eating flesh on fifth days ; to receive penalties for servants, 
labourers, apprentices, or journeymen gaming in public-houses ; to receive the 
penalties for tippling and drunkenness ; to levy penalties for selling corn in a wrong 
measure ; to provide chests for locking up the arms, clothes, and accoutrements of 
the militia, and to receive the penalties for servants carelessly firing houses. 

With respect to the proceedings ordered to be taken against parties for not going to 
church,* there is a return in the Record Officef of Camberwell residents so presented 
in the year 1577. Amongst the offenders were Bartholomew Dancye, gentleman, and 
his wife, who had evidently no great liking for the church service at Camberwell in 
the reign of Elizabeth, as it is stated that they had often been presented, " and yet 
will not be reformed." The report states that the offender " liveth at Cain' well upon 
a farm of thirty poundes a yere, whereon he kepethe about sixtene beastes and hath 
a reasonable stock of corn and landes in ye weste countrie worth twenty nobles." 

Another offender was Andrew Silvertoppe, who, with his wife, was presented " for 
not comyng to the Churche and not receiving the communion." Andrew Silvertoppe 
was an incorrigible, for the report states that he had but recently been indicted, and 
" suffered the penaltie of the lawe " before the Commissioners, for " massinge at West- 
minster." He is described as " one of Mr. Cofferer's clerks," having no other living 
than his office. Mr. Silvertoppe must have found the churchwardens of Camberwell 
rather too zealous in the discharge of their duties, for he disappeared in 1577, or as 
the return sets forth, " he is gone frome Camerwell, and there hath nether landes nor 
goodes." 

There are several entries in the churchwardens' accounts of money received for 
"burying in linen." In 1679 Mr. Churchwarden Adcocke makes the following 
entry : 

" Received for burying in linnen 03. 00. 00. ;" and in 1683 the vestry clerk of that 
day paid 2 10s. for his child's burial in linen. 

The fines so paid were levied under the 30 Car. II. c. 3, which repealed a former 
Act (18 Car. II. c. 4), the preamble stating that the former Act " was intended for 
lessening the importation of linnen beyond the seas and for the encouragement of the 
woolen and paper manufactures of this kingdom, had the same been observed, but 
an respect there was not sufficient remedy thereby given for the discovering and pro- 
secution of offences against the said Act." 

The more stringent Act directed " that no corpse should be buried in any other 
material than a manufacture of sheep's wool, under penalty of five pounds, and 
that affidavit should be made within 8 days after burial that the person so buried 

* State Papers, D. S., Eliz., vol. cxvii., No. and evening services. 

141-2. The 3 Jac. c. 4, enacts that " if any person 

1 1E1. c. 2. "One justice, upon confession or oath willingly maintain, relieve, keep, or harbour in any 

of witness, shall call the party before him ; and if house, any servant, sojourner, stranger, who shall 

he can make no excuse, the justice shall give a forbear for a month together to hear divine service, 

warrantto the churchwardens to levy 12d. for every not having a reasonable excuse, shall forfeit 10 

default ; and if no distress, to commit till payment.'" for every month." 
Repairing to church meant attending both morning 



112 Y PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

" was not put in, wrapped or wound up in any shirt, shift, sheet, or shroud made or 
mingled with flax, hemp, silk, or other than what is made of sheep's wool only, nor 
in any coffin lined or faced with any cloth, stuff, or any other thing whatsoever made or 
mingled with flax, hemp, silk, or other material than what is made of sheep's wool only." 

And in default of such affidavit being made, the good's and chattels of the deceased 
or of the party neglecting to furnish the affidavit were subject to a penalty of five 
pounds, leviable by distress. This Act was further amended by 32 Car. II. c. 1, 
entitled "An additional Act for burying in Woolen." The law thus stood, and 
these stringent provisions were in force, until 1814, when an Act was passed (54 Geo. 
III. c. 108) repealing the above Acts and indemnifying parties against penalties for 
offences committed thereunder. 

The penalties levied for profane swearing were, under 21 Jac. c. 20, and 3 Car. c. 4, 
which enacted " that every such offender shall, for every time so offending, forfeit and 
pay to the use of the Poor of that Parish where the offence shall be committed the 
sum of 12 pence." In default of payment and distress, the offender, if over twelve 
years of age, was ordered to be put in the stocks for three hours ; if under twelve, 
to be whipped. 

FROM THE CHURCHWARDENS' BOOK OF ACCOUNTS, 1670 1720. 
RECEIPTS. 

s. d. 

1671. Of John Peirson for burialls 04 00 00 

1672. Of 2 men for tipling in servise time 00 02 00 

Of Will" 1 Terry, for disorders 00 10 00 

Received out of Poore's box 01 00 00 

Rec'd of M r ffox his gift 00 10 00 

Rec'd of John Wakeman, for Camerwell assessm 1 towards re- 
pairing of the pishe church . 08 00 00 

Of John Barton, for Peckham libty 08 00 00 

Rec'd for Dulwich Ass 1 04 00 00 

1673. Rec d att ye Churchwardens Doore 00 08 04 

1674. Rec'd at the Comunion table 00 02 00 

more 00 00 10 

more 00 01 10 

1675. By the Church tax 20 10 02 

1676. Received out of the poor's box 01 03 00 

1678. Rec'd for widd. Loveday's buriall 00 01 00 

Of the widd. Kil lick for her husband's burial . . .. 00 05 00 

Received of M r Worrall for ye poore's houses . . . . 05 06 00 

1679. Rec'd of M r ffox, Overseer for y e poore ami. 1678 . . .. 07 10 00 

Rec'd for y e poore houses in Camerwell 08 00 00 

Received for burying in Linnen 03 00 00 

Rec'd out of the poore's box 00 18 00 

Rec'd of the Church tax 16 00 00 

Rec'd for rent for the poore houses 04 00 00 

Rec'd for burialls in linnen 01 10 00 

Out of the Poore's box 00 09 00 

For the Church Tax 07 12 00 

Rec'd for Buriall Moneys of Tho s Lurman . . . . 00 00 06 

Rec'd for buriall in y e Church 00 08 08 

Rec'd for y e buryall of Sir Edmond Bowyer . . . . 00 02 00 

Rec'd of Tho. Baker for his wife's buriall 00 01 00 



PAEOCHIAL HISTORY. 



113 



1680. 



1681. 



k: 
682. 
681. 



1681. 

1682. 
1683. 
1689. 
1690. 
1691. 
1691. 
1691. 
1693. 
1695.* 



1697. 



1698. 

1698. 
1700. 



L701. 



L702. 



L702. 

.707. 



Monies gathered at y e sacrament . . . . . .. 

Sacrament moneys for y e us e of y e poore ..... 

Sacrament moneys -7*.* ........ 

Keceived for breaking of ground for burial 1 in y c cliurchyard . 
Eec'd of Wield. Allen due from her husband for a buriall in 

linnen ........... 

Keceived out of y e Poore's box for y e us c of the poore of y e 

libberty ........... 

Rec'd for Mr. Smith's buriall in linnen ...... 

Received of Wheeler of Peckham for disorders . . . 
Received for cloth for y e poore's coates . ..... 

Rec'd of M r Macthorne for Burialls for one year . . . 
Rec'd att a sacram* .......... 

Rec'd for M r Smith's buriall in linen ...... 

Of M r Lane for his child's buriall in linnen ..... 

Of John Macthorne for his child's buriall in linnen . . . 
Of D r Parr for D r Scott's buriall in linnen ..... 

Of the Church Tax ......... 

Of several passengers travailing on Sundays ..... 

Rec'd att a sacram 1 ......... 

Rec'd of M r Bowyer towards y e session dinner . . .. 

From men setting in y e Alle houses drinkeing in sarmon time . 
Rec'd of M r Hester for his setting in the Church . . . . 

Received of Simon Redding by the hands of John Halford con- 

stable, for swearing ......... 

Rec'd of M r Booker for putting a rail over his child in the 

churchyard ........... 

Received of M r Hester for his setting in the Church . . . 
Rec'd of M r John Hester, for the use of his pew in the Church 

for one yeare .......... 

Rec'd of M r Gibbs, his gift for setting in the Church . . . 
Rec'd of M rs Gibbs, for her setting in the Church . . . . 

Rec'd of M r Hester, his gift for the use of his pew in the Church 

for 1 yeare .......... 

Received of Foxcraf for illorders ....... 

Of y e Wedd. child for illorders ....... 

Rec'd of the penny rate ........ . . 

For use of pall .......... 

For y e use of ye pall ......... 

Of M r Hester for a yeare' s rent for his pew . . . . 

Rec'd of Mr. Tipping towards persessioning ..... 

Of M r Hester for his seat at the Church ..... 

For the pall 5 times at 7s. Qd. per time ...... 

Five times more at 5s. . . . . . . . . 

Received of John Marshall for swaring ..... 

Rec'd for 16 oaths . . ....... 

Rec'd at publick houses for drawing drink in time of divine 

service ............ 

Rec'd by a twopeny rate ........ 



s. d. 

00 02 06 

00 01 06 

00 02 00 

00 14 00 

00 10 00 

00 10 00 

01 00 00 
00 02 00 
03 16 00 

02 12 01 
00 01 00 

00 10 00 
02 10 00 
02 10 00 

01 00 00 
20 08 01 
00 14 00 
00 01 00 
00 04 00 
00 03 06 
00 06 00 

00 02 00' 

00 02 00 

00 06 00 

00 15 Oft 

10 

5 

15 

5 

5 
2 

26 

76 

15 

10 

15 
1 17 6 
1 5 O 1 

5 

15 11 



00 09 06 
22 12 3- 



First mention of receipts for sittings. 



114 Y e PAKISH OF CAMERWELL. 

s. d. 

1707. Rec'd of M r Travers for a stranger dying at y e Eosemay Bush . 00 01 04 

1707. Rec'd of defaulters from victuallers on y e searche, my share . 00 07 06 
1707. Rec'd of M r Rogers, the constable, for prophane cursing and 

swearing '. .. 00 06 00 

1707. Rec'd of M r Shelvin nigh y e lock for half a yeare rent to y e 

poore, A 10s. Od, abated 12 pence as customary for drink . 04 09 00 

1708. Church Tax, lid. in the : 

Camberwell Liberty 118 14 3 

Peckham Liberty . . 123 01 08 

Dullwich Liberty 44 05 00 

Duliwich Colledge 03 00 00 

More Peckham Liberty 00 12 10 

1709. By a man sent into the Queen's service 3 

Rec'd of Hatcham Liberty for gaols and hospital money . . 16 

1710. Of John Eccles for disorderly money 5 

1710. Rec'd for a man sent into y e service 300 

1710. Money rec'd for Marg* Hamond's goods : 

Pair of sheets 020 

Trenchers 010 

Gown & petticoat 050 

Rug and blanket 010 

Bed 036 

Pewter 080 

Black Hatt 010 

1711. By a stranger for swearing . . ' 6 

By M r Strong for being drunk 5 

By him for swearing 1 

By Hen. Hook for disorders on the Sabbath 5 

Mr. Herbert for an imprest man . . . . . .3 

1711. Swearing and disorderly money 16 

1713. By Madam Cock for disorderly money 1 11 

Received of gunners for killing the Queen's game . . . . 10 

1716. Rec'd of M r Bowyer toward defraying part of the charge of the 

procession 400 

1717. Cash collected by sub" 116 15 3 

Part of a Church rate 070 18 

1719. Rec'd from 3d Rate : 

Camberwell 35 17 3 

Peckham 37 12 3 

Dulwich 12 10 6 

86 

DISBURSEMENTS. 

1671. To a poore passenger 00 02 00 I 

ffor 2 warrants for John Lewis 00 01 00 | 

Mending y c churchyard stile . . . . . . .. 00 02 06 I 

paid for makeing & tigering 3 assessments 00 18 00 j 

1673. for y e comunion table cloth and cushion 06 19 06 I 

ffor makeing up my accounts 00 03 06 ; 

Spent for gooing 3 sev 1 times to y e Court on y e Pishe business . 00 03 00 ! 
,, By money spent at Visitation Court fees & swearing in .00 04 08 i 



PAROCHIAL HISTORY. 



115 



1673. 



3? 

1674. 
1675. 



1676. 
1677. 
1678. 
1679. 



1680. 



1681. 



1682. 



By money for 2 prayer books for y c ffast 4 Feb . . . . 

By money to Mr. Egerton for repaire of Church wall . . . 
Money given to ould Goodman Pierson ...... 

Money given to Goody Weeks ....... 

Two wounded seamen ......... 

for a sun diall .......... 

Work done to Church ........ 

Money paid for parchment, writing and signing y ; tax . . 
Pierson looking to y c stocks .... . . . 

Paid to several! people with certificates & passes . . . 
Money spent going to Bedlam ....... 

Richard Allen boarding up Belfry windows . . . . 

Tigering the poore book ........ 

Ringing 29 th May ......... 

ffor 2 warrants and the monthly search ..... 

To a poore woman that was burnt out ..... 

Spent in contracting for a new clock ...... 

paid to y c plumer & bricklayer ...... 

ffor expenses going to perogative office to sign y e book . .. 

Given to severall of Camerwell poore all y e money received for 

burying in linnen out of y e poore's box ..... 

ffor going to Bedlam to take Goody Long's money . . . 
p d to Kettlethorpe for the stocks (part) ..... 

....... 

ffor making the Church tax & signing it ..... 

Disbursed at the Procession . . . . . . . 

Att the Visitation in Southwark ...... 

Coach hier to Kingston ....... . 

Paid for part of charges at Kingston for dinner & fees . . 
same day for horse hier thither ....... 

p d for arrears for Eliz. Long at Beth! em ..... 

To a man that had his house burnt in Staffordshire . . . 
To 7 persons shipwreckt on y e coast of Ireland . . . . 

Expended at y c Sessions both days ...... 

To one that had his house burnt in Glamorganshire . . . 
To 4 persons whose houses were carried away by a sea-breech att 

St. James's Town, Lincolnshire ...... 

To 5 seamen shipwreckt neare Yarmouth ..... 

To two soldiers going to their company att Dover . . . 
To 7 men from y e East Indies travailing into Yorkshire . . 
To 9 seamen shipwreckt on the coast of Suffolk . . . 

p d for cloth for makeing 5 coates ...... 

To Wedd. Allen for scooling y e children ..... 

p d for the King's declaracon ....... 

p d Mackthorne for a yeare's wages ...... 

p d towards y c common prayer booke, matting for y c comun. 

table and lock for churchwardens pew ..... 

To two indigent officers ........ 

Expended at the procession ....... 

To a poore seaman ....... 



s. d. 

00 02 00 

00 08 00 

00 02 06 

00 05 00 

00 02 00 

00 03 OG 

21 06 10 

00 05 06 

01 00 00 
00 08 06 
00 04 00 
00 06 00 
00 01 00 
00 04 00 
00 02 00- 
00 00 06 
00 01 

05 11 



00 
00 



00 01 06 

03 18 00 

00 02 00 

06 00 00 

03 00 00 

00 12 08 

00 07 06 

00 04 00 

00 02 06 

00 10 08 

00 01 02 

01 13 00 
00 02 00 
00 01 06 
03 07 00 
00 00 06 

00 01 06 

00 01 06 

00 01 00 

00 01 00 

00 01 00 

03 16 00 

00 02 08 

00 01 00 

00 16 00 

00 08 00 

00 03 00 

01 02 00 
00 00 04 

i 2 



116 Y PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

s. d. 

1884. Given to a sick man to avoyde further charge . . ft 

Paid the expenses at makeing the Poore's book . . . . 3 

Given the ringers to drinke on the King's birthday . . . 3 

To 2 boyes with a pass, by M r Bowyer's order, the Justis . . 1 

1687. P d att the ffirst visitation . . . . . .. .. . . . 10 10 Oft. 

ffor takeing an indictment att the Sessions 01 09 00. 

P d for ringing the 29 th May, 14 th Oct., and y e 5 th NoV . . 00 08 00 
Charges for carrying the Dutchesse twice to Southwarke, for an 

order to pass her to Lambeth, and other charges . . . 00 10 00 

Paid Henry Symonds, which he disbursed for the dutchesse . 00 02 06 

Paid Macthorne on account of y c Dutchesse 00 02 OO 

Paid for y c poore houses for chimny money . . . . 00 06 00 

1688. Expended at several meetings about the Poore's Book . . . 00 06 00> 
P d for writeing the booke twice over and signing the same . 00 05 00 

1689. To old Long for himself and his sonn 00 07 OO 

To Widd. Grove, for the wench that dyed there . . . . 01 10 OO 

Expended for the procession dinner and other charges . . 03 02 00 

P d for the clocke 01 04 00 

P (1 Stephen Picton, as per his acquitt for worke att the Church 12 15 00 

P d Tho s Bagford for worke 04 14 00 

P d more to Stephen Picton 00 11 00 

P d to the glazier 00 07 02 

Expended upon the workmen who repaired the church . . 00 05 06 

Expenses at severall times going to the Petty Sessions . .. 00 05 00 
Expended at severall meetings to make the Church Tax and for 

makeing the same 01 08 00 

P d for signing the Tax att D rs comons & other expenses . . 00 07 06; 

1691. P d for two dishes to collect money att y e Church . . .. 00 05 00 
Disbursed goeing to Greenwich & London and on severall occa- 
sions of meeting about Parrish business . . . .. 00 12 00 

1692. To Henry Symons for a Sessions dinner 02 06 00 

nor a hedghog 00 00 04 

Lay'd out for Goody Long when she was in Bethlem and ex- 
pended there att severall times 00 06 00 

Expenses about a strange girl and having her before the Justices 00 01 00 
ffor a warrant for the people att the 2 Brewers and going with 

y c woman to y c Town hall 00 13 00 

1693. Given by M r . Tippin's desire by his man to a disabled officer 

out of iflanders 00 01 00 

Given to a poore soulger and his wife with the Lord Mayor's pass 00 00 06 
Spent upon several of the inhabitants that assisted in goeing 

about to the Alle houses on Sondays 00 02 00 

Given old Long out of y c alle house mony 00 01 00 

P d for a pewter Basson for the funt & ingraving . . .00 04 06 
Given to y e Ringers y c 30th Aprill being the Queen's birthday, 

the day y e king came out of fiianders the thanksgiven day ye 

4th & 5th of November & y c Crowneation day . . . . 00 12 00 i 
Paid M r Bensted, Baker, for a y care's bread given to y e Poore 

on Sondays, being y= gift of S r Tho s Hunt 2 12 00 

10 )4. Gave Goodman Tnoniks for a hedgehogg 00 00 04J 






PAROCHIAL HISTORY. 



117 



1694. Gave to a decayed gentleman 

Paid for nursing the child that was found under the haystack at 

Wallworth Bridge, 2 weeks 

Gave Goody Sides, towards the building of her house 

1695. M r Walker for makeing the Parish writings concerning the 5 

acres of land in Peckham Liberty 

Expences in goeing after M r Walker to get the sd writings 
mnished 

1696. Gave Goodman Newman for keeping the boys quiet at Church 
Gave to M r Walker for bringing the deeds belonging to Peck- 
ham land 

1698. For 3 hedghoggs and 1 polecat 

For ringing Gunpowder Treason ....... 

P d M r Gardner for his disburse to y c Coroner and burying the 

man that hanged himself . 

P' 1 M r Symons for drinck to M r Alleyn at paying his rent. . 

P d by M r Gardner to the Coroner and other charges and burying 
the childe that was found dead in a band box in M r Baker's 
field 

5 , P d Edmond Barrett in consideration that he should not trouble 
the parrish any more & gave his bond together with Thomas 
Jones of Spittol fhelds Cutler to save y c parrish harmless 

M r Brown's drover for a badger 

P d John Grousthead for the stocks & whipping post . 

P d for a warrant against Joseph Page, liveing disorderly with 
his neighbours 

1699. Charges in procecuting Wm Bensted at the Quarter Sessions at 

Kingston for makeing the Poor's bred to Light, for which he 
was cast (by the Standard of the Lord Mayor of London) and 
fined twenty shillings 

P d to Councel in the above case 

P d Newman for looking after the Boys in the Gallery 

P d M r Alleyn for makeing y e three penny Rate . . . . 

P d expences at rating the roll 

P d at y c Sessions in Bindeing over and in expences with severall 
jnhabitants of the parrish ....... 

P d expences in 3 days at y c Sessions w h our Clarke at Croydon. . 

P d the Councel 

3 , P d the Clarke of the Peace and Cryer 

P d coach hier to Croydon and Home againe .... 

P d M r Nost for Councel to M r Northy 

P d M r Nost for coppies of the order of Court and for Councel . 

P d M r Nost more towards carving on the sute .... 

P d for seven hedghoggs 

1700. Expenses by a child that was found on Peckham Rye 

P d for 3 hedghoggs and 2 polecat ....... 

P d at passing the old Churchwardens ..... 

P d at chuseing the new churchwardens 

P d on searching the alehouses on y e Sabboth .... 
J? Expenses in meeting about the clock 




00 

00 
00 



00 
00 

00 



s. cL 

01 00 

05 00 

06 0(5 



001 00 00 



03 00 

02 00 

02 00 

02 00 

05 00 

12 4 

6 



2 10 



6 




7 6 

10 

5 

10 

3 6 



7 

10 
10 
06 
06 

4 
10 

1 
2 

3 

1 

2 


5 



118 Y< PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 



1700. Expenses another day about the same . ; . . . . 

, Towards mending the clock . . . - ..... 1 12 

P' 1 M r Herbert for making the last Rate . . . . . 2 

Expenses in chusing the succeeding Churchwarden '. . . 8. 
Gave to Hugh Moulsey that was out of work and like to fall 

into despaire .......... 36, 

P d the Coroner, Jury and witnesses about Henry Spicer ..'311 

Charges at Sizes about the same ...... 2 14 1 

Gave to a lame Soldier . . . . ... 2 

Spent in tending y e Petty Sessions at Canierwell . . . 00 02 06. 

Gave a poore decayed parson having a wife & small childe . 02 06 

'[ Paid y e halfe part'of y e Bricklaier's bill ..... 02 06 06". 

" Spent at y c election of y e new Churchwardens . . . . 00 01 08. 

1701. Expended at a Persesionng ........ 03 05 00 

For 23 hedghoggs ......... 78 

Expended in going the rounds of y c parish upon a search . . 6 
P d for a bench warrant, for having severall inhabitants before 

the bench .......... 2 

Expended at Receiving the rent of Capt. Platt . . . . 1 6, 

Expended in waiting on the bench ...... 2 

Expended in taxing M r Nost's bill . ... . . . 10 

\ Expended at same time ........ 7 6. 

Paid one yeare's Gaol and Hospital money ..... 474 

Paid the carpenter as appears by his bill ..... 7 11 

Paid the bricklayer as appears by his bill ..... 1 14 2 

,, Paid for 6 badgers ......... 12 

1703. Charges about y e man that hang'd himself for Coroner Jury and 

coffin ....... ' . . . 1 15 10. 

P d y e reckoning on y e day of auditing ..... 156 

P d for 2,000 of plain tiles and 28 ridge tiles ..... 794 

P d M r Picton for Tiling, painting and whitewashing the 

Church .......... 15 

P (l Capt. Wise for paving y c Church alleys with stone . . . 21 5 

M r Davies for Carpenter's work ...... 650 

P d for Ironwork and painting ....... 15 6 6. 

1705. Spent at going to Maidstone ....... 170- 

Expenses in going to Lewsain and Greenwich . . . 3 
P a M r Stackey for a new sarsnet for the Pall, and new scoureing 

y e old one ..........359' 

P d for a lock to the galley door and 20 keys to it . . . 12 

1706. Charges in repairing the stocks ...... 1 13 

1707. P d on y e search with y e constable and Headborough . . . 00 00 104. 
Paid at a dinner of y e Vestry and officers about 30 in all . . 1 
To my part of y e charges of a Vestry which agreed to a tax 

for new pewing of y e church and raised 2 d in the pound to 

re-imburse y e arreares of 2 yearres church wardenship] . . 00 10 0(X 

P a M r Barrard, Chirurgeon, for cureing Mis. Haulden of her 

sprained and diseased back . . . . . . . 02 00 00> 

Paid at a paris h dinner ....... 10 



PAROCHIAL HISTORY. 119 





1707. Paid at another dinner when y e 2 d Rate was made . . 

Charges at y e Comons in expences, paying Councel and fees . 2 
P cl John Davis, Oversere of the Liberty of Dullwich of the two- 

penny Rate ....... ... 8 2 3 

1708. P d M rg Marshall out of her husband's money for swearing .100 
Paid Allen for makeing several books of rates . . . . 10 
P d at y e auditt for y e Dinner, by order of Vestry . . . 03 08 00 
Paid for a coffin and shrowd for a woman drowned in North 

Field ........... 00 07 06 

For carriage and coach from Hen and Chickens to Churchyard 
of a Sabbath day, where the Coroner came to sett on her for 

Inquiry ........... 00 03 06 

P d for y e Grave digging ........ 00 01 00 

P d M r Hollis, y e Constable bill of charges ..... 01 18 06 

Came down a warrant from y e Lord Mayor and Alderman 
Jeffereyes by an officer to require us to provide for Mary Bond 
and her 2 children here, their legale settlement in Camer- 

well prish .......... 00 02 06 

Paid y e Constable & Overseer upon a Generall search for Listing 

soldiers . . . . ...... 00 02 00 

1709. P d for a sarsnett for the Pall and setting it on . . . . 1 17 6 

Expended in having the poor before the Bench . . . 3 

P d M r ffarar, for arrears for Vauxhall Bridge . . . . 3 2 10 

Expenses at chusing of officers ....... 6 

P d John Wilkins for a Vagabond ....... 3 10 

For carrying a Vagabond to Church ...... 3 

P d for a coffin and shroud for him . . . . . . 66 

Expenses in going about the parrish to warn the poor out . . 6 
M r Davis, Carpenter, for work done to Church . . ..381 

M r Picton, Bricklayer, for the same ...... 308 

P d the Sexton his yearly wages ....... 2 10 

Ringing money the whole year ...... 200 

Gave to Widd. Wiggans to buy her shifts ..... 5 

1711. Expended at a Prosessioning ....... 450 

P d for Wine and Biscakes when the Bishop preached . . . 36 

Paid for cleaning the clock ....... 150 

Expended when the Arch Deacon came on Visitation . . . 12 

Spent when the Box was broken open and delivered up . . 26 
P d for a book to enter strange Ministers' names who preach 

here and for a table of degrees of marriage . . . . 2 

Paid toward the Vagrant money . . . . % ..366 

To a woman that was lunatick ...... 12 6 

Expenses in going about y e Parish on Sabboth days . . . 26 

When the Arch Deacon was here ...... 6 

At a possessioning . . . . . . . ..100 

At a Vestry .......... 26 

1712. P d for Wine & Biscakes for the Bishop . . . . . 3 

Paid for ringing, Ap. 23, May 29 ...... 10 

At taking of Dunkirk ......... 5 

March 8th, at news of the peace ...... 10 



120 Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

s. d. 

1712. At Nov. 5th, Dec. 25th, and Feb. 6 . . . . _ . . 15 
Paid for cleaning the Sconce, the Act against swairing and an 

almanack .......... 

Paid at making the first book for the poor . . . . . 

Paid at making 2 peny Rates 

Expenses in going about to warn people that were not 

parishioners . . . . . . . .. 26 

Expenses in going about the Parish on Sabboth days . . 36 

1713. Paid a- man that brought the chest out of the Vineyard, when 

the Church was rob'd 1 

Paid for cutting down the woods in the churchyard . . . 1 

Expended at a Vestry . 66 

Paid disbanded soldiers by order of Vestry . . . 1 12 6 

Paid the Clockmaker his year's sallery 16 

Expences in taking a woman supposed to have murdered her 
bastard child, and filed to Newington (on the other side of the 
water), and taking her and carrying her to St. Giles's, where 

she said the child was. Warrants and constable's charges . 36 

Paid for a Vagrant warrant 2 

Paid for badges 2 

Paid my part towards the clarke's gown 126 

1714. Paid at making the poor's Bate 10 

For passing of Tagrants . . . . . . . .215-5 

Expences at a Vestry . . . . . . . . . 4 

Paid for a Sarsnett for the Pall 1 19 2 

" ,, Expended at a generall search 86 

Paid subsisting a lunatick man . . . . . . 36 

,, Cleaning the Church Plate & and 3 bottles of wine . . . 59 

Paid for the Royall Mourning 318,0 

Paid the Clarke his Sallery, washing the Surplice, and cleaning 

the Sconce 242 

1715. Spent in going to gett subscriptions to y c Bells . . . . 23 
Paid for wine when the Bishop came to preach . ' . . . 2 

Wine and Biscakes for ditto 211 

Paid for printing bills to prevent y e increase of Inmates, tipling 

on y c Sabboth 6 

To disperse those bills 2 6 

Given my own servants when they looked on y e steeple and 

judged it sound 1 

Spent at a Vestry.about y e Bells 16 

Spent according to custom when M r Platt paid the .5 . . 26 
Spent when we went to thank M r Bowyer & M r Carter for their 

Benefactions to the Church 2 8 

Paid for a curtain to y e Churchwardens' pew 76 

Given the Clerk for going to weigh y c Comnn plate . . . 26 

Making a new surpliss 15 

The Bricklayer's bill 5 15 

Paid for making y e Benefaction Tables and Frames . . . 1 12 6 
Paid for 12 yards of new holland for y e surpliss at 6s. Gd. pel- 
yard ..... 3 18 



PAROCHIAL HISTORY. 



121 



1715. 



1716. 



JJ 

1717. 



By charges for carrying the children into Wales and their main- 
tenance to Chester upon the road ...... 

By 2 men & 2 horses, the next day's journey beyond . . . 

By charges for a horse for myself for the journey 

By my expense . . . 

By 5 Pole catts 

By M r Davis, y e Carpenter 

By M r Pickton, y e Bricklayer 

By M r Carter, mending the clock at church 

By watching in the Church for severall weeks by night, by order 
of Dr. Tipping, when the man sent a letter to the doctor that 
the church was to be rob'd and going with M r Acton to the 
man in prison to know y e truth of it 

By Bermondsey officers to go thro' the gardens . . . . 

By expences at making the sixpenny rate ..... 

By Hill y c Tailor for badges for y e poor . . . . 

By M d Cock's men when the new churchyard was stak'd out 

By the Clerk for washing the Church linen, my part . . . 

For attending the Sessions, a quart of sack and biscakes . 

By the whole expence of the examination, commitment, and 
prosecution at Ryegate Assizes of Joseph Weston who was 
hang'd for Robing the Church 

By y e Glazier . . 

By M r Davis, Carpenter 

By M r Davis J r 

By M r Pickton, Bricklayer 

By the plumer 

By going a presesioning 

By the expence at y c Visitation at Kingston 

By the mony spent when the Duty was laid on y c stones in 
y e churchyard 

By treating y c Bishop's servants at Parfetts, my part . . . 

By money p d at y c Comons for Consecrating y e new Church- 
yard, my part . . . . . ' . 

By signing the articles for the Bells 

By weighing y c old Bells 

By the Brickwall of y e new Churchyard 

By a Vestry concerning y e Clock and Bells .... 

By getting subscriptions for the Bells 

By a Vestry to make a Church Rate 

By y e Carpenter 

By signing y c 2 Books at ye Comons 

By the Pulpett Cushion 

By M r Phellps, y e Bellfounder 

By M r Bradley, Clockmaker 

By the Clerk his salary 

By an almanack for y e Vestry 

By drawing a kavit in the Commons 

By auditing y c accounts 

By the Beadle of S l Thomas's Hospital as usuall 



25 
10 
5 

16 
5 

14 
15 



9 
3 


4 

2 

12 
13 



8 


G 


2 


5 


3 


2 


2 





2 


5 




18 


1 


8 




15 



10 



5 

2 
8 

16 
7 
6 



1 12 

110 7 
40 10 

28 



10 
6 
4 
4 
2 
9 
6 



3 

18 

9 



122 Ye PARISH OF CASlERWELL. 

s. d.. 

1718. By money p a for y e robery coinited in this County ... . . 2 

By M r Bartlett, y e surgeion, for setting new Limbs . . .460' 

By treating y e Bishop's servants at Parfetts, my part . . . 16 

By money p u y e Comons for y e concerating y e new Churchyard 9 

By mony p d y e Bricklayer for Building y e Churchyard wall .10 2 

By washing y e Church Linnin 12 

By a Vestry concerning y e Clock and Bells . . . . 8 

By getting up subscription to the Bells 10 

By a Vestry making a Church Rate, the expences . . . 16 

By signing the Books at the Comons 6 

By the Carpenter's & Glazer's bill . . , . . . 2 14 

By a new pulpitt cushion, my part . . . . . 1 12 

By M r Phellps y e Bellfounder his bell 30 7 

By M r Bradley y c clockmaker 9 ]0 a 

By y c Clerk his salary .... ... 2 8 0- 

By expence at y c Commons, concecrating y e new Churchyard . 4 10 0' 

By Building y e new Churchyard wall 5 01 O 

By signing the articles for the Bells 26 

By a cushion for y e church 16 

By the Carpenter & Glazer 126 

By a Vestry making a Church Rate 5 

By M r Phelps, my part for y c Bells 8 

By cleaning y c Branch at Church . . . . . 1 

By treating the Bishop's servants . . . . . - . 8 

To money spent at a Vestry 4 

To money spent on the Commity at the Bull head . . . 2 

1718. Paid at the agreement for the frame on y e top of y e steeple . 6 

By mending the Branch and making 3 Images to it . . . 12 

By making y e Church Rate 10 

By the stone Cutter for Cuting y e stone to hang it in . . . 2 6 
By Longest y c Smith, for the weather cock . . . .140 

By expence of weighing the Bells . . . . . . 10 

By carrying & fetching the Bells 15 

Bytheglazer 272. 

By signing the two books at the Comons & expenses . . 15 

By M* Phelps, the Bell founder, as per bill 16 15 9- 

By the Painter 520 

By M r Farrer 292. 

By the Carpenter 15 

By a Coach to carry L r Tipping to y c Lord Trevors to enquire 

about y e child that was found 26- 

By expences on the Jury, Victuals and Drink, and the Coroner 

and M r Clay the Constable . . 1 15 9- 

By charges for me & my horse 3 days at Gilford . . . 15 
By victualls & drink & Lodging for y e witness at Gilford ..33 

By a Coach & 4 horses, 3 days at Gilford 33 

By the agreement for y e frame an y e steeple 6 

By the Clerk, one year's salary, my part . ... 3 

Expences at making y e Church Rate 10 

By y c Smith as appears by bill ... ... 5 2 



PAROCHIAL HISTORY. 



123. 



1718. By y e Plumer as per bill 

By the Cushions & cloath 

By signing y c Rate at y e Comons . . . . . 

By the Bricklayer 

By relieving a servant of Lord Tevor, as was formerly . 

By keeping a poor woman and her daughter at y e White Lyan . 

By burying a vagrant man ........ 

By bad money in the Rate . . . . . . . 

By going Round the parish to warn out y c vag ts . . . . 

By going after a child left at S* Tho s Waterin .... 

Lost by bad money in the book ....... 

By M r Phelps his bill 

By M r Pickton his bill 

By M r Davis 

By Cheshire y e glazier his bill . . . . . . . . 

By John Farrier's Charges in setling y e Certificate March 1717 . 

By M r Dyson for physick for the poor to Easter 1720 for 

Camerwell 

By Goody Dyer, looking after a mad woman under cure for hurt 
done her by a cow ......... 

By going about the Parish to look after the inmate that had no 
settlement .......... 

By D r Tipping for a new surplice 

By mending the old one 

By money spent Easter Tuesday chusing officers . . . . 

By Johnson, a quaker won't pay ...... 

By bad money and overcharged ....... 

By a poor man to get him out of town ..... 

By a poor man to get him into M r Page's barn . . . . 

By watching with him, candles & beer 

By expence at a meeting at Parfetts . . . . . . 

Expences warning the people out of the Town .... 

Disbursed for Bear & ale by order 



1719. 



1720. 




20 

5 




11 
5 
16 

2 

9 



- 13 

2 

17 

1 13 

3 10 

4 10 
3 15 
3 5 



1 7 




15 

18 
550 

10 
1 10 

23 

9 . 



VESTRY CLERKS. 

The vestry clerks of this parish, have not always had such responsible duties to- 
perform as the present representative of that office ; nor has the remuneration of past 
clerks been quite up to the present standard. In the early part of the seventeenth 
century there was very little work indeed for a paid clerk to do, as the churchwardens, 
and overseers managed to get through all the parochial business very pleasantly ; and 
the vicar kept the minutes of the vestry proceedings with great business tact and ability. 
On the death of Dr. Parr, however, a new state of affairs was inaugurated, and in 
1697 Mr. Mackthorn was appointed clerk, " dureing his good behaviour/' at a salary 
of 30s. per annum ! It is satisfactory to be able to chronicle the fact that Mr. 
Mackthorn's " good behaviour " remained intact as long as the most exacting parish 
officer could desire even unto his death in 1710. It would appear from the follow- 
ing entry in the churchwardens' accounts that his salary was increased during 
his tenure of office, although no resolution to that effect is to be found in the 
vestry minutes : " May, 1699. Paid Macthorne, ye clarke, his yeare's salary, & 10s."" 



124 Y c PAEISH OF CAMERWELL. 

In 1710 Nicholas Alley n was appointed " clarke to tlie vestry," and no doubt in 
consequence of the great growth of the parish and consequent increase of work, Mr. 
Alleyn's " sallery " was fixed at 50.9. per year,* payable quarterly. Mr. Alleyn held 
the post for six years, and was succeeded by Mr. Richard Hodson in 1716, at a salary 
which must have surprised some of the " economical" ratepayers of that day. Mr. 
Hodson's salary was fixed at 6 a year, and in 1721 it was actually increased to ,10! 
On the death of Mr. Hodson in 1739 his son was appointed to succeed him at the 
-same salary, but as a workhouse had recently been " invented " in Camberwell, Mr. 
Hodson received an additional 5 for acting as "clerk to the workhouse." Mr. 
Hodson's official career continued till his death in 1763. He does not appear to 
have saved much out of the proverbial " parochial pickings " during his long tenure 
of office, as the vestry allowed Mrs. Hodson .10 a year at her husband's death, in 
consideration of " her great age and destitute condition and the regard the parish 
had to the memory of her husband." 

Mr. Hodson's successor, Mr. Thomas Young, had a remarkably long official career 
in Camberwell, if gravestones are to be relied upon. It is recorded on Mr. Young's 
tomb that he was parish clerk for 50 years ; vestry clerk, 48 years ; sexton, 41 years! 
It would almost appear that Mr. Young's official life extended to 139 years, but on a 
more careful perusal of the epitaph it appears that he served the several offices at one 
and the same time. His appointment of vestry clerk took place in 1763, and he held 
the office till 1812, and he died in the following year at the age of 72. During 
Mr. Young's official career the work of his office greatly increased, and his salary was 
raised on more than one occasion. 

There is an entry in the minutes at this time which goes to prove that the beadle 
was a more important functionary than the vestry clerk, and no one can have any 
doubt that the beadle as he " lived and moved and had his being " in the eighteenth 
century was a very different character to the imitation beadle of modern days. The 
vestry clerk merely represented an inferior office ; the beadle represented the entire 
parish, and as .the "image of authority was feared, obeyed, respected." In 1813 the 
vestry decided to appoint a solicitor to the office of vestry clerk, and the salary was 
fixed at 60 per annum. Messrs. James Smale, Chas. Dodd, and Samuel Isaac Lilley 
were duly nominated, and after a three days' poll, Mr. Lilley was declared duly 
elected, the numbers being 

Mr. Lilley 406 

Mr. C. Dodd 328 

Mr. Smale 72 

Mr. Lilley resigned the office in 1816, and Messrs. G. Spence and John Allen were 
jmt in nomination and another three days' ballot was ordered, but at the close of the 
second day Mr. Allen, having only polled 63 votes to his opponent's 403, resigned, 
and Mr. Spence was declared duly elected, and his salary fixed at 105 per annum. 

In 1828 Mr. Spence, whose services were much appreciated by the parish, retired 
from office, and Mr. Gilbert was elected after a poll, the numbers being 

Mr. Gilbert 762 

Mr. Dashwood 347 

Mr. Watson 68 

Mr. Gilbert held the post for ten years, during which time his salary was increased 
to 200 guineas, giving way in 1838 to Mr. Poole, who was unanimously elected to, the 

* The following entry from the Churchwardens' " pa the Clark his sallery, washing the } s. d. 

Accounts of this date (1714) gives a fair idea of the surplice, and cleaning the sconce. j -2 4 2 " 

uigiuty of the Vestry Clerk's office : 



PAROCHIAL HISTORY. 125 

office with a salary of ,150 a year. At the end of four months' tenure of office 

Mr. Poole was compelled to retire, and Messrs. Alfred Cooper and Alfred Burrell 

were put in nomination, when the former was elected "by a majority of 401, the 

numbers being 

Mr. Cooper 917 

Mr. Burrell 516 

Mr. Cooper was not more successful than his predecessor, and his resignation 

brought about another parochial excitement. The candidates who went to the poll 

in 1842 were 

Mr. C. A. Dodd . . . who polled 794 
Mr. Edwarde Browne Hook . 281 

Mr. J. W. Prebble . 215 

Another alteration took place in 1846, when Mr. Dodd resigned ; Mr. Hook, who 

had previously been unsuccessful, was elected by a large majority over Mr. B. P. 

Smith, the numbers being 

Mr. Hook 550 

Mr. P. B. Smith 116 

Mr. Hook was not allowed to remain in quiet possession of his office, and an annual 
opposition became the rule rather than the exception. In 1851 a determined stand 
was made against his election, but on that occasion his opponent, Mr. Andrews, was 
defeated by a large majority. In the following year, however, a more formidable 
competitor appeared in the person of our present highly respected vestry clerk, and 
after an exciting contest of two days' polling Mr. Marsden was elected, 1,016 votes 
having been recorded in his favour, against 432 for Mr. Hook. Mr. Hook died sud- 
denly whilst these papers were passing through the press. 



COLLECTORS. 

The collector is a paid officer but recently called into existence to carry out work 
which could not be performed by the unpaid official. 

When overseers were appointed to levy rates and relieve the poor, the work was in 
such a small compass that both duties could be performed satisfactorily without paid 
labour, but as the population and pauperism increased the overseer was compelled to- 
call in extraneous aid to help him collect the rates as well as relieve the poor. The 
collector is a much maligned individual, for a mere mechanical carrying out of others* 
instructions is too often and unjustly regarded as an initiatory and voluntary act on 
his part. The collector is seen, whilst the powers that instruct him are unseen, and 
therefore he is eagerly seized and turned into the parochial wilderness by the 
" indignant ratepayer " as a scapegoat for others' sins. 

Collectors even in the seventeenth century were occasionally employed. Thus, in 
1689 John Macthorne was paid 5s. for collecting the church tax ; not a large amount, 
it is true, but then John Macthorne was in the receipt of 30s. a year for acting as 
vestry clerk ! 

In 1721 another vestry clerk (Mr. Hodson) received three guineas "on this extra- 
ordinary occasion for collecting a deceased overseer's rates and paying the poor." 
Numerous attempts were made at the close of the eighteenth century to appoint 
permanent collectors, but without avail. On the 22nd June, 1813, an Act of Parliament 



126 Y e PAKISH OF CAMERWELL. 

. .* 

was passed, authorizing the appointment of collectors, who were to be paid a sum not 
exceeding 4fyL in the ; and on the 15th July, 1813, the vestry elected three gentle- 
men to collect the rates of the parish. It is not a little singular that of the three 
selected, viz., Messrs. Mercer, Costen, and Kemp, the two former had but recently 
served the office of churchwarden, whilst the latter had acted as overseer. Mr. 
Mercer, for some time previous to the election, was the selected chairman of the 
vestry ! In 1819 Mr. Edward Strong was appointed collector in the place of Mr. 
Costen. 

On Easter Tuesday, 1820, the election of the collectors was suspended for a month, 
and no doubt we should all survive the shock if their election were still in suspense ! 
It does not appear from the vestry minutes what cause actuated the vestry in 
suspending the collection of the rates for a month, but it is stated that " the temporary 
suspense of the collectors did not arise from any suspicion of the vestry as to their 
conduct." Perhaps it was done to allow certain ratepayers to " clear out." In 1821 
it was decided, " on account of the increased and increasing population of this parish, 
and in consequence of the large arrears of the parochial rates remaining uncollected, 
it is highly expedient that an additional collector be appointed for the district of 
Camberwell," and Richard Widdrington, who was a beadle of the parish, and landlord 
of the " Waterloo Arms," in Waterloo Street, was unanimously elected. 

In 1826 Mr. Widdrington was appointed collector of the district of Camberwell in 
place of Mr. Mercer, deceased ; and Mr. Sutton was elected collector of St. George's 
district, which he resigned in 1831, when Mr. Prebble* was elected after a two days' 
poll. 

An attempt was made at the same vestry to appoint an arrear collector, but it was 
not successful. 

In 1832 Mr. Prebble was appointed collector of the Camberwell district in the 
place of Mr. Widdrington, and Mr. Thomas Cooper was elected to fill the vacancy 
in St. George's, which he held till May, 1845, when Mr. Alfred Cooper was 
elected to succeed him. 

In 1833 Mr. White was, on the nomination of Dr. Webster, elected Dulwich 
collector in the place of Mr. Kemp. 

Mr. Edward Strong, the Peckham collector, died in 1834, and his son, Mr. Oswald 
Strong, was unanimously elected to succeed him on the 14th Feb. in the same year. 

In November, 1845, Mr. Shaw was elected collector of the Dulwich district in place 
of Mr. White, and so matters continued until October, 1858, when Messrs. Andrews 
and Bickerton were appointed, and in April of the following year Mr. Thompson was 
appointed, the number being thereby increased to six, Mr. Cooper having resigned. 

In 1868 ttue number of collectors was increased to seven viz., Messrs. Lyon, 
Bradley, Thompson, White, Bickerton, Andrews, and Shaw. Messrs. Prebble and 
Strong, who had proved valuable and faithful servants to the parish, received a 
retiring pension. In 1873, on the resignation and superannuation of the Dulwich 
collector, Mr. Shaw, an additional collector was appointed, and Messrs. Maltby and 
Beaumont were elected. 

In 1868 the poundage paid to the collectors was reduced by the vestry to 4cL 
in the . 

* Messrs. Prebble and Strong had previously collected the Lighting and Highway rates. 



I 



Copy of Verses & Almaiiac for tjheYear 1840 
PARISH OF ST. MLES 

By JOHN HEATH, & GEOHGKi SBDGX.E3T, Beadles. 




PAROCHIAL HISTORY. 127 



BEADLES ALE-CONNERS HEADBOROUGHS CONSTABLES- 
COMMISSIONERS OF REQUESTS SURVEYORS OF THE HIGHWAYS. 

The beadle was formerly a great institution in the parish. He was " the outward 
.and visible sign " of parochial authority ; more important than the churchwarden, 
and more respected than the overseer. Churchwardens and overseers came and dis- 
appeared, but he " went on for ever." He not only " had his eye " upon the poor, who 
envied him, but also upon the " small boys " in church, who feared him. He was the 
highest paid official in the place, and by far the most dignified and important. The 
parish was not a parish without him only an aggregate of individuals ! Whilst the 
vestry clerk was, as his office implied, simply the clerk to the vestry, the beadle was 

" The image of authority ; " 

the representative, in his own person, of all the minor offices of the parish. He was 
the Tycoon and the Mikado rolled into one ! He was as careful of the spiritual as 
of the temporal affairs of the parish. And be it said to the credit of the Camberwell 
beadles, no record is extant of any want of dignity or imperfection of duty on their 
part. On the contrary, they appear, by general consent, to have carried off the palm 
on the day of the year (at least from a beadle point of view) when these representa- 
tives of authority in the various parishes inet together on Visitation-day. 

The Camberwell beadles are described as putting all others into the shade ! They 
measured more round the girth, wore more gold lace, assumed more importance, 
-drank more beer, and created more terror amongst the small boys than the beadles of 
other parishes. 

Visitation-day, with the swearing in of the new churchwardens, and the taking in 
of an unlimited quantity of " unsophisticated," has disappeared from the calendar. 
A beadle who wrote " werses " has sung the praises of that glorious day in the 
following lines : 

" But Visitation-day, 'tis thine 
Best to deserve my passing line, 
Great day ! the purest, brightest gem 
That decks the fair year's diadem. 
Grand day ! that sees one costless dine, 
And costless quaff the rosy wine ; 
Till seven Churchwardens doubled seem, 
And doubled every taper's gleam, 
And I triumphant over time, 
And over tune and over rhyme 
Call'd by the gay convivial throng 
Lead in full glee, the choral song. " 

The front position taken by the beadles of Camberwell on all public occasions was 
not done without expense. Gold lace is very imposing, but rather expensive, and it 
must be borne in mind that it took about twice the ordinary beadle's allowance to 
cover the Camberwell representatives. So serious was the question considered by the 
vestry in 1831, that it was made a leading question, and the parish officers were 
enjoined to be more economical in the use of gold lace that is, either to reduce 
the size of the beadles or to be less prodigal of ornamentation when undue cor- 
pulency required covering. 

It was felt by the more conservative residents of that day that to stint the coat of 
lace was worse than starving the beadle's stomach of food, and so a sort of arrangement 
was made that things should go on as before, but that a more careful selection should 
be made in future elections in short, that priority of choice should be given to any 
candidate who would promise, if symptoms of corpulency appeared, that he would 
" do Banting." 

It was a melancholy day for Camberwell when its beadles were " disestablished and 



128 Y e PAEISH OF CAMERWELL. 

disendowed." We degenerated into a second-rate parisfi at once. We are perhaps 
not worse than our neighbours at the present time, but we are not eminently superior 
as before. As there is proverbial wisdom in a wig, so was there irresistible power and 
authority in a full-dressed beadle. Black plush breeches, gold-banded and gold- 
buttoned at the knees, a new red waistcoat with gold-worked buttons, and a cocked 
hat edged with gold, were not meant to steal stealthily through the streets. They 
were designed for effect ; they were unmistakable indications of authority ; and the 
wearer was made mindful of the fact that he was a great public specimen of the 
natural and artificial dignity of man. 

It is true that accusations were sometimes made that an undue importance was 
given to the office, and a proper sense of dignity was too often regarded by the 
ignorant as an indication of pride. If the beadle looked " duberously " at the poor, 
and reserved all his sympathy for householders with a vote if he stood a few inches 
taller in his shoes when doling out bread and distributing petticoats, he equalized 
matters by the display of an extreme obsequiousness in the presence of the church- 
wardens. In days gone by the beadle accompanied the parish officers in all their 
peregrinations round the parish, and there are resolutions in the parish books which 
show that even the surveyor was not considered competent to undertake any parish 
business without he was accompanied by the man of authority. At one time, in 
Camberwell, they acted not only as masters of the workhouse, but also as super- 
numerary or assistant overseers. It was also customary for the beadles to make an 
annual call at Christmas upon the more wealthy residents, and a very interesting fac- 
simile of the " polite reminder " used on such occasions (see opposite page) will give 
the reader an idea of the "good things" of which Camberwell beadles were capable. 
The election of beadle was a great event in the parish, and a two days' poll was 
usually held to decide between the respective merits of the applicants. 

The ale-conners of Camberwell have given way to the new order of things, and not 
before it was wanted. Originally important and responsible officers, the ale-conners r 
before their disappearance, only served to bring authority into contempt. They were 
nominated on Easter Tuesday, and appointed afterwards by the justices, and their 
duties consisted in examining the weights and measures in use in the parish, in 
seizing short weights and measures, and in bringing the offenders to justice ! 

Originally the ale-conner was a most important official, as the following extract 
from the oath taken by parties serving the office in the reign of Henry V. (1417) 
will show : 

" You shall swear that you shall know of no brewer or brewster, cook or pie-baker 
in your ward who sells the gallon of best ale for more than one penny half-penny, or 
the gallon of second for more than one penny, or otherwise than by measure sealed 
and full of clear ale ; and that you, so soon as you shall be required to taste any ale 
of a brewer or brewster, shall be ready to do the same ; and in case that it be less 
good than it used to be before this cry, you shall set a reasonable price thereon, 
according to your discretion ; and if anyone shall afterwards sell the same ale above 
the said price, unto your said Alderman you shall certify the same. And that for 
gift, promise, knowledge, bate, or other cause whatsoever no brewer, brewster, 
huckster, cook, or pie-baker who acts against any one of the points aforesaid you 
shall conceal, spare, or tortiously aggrieve ; nor when you are required to taste ale 
shall absent yourself without reasonable cause and true ; but all things which unto 
your office pertain to do, you shall well and lawfully do. So God you help, & the 
Saints." 



PAROCHIAL HISTORY. 129 

CONSTABLES AND HEADBOROUGHS. 

These officers were usually nominated from amongso the inhabitant householders 
on Easter Tuesday. 

King Alfred instituted tithings, so called from the Saxons, because ten freeholders 
and their families composed one. These were each responsible for the good conduct 
of the others. One of the tithing was annually appointed to preside over the rest, 
being called the tithing-man, or headborough. 

This arrangement was intended for the prevention of rapine and disorders, which 
formerly prevailed in the realm, and no man was suffered to abide in England above 
forty days unless he was enrolled in some tithing or decennary. In more recent 
times constables were associated with the headboroughs in preserving the public order. 
Although the office has fallen into desuetude in Camberwell, headboroughs were 
nominated by the vestry as recently as the present century. 

It appears from the Statute of Winchester, that in the 13th Edward I. two 
constables were chosen in every hundred " to make the view of armour, to present 
defaults of armour, and of suits of towns, and of highways, and of such as lodge 
strangers in uplandish towns, for whom they will not answer." The duties of con- 
stables became in time very different to what they originally were, and on the forma- 
tion of the Metropolitan Police Force the office was discontinued in Camberwell. 

COMMISSIONERS OF THE COURT OF REQUESTS. 

Commissioners of the Court of Requests were first appointed in this parish in 1758,, 
under the provisions of an Act passed 22 Geo. II. c. 47, for the more easy and 
speedy recovery of small debts within the town and borough of Southward, and 
several other surrounding parishes. Of the parishes brought within the provisions of 
the above Acts, Camberwell elected 6 commissioners, Newington 12, Bermondsey 18, 
and Lambeth 18. 

The qualification for a commissioner was a <40 rating to the poor, or a property 
qualification of not less than ,2,000. Although the Court of Requests was only 
established in Camberwell in 1758, similar courts were instituted in the reign of 
Henry VII., 1493, and remodelled by Henry VIII. in 1517. They were superseded 
by the County Court Act, 9 & 10 Viet. c. 95, passed on 26th August, 1846. 

SURVEYORS OF THE HIGHWAYS. 

By 2 & 3 Phil. & Mary, c. 8, surveyors of the highways were directed to be 
appointed by parishes, which were made responsible for the condition and repairs 
of the roads. These surveyors were originally, according to the above statute, 
to be appointed by the constables and churchwardens of the parish, but they were 
subsequently appointed by warrant of justices from a list of substantial householders 
returned annually by the vestry. The office was held for many years by members of 
the Tagg and Tanner families. On the 1 3th February, 1781, Mr. Robert Tagg and Mr. 
Abraham Tagg were respectively nominated to the office, and on a poll, Mr. R. Tagg 
polled 81 votes and Mr. A. Tagg 42. Mr. Tagg held the office until 1796, when he 
was succeeded by his son William, the salary at that time being 50 a year. The 
office was subsequently held for many years by Mr. Thomas Tanner. 

The surveyor was appointed annually, and his duties were to see that the roads 
were kept in a proper state of repair, and that the labourers employed performed 
their work in an efficient manner ; to seize and impound cattle straying on the roads, 
and to summon before the magistrates persons driving trucks, carts, wheel-barrows, &c.,. 



130 Y e PARISH OF CA&ERWELL. 

-on the footpaths, or in any manner obstructing the footways. Under the High- 
ways Act, 5 & 6 Will. IV. c. 50, petty sessions were held at certain periods during 
the year at the Sessions House, Newington, for hearing and determining complaints 
.relative to the highways, and for passing the surveyor's accounts. By the Local Act 
-of 1833, to amend a previous Local Act, 53 Geo. III. (1813), the vestry were 
empowered to appoint a surveyor of highways with a salary, and under the Metropolis 
Local Management Act our present surveyor, Mr. J. C. Reynolds, was appointed by 
the vestry. Under this Act also, Mr. H. Jarvis, of Trinity Square, Southwark, was 
appointed district surveyor for this parish. 



BURIAL BOARD. 

On the 20th October, 1853, a vestry meeting was called for the purpose of 
considering a letter from Viscount Palmerston, stating that it was his intention 
to represent to her Majesty in Council that interments should no longer take place 
in the churchyard and in the vaults under the parish church of St. Giles, Camberwell, 
after the 1st May, 1854, and recommending the local authorities to adopt such measures 
as the emergency required. 

A committee of twelve was thereupon appointed to make inquiry on the subject 
and report thereon to a future vestry. Representations were at the same time made 
to the Government for an extension of time, and on the 27th April, 1854, another 
meeting of the vestry was held to take into consideration the desirability of adopting 
in this parish 15 & 16 Viet. c. 85, being an Act to amend the laws relating to the 
burial of the dead in the metropolis. 

The requisition calling the meeting was signed by Mr. R. A. Gray, J. A. Lyon, and 
other well-known residents, and the resolution which was moved by the former 
.gentleman was thoroughly characteristic of him : 

" That in the opinion of this vestry it is the bounden duty of the living to make 
provision for the interment of the dead ; that it has been found in parishes where 
the churchyard has been closed and no burial-ground provided in lieu thereof, that 
the middle, artizan, and poorer classes have experienced considerable difficulty in 
burying their dead, the feelings of the poor disregarded, and the charges for inter- 
ments beyond their limited means ; that it is desirable and more economical that 
a parish so extensive and populous as Camberwell should have its own burial- 
ground, and not be compelled to rely on cemetery companies. 

" This vestry therefore resolves and hereby determines to adopt the provisions 
contained in an Act of Parliament passed in the 15th and 16th years of her 
Majesty Queen Victoria, cap. 85, intituled 'An Act to Amend the Laws as concerning 
the Dead in the Metropolis,' and that a burial-ground should be provided under the 
said Act for this parish." 

The proposition was carried by a majority of 14, the numbers being 56 and 42 
respectively, whereupon a poll of the whole parish was demanded by the opponents 
of Mr. Gray's resolution, which, however, was carried by a majority of 79, the 
numbers being 

For Mr. Gray's motion 609 

Against it 530 

Another poll of the parish was taken on the respective merits of gentlemen 
nominated to serve on the board, and the following were elected by a large 
majority : 



PAROCHIAL HISTORY. 131 

Robert Alexander Gray. 
Edward Edwards. 
James Pew. 
Wm. Hy. I'Anson. 
John Andrew Lyon. 
John Christian Wolf. 
John Owen Hart. 
Alban Fisher. 
Thomas Ruston. 

Of the above gentlemen, Messrs. Gray and Lyon are still members of the board. 

Land was subsequently purchased at Forest Hill, and authority given to the 
board to borrow the sum of ,17,200 for the purpose of acquiring land and laying 
out the ground. 

The cemetery * has been considerably enlarged as occasion required, a considerable 
extent of ground having been added so recently as the present year (1874) Since 
the opening of the cemetery about 30,000 burials have taken place, the number last 
year being 2,320. The general appearance of the cemetery, situated as it is on a 
slope, is eminently picturesque. The entrance lodge is a neat structure, covered 
with roses and twining plants, and the general appearance of the grounds clearly 
shows the great taste and care bestowed upon them by Mr. Watts, the super- 
intendent. 

There are several interesting monuments in this cemetery, amongst which the 
following may be mentioned : 

Mrs. Gray, the wife of R. A. Gray, Esq., J. P., and her only son, Mr. Robert 
Alexander Gray, who died at the age of 49 years. 

The monument itself deserves the attention of masons and statuaries as unique in 
its beautiful simplicity. The pedestal is of polished marble, surrounded by a hand- 
some figure of Hope, resting on an anchor. 

The tomb of Mrs. Shields (the wife of Mr. Shields, of the Birkbeck Schools) and 
her son Alfred James, the latter being cut clown at the early age of 13. 

Another memorial records the death of Mrs. Deacon, the wife of Mr. John. 
Deacon, who was for a long time chairman of the Camberwell Board of Guardians. 

Mr. Richard Thomas, a resident of Sydenham Hill, who filled many parochial 
offices in Camberwell. 

Mr. Seale, formerly proprietor of the Sunday Times. 

Mr. Richard Wallis, who for sixty-three years officiated as clerk to Camden Chapel, 
Peckham. 

Mr. Thomas Walton, of Albany House, Old Kent Road, a well-known school- 
master of the parish. 

Mr. Thomas Cook, late churchwarden of the parish, who filled several important 
parochial offices. 

The two buildings, the church and chapel, in which the solemn services are 
conducted, are almost identical in construction, and were designed by Gilbert Scott, 
the eminent architect. 

The present chaplains are 

Church Chaplain, Rev. J. T. Willis. 
Nonconformist Minister, Rev. Dr. Ray. 

* Mr. Marsden was mainly instrumental in se- 300 an acre. The Burial Board has recently pur- 
curing the site for the parish cemetery. Sixteen chased seven acres," at 750 an acre, 
acres were purchased at 500 an acre, and six at 

K 2 



132 Y e PAEISH OF CAMEKWELL. 

PAKOCHIAL CHAKITIES. 

From several entries in the vestry books in the last century, it appears that the 
rents, dividends, and annual produce arising from the gifts and bequests of chari- 
table individuals in favour of the poor of this parish had been carried to the credit 
of, and consolidated with, the poor rate. 

This obviously improper appropriation was in some measure altered in 1801, when 
an order of vestry was made for distributing the rents, &c., amongst the persons 
requiring relief in such portion as the vicar and parish officers should think 
proper. 

It was not until after the year 1812 that bequests were altogether distributed ac- 
cording to the direction of the donors. In that year the attention of the Legislature 
was forcibly called to the mal-appropriation of the various charitable donations in 
England and Wales, and to the inattention of those who ought to have attended to 
them ; and an Act was passed, intituled " An Act for the Kegistering and Securing 
Charitable Donations," by which it was in substance enacted that deeds relating to 
charitable donations should be registered in the office of the clerk of the peace within 
ten calendar months, and a memorial or statement of the real and personal estate, 
and of the gross annual income, investment, and the general and particular object of 
all charitable donations, with the names of the founders and the trustees, registered 
with the clerk of the peace, and a duplicate or copy thereof enrolled in Chancery. 

Since then two other statutes were passed for a similar purpose (58 Geo. III. 
c. 91, and 59 Geo. III. c. 81, both continued by 5th Geo. IV. c. 58), and com- 
missioners were appointed by a Commission under the Great Seal, 5th August, 1820, 
to inquire into the state of all the charities in England and Wales, with power to 
require the personal attendance of the trustees and others interested therein ; and the 
production of all deeds, papers, writings, instruments, parish books, or other docu- 
ments in the parish chest, or in their custody or possession, relating to the estates or 
funds in any way appropriated thereto, or relating to the produce of any such estate 
or funds, or to the application, or non-application, or misapplication thereof. 

By our second Local Act, passed on the 6th May, 1833, it was enacted " that it shall 
and may be lawful for the inhabitants of the said parish in vestry assembled, or the 
major part of them, and they are hereby authorized and required within the space of 
three calendar months next after the passing of this Act, to elect and choose ten 
persons, being inhabitants of the said parish, to be trustees of the estates belonging 
to the poor of the said parish ; which persons to be so elected and chosen trustees as 
aforesaid, and their successors to be appointed as hereinafter mentioned, shall be and 
are hereby declared to be one body politic and corporate by the name and style of 
' The trustees of the estates belonging to the poor of the parish of St. Giles, Camber- 
well, in the county of Surrey,' and by that name shall have perpetual succession and 
a common seal, and by that name shall and may sue and be sued, and shall and may 
receive, possess, and retain the lands, tenements, and hereditaments hereinafter vested 
in them for the purposes hereinafter mentioned, without incurring any of the penal- 
ties or forfeitures of the Statute of Mortmain." By the 53rd section of the same 
Act it was further enacted that " legal estates of premises left in trust for the parish 
were to be vested in the trustees; power was given (sect. 54) to appoint fresh 
trustees, and the appointment of additional trustees was rendered imperative (sect. 
55) when the number became reduced below five ; and other power was granted to the 
trustees, all of which will be found recorded in the above Act. 

By the same Act, also, .power was given to the inhabitants in vestry assembled to 
appoint fifteen persons, being inhabitants of the parish, to be a committee for dis- 



PAKOCHIAL HISTORY. 133 

tributing the rents of the charity estates ; and power was given to the said com- 
mittee, or any five or more of them, in the manner most consistent with the trusts to 
which the rents, profits, and dividends of the charity estates at law or in equity 
were respectively liable, to direct and regulate the mode of distributing the rents and 
profits of the said estates, and the dividends of the said moneys in the funds, and the 
manner and time in and at which the same shall be paid, and the class of persons 
amongst whom the same shall be distributed. 

The following report of the Charity Estates Distribution Committee was made to 
the vestry on the 23rd of June, 1869, and finally adopted. Slight modifications 
have since been found necessary, as in accordance with recent legislation the school 
fees of poor children are now paid by the guardians, and consequently there is a 
larger amount divisible in other ways : 

CHARITY ESTATES DISTRIBUTION COMMITTEE. 

The Report of the Charity Estates Distribution Committee, appointed by resolution 
of vestry of llth day of November, 1868. 

Your committee beg to report as follows : 

" Your committee met on the 3rd day of December, 1868, and proceeded to take 
into consideration the following resolutions and recommendations of the vestry as to 
distributing sums of money, namely : 

" That the present system of giving small sums of money to many applicants be 
discontinued. 

" That the charity funds, as a general rule, be in future distributed in amounts 
not exceeding 8s. per week ; the names, addresses, and occupations of the recipients to 
be reported from time to time to the vestry ; a receipt in writing to be given by each 
recipient. 

" That the committee of distributors be selected in the following manner, 
namely : Two members for each ward, and the churchwardens for the time being." 

After due consideration, your committee resolved to divide the funds into three 
classes, namely : 

IST. THE AGED PARISHIONER'S GRANT. 

To old and decayed parishioners who are not less than sixty years of age (the 
committee reserving discretionary power to dispense with such qualifications if they 
see fit, and who have been householders and are resident in the parish at the time of 
the application, and can satisfy the committee that they are in circumstances to 
require aid, and whose character will justify the aid being given) a grant of money, 
not exceeding 10s. per calendar month, to be made during such a period of time as 
the committee shall think proper, having regard to the funds at their disposal and 
the need of persons making application. 

2ND. THE SAMARITAN GIFT. 

To parishioners in necessitous circumstances, not caused by their own misconduct, 
such as severe bodily accident, long-continued illness, or heavy family visitation of 
sickness, or any temporary and acute suffering, accidental in character, the committee 
to grant a Samaritan Gift, in amount such as they, having regard to the funds in 
hand and the special need of the case before them, shall see fit. 

3 BD . CHILDREN'S SCHOOL GRANT. 

For the purpose of placing at school the children of poor parishioners. With 
regard to the special gifts, your committee find that they amoun to 60 15s. 8d., as 
under, namely : 



134 



Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 



Harriott Smith ...... . 30 



Susannah Jones . . . * . . 300 
Joseph Allen . . . . , . 600 



Michael Arnot 
Edward Noyes 
Thomas Hunt . 
William Mathews 
Mrs. Pinchback 



1 10 
900 

2 13 4 
5 12 4 



300 



60 15 8 
and should be distributed as follows, namely 

The gift of Harriott Smith, amounting to 30, be distributed to the old poor- 
householders of Dulwich and Camberwell, as directed in the donor's will, in gifts of 
3 each. 

The gift of Mrs. Susannah Jones, amounting to 3, be distributed by the com- 
mittee in accordance with the donor's will, to six poor inhabitants of Peckham. 

That Allen's Gift of .6 for coals be placed in the hands of the committee repre- 
senting No. 6 Ward, for distribution among poor inhabitants of Dulwich, according to 
testator's will. 

That Arnot's Gift of 3 be distributed, 1 10s. to the treasurer of the Green Coat 
School (being a special donation bequeathed by the testator), and .1 10s. retained for 
distribution with the general fund. 

That Noyes' Gift of 9 be given to the churchwardens for distribution in bread, as 
directed by the donor's will. 

That Hunt's Gift of 2 13s. 4d. be paid to the churchwardens for distribution ia 
bread, as directed by the donor's will. 

That Mathew's Gift of b 12s. 4d. be given to the churchwardens for distribution, 
in bread, as directed by the donor's will. 

That Pinchback's Gift of 3 be given to the churchwardens for distribution in. 
bread as directed by the donor's will. 

Also that each distributor should receive the sum of 10 on account of the 
Samaritan Gift to be distributed in sums not exceeding 3 in any case, and in. 
accordance with the regulations determined upon in reference to that class. 

That the trustees of the Charity Estates paid over to your s. d. 

committee the sum of 600 

Which, having been placed to the deposit account for a few 

days, pending the necessary arrangements, produced^interest 144 

Paid printing and other expenses 7 10 2 

Leaving an available balance for distribution of . . . 593 14 2 

The amount expended to the 31st May is as follows : 

The Samaritan Fund, fourteen distributors 
at 10 each 140 

The Aged Parishioner's Grant, fourteen dis- 
tributors at 2 2s. per month each, for five 
months 

Special gifts as before enumerated . 



147 
60 15 



Leaving a balance at the bankers on the 1st June of 
To meet the monthly payment of the committee. 



347 15 8. 
245 18 6, 



PAKOCHIAL HISTORY. 



135. 



In pursuance of the foregoing resolutions, your committee caused placards and 
handbills to be circulated throughout the parish, inviting applications from properly 
qualified persons for the gifts before mentioned, and on the 6th day of January last 
they met and received 417 applications for the " Aged Parishioner's Gift," and 77 
applications for " The Samaritan's Gift," which were divided among the distri- 
butors in the several wards for investigation ; each case was carefully inquired into, 
and the result having been placed before the committee, after due consideration 
the following cases were placed on the before-mentioned classes, due regard being had 
to the character and circumstances of each case (the distributors undertaking to visit 
and pay the sum granted to each recipient personally), namely : 



THE AGED PARISHIONER'S GRANT. 



2 aged parishioners at 2s. per month 



s. d. 



9 

4 
34 
14 

7 
21 

1 

5 

97 recipients. 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



4s. 

4s. Qd. 
5s. 
6s. 

7s. 

8s. 

9s. 

10s. 



040 

1 16 
18 
8 10 
440 
290 
880 
090 

2 10 



SAMARITAN GIFT. 












s. 


d. 


9 persons at 5s. each 


2 


5 





84 


do. 


10s. 


42 








16 


do. 


15s. 


12 








49 


do. 


20s. ., 


49 








1 


do. 


25s. 


1 


5 





7 


do. 


30s. 


10 


10 





7 


do. 


40s. , 


14 








3 


do. 


60s. 


9 









176 recipients. .140 

CHILDREN'S SCHOOL GRANT. 
The following children have been sent to school as under, viz. : 

Emmanuel Schools 6 

Green Coat School 2 

Waterloo Street School .... 2 
Do. Infant School . . 2 



12 
All which your committee respectfully submit to the vestry. 

G. L. TURNEY, 

Chairman. 
June 23rd, 1869. 



136 Y c PARISH OF CAflERWELL. 



PARTICULARS OF ESTATES AND BEQUESTS. 

The following are the particulars of the estates and bequests vested in the trustees 
of the charity estates of the parish under their control and management by Act of 
Parliament, 3 Will. IV. c. 33, s. 52 : 

1. LANDED ESTATES. 
SIR EDMOND BOWYER'S CHARITY. 

Sir Edmond Bowyer, by will dated llth of July, 1626 (and proved in the Prero- 
gative Court of Canterbury on the 1st March, 1626-7, by Martin Clarke, one of the 
executors), devised unto his nephew Francis Muschampe, Esq., and John Hendly, 
gent., and to his two trusty servants Martin Clarke and James Draper and to their 
heirs for ever, to the use of the poor of Camberwell, all those three tenements which 
he had then newly built upon an old foundation in Camberwell, being in the several 
tenures or occupations of John Stuckey, clerk of the parish, James Sharpe, and John 
Lane (all of which he had already in his lifetime settled by deed, 9th and 10th October, 
1675), and he declared his mind and will to be that the said Francis Muschampe, 
John Hendly, Martin Clarke, and James Draper, with the overseers of the poor of 
Camberwell for the time being, shall receive the rents and profits of the said houses 
and distribute it weekly or otherwise, to relieve the poor of Camberwell as they 
shall think fit. These houses thus devised now consist of and are let as follows : 

1. To Mr. Alfred Lancefield, for 61 years, from Michaelmas, 1809, at a rent of .30 
per annum, now held by Mr. Symes. 

2. To Mr. T. E. Selk, for 21 years, from Michaelmas, 1853, at a rent of ,44 per 
annum. 

3. To Mr. Stuckbery, for 21 years, from Michaelmas," 1853, at a rent of 36 per 
annum, now held by Mr. Carrington. 

4. To Mr. Tutin, consisting of two tenements, for 21 years, from Michaelmas, 1847, 
at a rent of 40 per annum, and now let thus : 1st, a coffee-house, let to Miss E. 
Brooke, at 40 per annum, and the other to Mr. Neville, at 35 per annum. 

The rents of this property form part of the general fund handed over by the 
tmstees to the distribution committee. 

BOWLES' FIVE ACRES. 

By indentures of lease and re-lease dated 15th and 16th February, 1676, Abigail 
Bowles and others, in consideration of 200, conveyed to Sir Edmond Bowyer, Knt., and 
others (the parties named in the indenture of the 10th October, 1675), their heirs and 
assigns, all that enclosed piece of meadow commonly known by the name of Bowies' 
Five Acres, containing by estimation five acres, abutting upon the highway leading 
from Kent Street towards Deptford on the north, and on the east, west, and south on 
the common field called North Field, all which premises were in the liberty of 
Peckham, in the parish of Camberwell, to hold the same upon trust, to dispose of the 
rents and profits to the poor of the said parish of Camberwell, in such manner as the 
churchwardens and overseers of the poor of the said parish, or the major part of them, 
shall appoint. 

A part of this land, containing about two acres, was in the year 1807 sold to the 
Grand Surrey Canal Company, under the powers of the Act establishing that company, 
for a sum of money, which, with a slight addition from the donation fund, purchased 
800 Three per Cent. Consols (see Funded Property). The rest of the land, consisting 
of 2A. 3R. 14p., was demised by indenture dated 24th March, 1807, executed by the 



PAROCHIAL HISTORY. 137 

trustees and by the vicar and churchwardens, to William Lamb for 61 years, from 
Lady Day then next, at the clear yearly rent of .62, the lessee covenanting within 
three years next ensuing to lay out the full sum of ,500 at the least in building one 
or more substantial brick messuages on the said land. 

The lease expired on the 25th March, 1868, and the estate has been subsequently 
laid out and let on building leases, from the designs of Mr. William Berriman, of 
'Camberwell. 

The rents form part of the general fund paid to the distribution committee. 

SHOULDER OF MUTTON PIECE 
Consists of a piece of land lying in what were termed the North Fields or Common 
Fields in Peckham, containing in the whole 2A. 2p. exclusive of the roads and foot- 
paths, the exact dimensions and boundaries of which were set out by the commissioner 
in his award under the Act of Parliament for enclosing the common fields of Peckham. 

The mode in which this piece of land was originally acquired is not known with 
certainty ; it is considered to have been appurtenant (as part of the common field lands) 
to the land purchased from Sir Edmond Bowyer. It was held for a great number 
of years by the Emmetts, the well-known gardeners and cowkeepers of Peckham. 

This piece of land and the remnant of Bowies' Five Acres were conveyed to new 
trustees by a deed of 8th April, 1816, by the following description : "All that parcel 
of land lying on the south side of the high road leading from London to Deptford, 
containing by estimation 2A. 3n. 14p., in the parish of St. Giles, Camberwell, near to 
a place called Peckham Gap, formerly in the occupation of Gammage, but then of 
Edward Westbrook and others, being part of a certain field heretofore called Bowies' 
Five Acres ; and also all that timber messuage or tenement thereon standing, with the 
outhouses thereto belonging, and which said appurtenances consist, among others, of 
all that piece or parcel of land lying in the Common Fields of Peckham, and being 
in and part and parcel of a certain piece of ground in the said Common Fields called 
the Shoulder of Mutton Piece, and then in the occupation of Elizabeth Emmett, 
widow." ' 

This land was leased, with the approval of the vestry, to Mr. Eobert Hay ward for 
99 years, from Michaelmas, 1863, at a ground rent of ,50 per annum, and upon 
which has been erected the "Trafalgar" public-house and 22 houses and shops. 
Mr. Hay ward has since assigned his interest in the leases to Messrs. Mann, Grossman, 
.and Paulin, and Mr. John Butler. 

The rents form part of the general fund paid to the committee. 

CAGE, CAMBERWELL GREEN. 

At a vestry on the 22nd June, 1809, the vicar and parish officers were requested to 
#pply to Messrs. Edmonds and Cope for a piece of ground near the Green Coat 
School, whereupon to erect an engine-house, and report was made on the 7th of 
September in the same year that Mr. Edmonds had given the freehold and Mr. Cope 
the lease of a piece of ground for the above purpose. 

On this ground an engine-house was subsequently erected, with rooms for the 
residence of the keeper ; and the same were, by indentures of lease and re-lease dated 
the 27th and 28th November, 1816, conveyed by Robert Edmonds, Esq., and others, to 
trustees to hold the same, their heirs and assigns, for the benefit of the inhabitants of 
the said parish, as are set forth with respect to the ground on which the workhouse 
stands. 

By an order of vestry of the 22nd September, 1818, it was referred to the parish 
officers and workhouse committee to erect cages for the districts of Camberwell and Peck- 
ham within the two corner walls in front of the workhouse ; but at a subsequent vestry 



138 Y e PAKISH OF CAMEEWELL. 

specially called, part of the order, so far as related to the Peckham cage, was rescinded ; 
and it was referred to the same committee to cause a cage and engine-house to be 
erected at Peckham for that liberty. These orders were soon afterwards carried into 
effect, and a cage and engine-house were built in front of the workhouse, and a cage 
and engine-house * near the entrance to Hill Street, Peckham. 

At a vestry held on the 22nd September, 1819, a piece of freehold ground belonging 
to the parish of Camberwell, on the east side of the road leading from Camberwell Green 
to Denmark Hill, on which an old watch-house and cage were then standing, was 
ordered, on the application of the trustees for lighting and watching Camberwell, to- 
be let to them from year to year, at the yearly rent of Is., for the purpose of erecting 
thereon a watch-house for the use of that trust, it being conditioned that the parishi 
officers were to have a key thereof for the use of the parish. 

And at the same vestry it was ordered that a piece of ground, on the north side of the 
main street of Peckham, on which the watch-house of Peckham formerly stood, given 
to the parish of Camberwell by Peter Cock, Esq., formerly of Camberwell, should be 
thrown open to the high road. 

The ground on which the Camberwell watch-house and cage formerly stood is now 
let on lease to Mr. James Smith for 60 years, from Michaelmas, 1862, at a rental of 
7 a year. 

The engine-house on the Green was occupied by the family of the late engine- 
house keeper, Thomas Lee, and that family continued to occupy the premises until 
January, 1873. The vestry subsequently let the same on lease to Mr. George Priest 
at .8 a year. 

This rent forms part of the general fund handed over to the distribution committee. 

BURSTED'S LAND. 

A parcel of land containing about two roods, situate near St. Mary's Church, 
Peckham, formerly part of " Peckham Fields." This land is now let to Mr. Hargood 
under resolution of the trustees, dated 7th November, 1867, as a yearly tenant, at ,3 
per annum. 

The rent forms part of the general fund for distribution. 

SIR THOMAS HUNT'S GIFT. 

Sir Thomas Hunt, by his will dated 28th April, 1625, and proved in the Prerogative 
Court of Canterbury, gave and directed as follows : 

" To the Vicar and Churchwardens of Hilderstone, where my house standeth, to the 
poor there for ever, fifty-three shillings and four pence a year for six poor men and 
women, by two pence a piece every Sabbath day in bread. To the sexton or clerk for 
setting the bread on the table, the odd sixteen pence. To the Churchwardens to buy them 
a pair of gloves, for distributing the same bread to the poor ; and these poor after service, 
if they be well and have no convenient let, shall come every Sabbath day to the stone 
where my father lieth, kneeling, shall say the Lord's Prayer, and pray to God for the 
King and Queen then reigning over them, and for no other use. I would have the 
people chosen by the Vicar and Churchwardens to be of honest and good conversation, 
and so they shall enjoy it during their lives. My son and heir, and the heirs after him* 
shall have the negative voice in the choice thereof, if he will. I give to the Parson 
and Churchwardens of St. Dunstan's-in-the-East, London, to the use of the poor 
fifty-three shillings and four pence a year for ever, so as they let my son renew my 
lease I hold of the church, for money, as another will give or not to the seller. I 



m^ ?r^ iCh v thi ,? ^ il ^ S is erected > chased of the tote Mr. Charles Willson, and conveyed j 
Blue Anchor Yard, Peckham, was pur- to the trustees by deed dated August 23, 1849 



PAROCHIAL HISTORY. 13 

give also to the Vicar and Churchwardens of Camberwell to the use of the poor, fifty- 
three shillings and four pence a year for ever, and I will that these three legacies 
given to these three parishes shall be taken out of all my land in Northumberland 
Alley, except my wife's jointure, till such time Mrs. Sare do die, and Brown's lease 
do end ; after that they shall discharge my lands in Northumberland Alley, and take 
it for ever out of my lands in Kentish St. in the county of Surrey, which John Brown 
holdeth by lease ; and by virtue of this my last will, I give them power to distrain 
for these several portions in and upon all my lands in Northumberland Alley, except 
my wife's jointure, till Brown's lease be ended, or Mrs. Sare dead, which cometh first, 
and after that they shall have the like power to distrain on my lands in Kentish St. 
aforesaid for their sums for ever." 

It was customary for a long time to distribute the money every Sunday in the 
church in six twopenny loaves to six poor persons then and there applying ; but this- 
practice appears to have arisen from an erroneous application or extension of the 
directions relative to the poor of Hilderston to the bequest in favour of this parish. 

The proceeds of this gift forms one of the special gifts distributed by the church- 
wardens in bread. (Vide Distribution Account.) 

FUNDED ESTATES. 

ALLEN'S GIFT. 

Joseph Allen, M.D., formerly of Dulwich, by his will dated 12th November, 1793, 
gave and bequeathed to the vicar and churchwardens of Camberwell the sum of .200 
Three per Cent. Consols, in trust for them and their successors, to pay the dividends 
thereof to the churchwarden and overseer for the time being for the hamlet of Dulwich 
every year, to be laid out in coals, and distributed amongst the poor housekeepers of 
Dulwich for ever. The dividends, ,6 per annum, form one of the special gifts, and 
are at Christmas expended in the purchase of sacks and half-sacks of coals, and 
distributed according to the will of the testator. ( Vide Distribution Account.) 

BOWLES' FIVE ACRES. 

The proceeds of the sale of a portion of this land (see Landed Estates) was in the year 
1807 invested in the purchase of .800 Three per Cent. Consols, producing .24 per 
annum. 

The dividends are carried to the general fund paid to the distribution committee. 

ARNOT'S CHARITY. 

The following extract from the will of Mr. Michael Arnot, late of the parish of 
Camberwell, wheelwright, deceased, dated April 20, 1823, will explain this charity : 

" And I give also unto the said Elizabeth Picton the interest of .100 which I 
have in Old Sea Annuities, during the term of her natural life, provided she continue 
to live single ; but upon her marriage or demise, the said interest to be divided equally 
that is to say, one half part to charity schools, the other half part to be given to three 
poor persons of and belonging to the parish of Camberwell ; and I do hereby authorize 
and empower the churchwardens and their successors for the time being of the parish 
of Camberwell to receive and dispose of the above interest as above directed, so often 
as it shall become due and payable." 

One half of this dividend, 1 10s., is paid to the treasurer of the Camberwell 
Green Coat School in aid of its funds (vide Distribution Account), and_the other half 
carried to the general fund handed over to the distribution committee. 

PINCHBACK'S GIFT. 
Mrs. Pinchback bequeathed by will the sum of 100 to the vicar and church- 



140 Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

wardens of Camberwell, tlie interest of which she directed should be laid out in bread 
and distributed to the poor at the parish church of St. Giles's, Camberwell, on the 
second Sunday in each month. This sum was in 1844 invested in the purchase of 
.100 55. Old South Sea Annuities. 

The dividends of this sum are appropriated according to the testator's will, as a 
special gift. ( Vide Distribution Account. ) 

By resolution of the trustees, dated 20th May, 1853, this stock, together with 
Arnot's gift before described, were converted into .220 5s. 6d. New Two-and-a-Half 
per Cent. Annuities. 

NOYES' CHARITY. 

Mr. Edward Noyes, Jun., of the Bank of England, by his will dated 31st March, 
1800, gave and bequeathed .300 New Three per Cent. Reduced Annuities to poor 
persons of the parish of Camberwell, who shall neither be maintained nor relieved 
thereby, to whom the same is to be distributed at the church door of the said parish 
on Christmas Day and the 21st February in every year, in bread, which last-mentioned 
day was the birthday of his son. 

The dividends, 9 per annum, belong to the special gifts, and are applied according 
to the will of the testator. 

MRS. HARRIOTT SMITH'S CHARITY. 

Mrs. Harriott Smith, wife of Benjamin Smith, Red Lion Square, in the county of 
Middlesex, gentleman, by her will dated 23rd September, 1808 (pursuant to a power made 
on her marriage settlement), gave and bequeathed to the vicar, churchwardens, and 
overseers of the poor of the parish of St. Giles's, Camberwell, for the time being, the sum 
of .1,000 Three per Cent. Reduced Bank Annuities, to be held by them and their 
successors in trust, to pay and divide the interest and dividends thereof from time to 
time, and amongst ten of the oldest poor housekeepers of the towns and villages of 
Camberwell and Dulwich equally for ever, and thereof appointed Jesse Gregson, of 
Angel Court, Throgmorton Street, her executor, by whom the will was proved, on 
February 21st, 1815, in the Prerogative Court of the Archbishop of Canterbury. In 
April, 1820, the following queries on a case stated with respect to this legacy were 
submitted to Mr. Sugdeii (now Lord St. Leonards), and his opinion obtained 
thereon : 

1. Have the inhabitants of Peckham any interest in these dividends ? 

2. Supposing the first query to be answered in the negative, are the inhabitants of 
Dulwich entitled to an equal moiety on the distribution of the whole dividends, or 
should they take, with reference to the size of the district and number of the in- 
habitants as compared with Camberwell's ; in other words, does the term " equally," 
used by the testatrix, refer to the two districts or the poor housekeepers ? 

Answer. 

" In my opinion, the inhabitants of the district of Peckham have not any interest in 
these dividends, and the inhabitants of Dulwich are not entitled to an equal moiety of 
the dividends. The word equally , J I think, refers to the poor housekeepers, and not 
to the two districts. 

"EDWARD B. SUGDEN. 

"Lincoln's Inn, April 12th, 1820." 

The dividends arising from this gift, 30 per annum, form one of the special gifts, 
And are distributed, according to the will, among ten poor housekeepers. 

MRS. JONES' GIFT. 
By will dated 21st March, 1842, Mrs. Susannah Jones gave and bequeathed to the 



PAKOCHIAL HISTORY. 141 

trustees of the charity estates the sum of .100 Three per Cent. Reduced Annuities,, 
the interest to be paid annually at Christinas, equally to six poor persons residing in 
the liberty of Peckham. 

MATHEW'S GIFT. 

Mr. Wm. Mathews, by his will dated the 30th October, 1750, gave the interest of 
150 to the minister, churchwardens, and overseers of the poor of the parish of 
Camberwell, to be laid out in bread and distributed to poor communicants of the 
Church of England on Sacrament Sundays. By a decree of the Court of Chancery 
in a suit, Attorney-General v. Osmond, this sum was invested in the purchase of 
.187 5s. lid. Three per Cent. Consols, in the name of the Accountant-General of tha 
Court of Chancery, and the dividends, 5 12s. 4d. per annum, belong to the " special 
gifts," and are distributed according to the will. (Vide Distribution Account.) 

HOWLETT'S ACRE. 

Sir Edmond Bowyer, by his will dated llth July, 1626, gave "to the poor of 
Camberwell .10, to be distributed at my funeral, and also ,10 to the poor, to be. paid 
to the collector for the poor of Camberwell, in lieu of the fine and trees which I have 
received, and rents out of Howlett's Acre, and the rents of the said Acre are to be 
paid yearly by my heirs to the poor of Camberwell, upon Good Friday, as I have 
given it during my life." 

In the year 1858 this land, which is situate in Half Moon Lane, Dulwich,was sold 
to Mr. George Keen, of Herne Hill, by the trustees, with the consent of the Charity 
Commissioners, and the proceeds invested in the purchase of .350 Three per Cent. 
Consols. 

The dividends of this sum form part of the general fund paid to the distribution 
committee. 

MRS. JANE WILLSON'S GIFT. 

By will of Mrs. Jane Willson, widow, the interest of the sum of ,100 was 
directed to be expended in the purchase of twelve ready-made flannel petticoats, 
to be given annually on the 25th December to twelve aged women having a legal 
settlement in the hamlet of Peckham. By an order of Vice-Chancellor Bacon, dated 
the 17th December, 1870, a portion of the corpus of this fund was sold to pay legacy 
duty and costs of application to the Court of Chancery, and the balance, amounting 
to 80 13s. Id., invested in the name of the official trustees of charitable funds, and 
the dividend, 2 8s. 4cZ., received by the trustees of the charity estates, and paid over 
annually to such one of the churchwardens for the time being of the said parish who 
shall be churchwarden of the hamlet of Peckham ; or if there shall be no such 
person, then to such one of the said churchwardens as shall be the best qualified by 
his knowledge of the said hamlet and the poor thereof to select the fittest objects of 
the bounty of the testatrix. 

HENRY SMITH'S CHARITY. 

In addition to the foregoing rents and bequests vested in the trustees under the 
local Act of Parliament, a sum averaging 17 per annum is receivable by the church- 
wardens and overseers of the poor of the parish of Camberwell, under the will of 
Henry Smith, formerly of Wandsworth, in the county of Surrey, by his will dated 
24th day of April, 1627. The above sum, derived from rents of certain freehold 
estates in the county of Kent, and vested in his Grace the Duke of Dorset and others, 
is laid out every winter in the purchase of great coats for the poor inhabitants of the 
parish of Camberwell. The great coats are distributed at Christmas every year. 



142 Y e PAEISH OF CAMERWELL. 

The following general statement of receipts is taken from the last annual report 
(1873) : 

Dec. 1872 to Dec. 1873. . . s. d. s. d. 

To balance brought forward from last year's account . . 295 18 8 

To cash from receiver, viz. : 

SIR EDMOND BOWYER'S CHARITY 
One year's rent to Michaelmas, 1873 : 

E. Symes 100 

T. E. Silk 44 

J. Rose and H. Carrington 36 

H. Neville 35 

J. Weeks 40 

255 

AGE, CAMBERWELL GREEN 

One year's rent to Michaelmas, 1873, J. Smith . . 700 

Engine-house, Camberwell Green, one quarter's rent to 
Michaelmas, 1873, G. Priest 200 

SHOULDER OF MUTTON ESTATE 

One year's rent to Michaelmas, 1873, Mann, Cross- 
man, and Co. (less Property Tax) . . . . 19 14 2 

Ditto, G. Culver (less tax) 29 11 3 

Property Tax deductions, refunded by Inland Revenue 

Commissioners 2142 

51 19 7 

SIR THOMAS HUNT'S GIFT 

One year's rent charge to Christmas, 1873, W. Briley 2 13 4 

BURSTED'S LAND 

One year's rent to Michaelmas, 1873, E. Hargood . . 300 

DIVIDENDS 

One year's dividends to July, 1873, on ^1,000 Consols 30 
Ditto ditto on J220 5s. 6d. New 2 per 

Cent. Annuities 5 10 

Ditto ditto on ,350 Consols, per Charity 

Commissioners. . . . . . . . 10 10 

Ditto ditto on 187 5s. lid. Consols, per 

Court of Chancery (less Property Tax) . . . 5 10 9 
Ditto ditto to October, 1873, on \ ,509 17s. 9d. 

Reduced 3 per Cent. Annuities . . . . 45 5 10 
Dividends to July, 1873, on 80 13s. Id. Consols, per 

Court of Chancery, Jane Willson's Bequest (less 

Income Tax) 279 

Property Tax deductions refunded . . . . 060 

99 10 4 

BOWLES' FIVE ACRES 

Rents from sundry tenants of shops and factories to 

Michaelmas, 1873 201 5 10 

Ground rents on property, Bowles Road, to Michael- 
mas, 1873 64 10 

E. D. Rogers' sale of materials of shops at auction, less 
expenses 122 11 4 



PAROCHIAL HISTORY. 143 

s. d. s. d. 

W. Ross, old iron 7 17 6 

Deposit on letting No. 14 Plot, Old Kent Road, to 

A. Norman 500 

Property Tax deductions refunded . . . . 15 2 8 
Royal Insurance Company, for damage by fire at 

No. 536, Old Kent Road 160 

576 7 4 

INTEREST 

Interest on cash placed at deposit account during the 

year 21 10 1 

^1,314 19 4 



RATES AND TAXES. 

The order of the great Roman Emperor, that all the world should be taxed, 
if not carried out thoroughly in his day, has since been considerably improved 
upon, for not only has everybody been taxed but everything likewise. 

According to an eminent authority, we are told that when war was declared 
.against Antony, the senators were taxed, not according to their property or by the 
number of their windows, but at the rate of so much per tile on their houses. 

Arbuthnot quotes Strabo to show " that Britain bore heavy taxes, especially the 
customs on the importation of the Gallick trade ;" but customs do not seem to have 
been much thought of as a source of revenue until they were introduced by Edward I., 
who had seen in the course of his expedition to Palestine how easily money could be 
extracted from the people by such means. 

Amongst the curiosities of taxation may be mentioned an entry in the burghmote 
books of the city of Canterbury in the time of Edward VI. 

" The sheriff and another person pay their fines for wearing their beards viz. 
3s. 4d and Is. 8d.l" iThis tax must surely have been invented by the Colonel 
Sibthorp of that day, and if in force now would realize a handsome amount. 

The hearth tax of Charles II. (14 Car. II. c. 10) was another curiosity in its way, 
.and "every house, chamber and lodging" was charged with two shillings yearly, 
" to be paid at Lady- clay and Michaelmas for every fire-hearth and stove therein." 

The constables were to collect the tax six days after " it had grown due and to 
give acquittances, so that the party should not be troubled in the Exchequer, or 
elsewhere." We hear a great deal in our day about the expense of making and 
collecting rates and taxes, but the hearth tax of the reign of Charles II. affords a 
specimen altogether unique of how a tax may become " small by degrees and beauti- 
fully less" under official manipulation. When paying the tax to the high constable 
-of the hundred, the constables were allowed to deduct 2d. in the for the trouble 
of collecting the same ; the high constable within ten days paid it to the sheriff, 
deducting Id. in the for his trouble ; within thirty days the sheriff was required 
to pay the amount into the Exchequer, deducting 4d. in the for his share. No 
evidence is before us of any further "nibbles," but no doubt the officials at the 
Exchequer were handsomely paid for their work ! 

The following hearth-tax assessment on the parish of Camberwell is complete so 
far as Camberwell and Dulwich are concerned ; the Peckham portion is partially 
destroyed, and is therefore left out altogether : 



144 



Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 



HEARTH TAX, 15 CAR. II., No. iff. 

Surr. A true Duplicate of all & singuler the ffirehearths and Stoves and of the 
names of the persons who have the same in possession as well chardgable 
as not chardgable accordinge as the some haue beene deliuered to & 
received by the respective Justices of the peace of the said County 
within their seuerall Divisions and by them retorned to the Clercke of 
the peace of the said Comiss and by him recorded amongst the Records of 
the Sessions of the Peace of the said County by vertue of an Act of 
Parliam* made in the xv th yeare of his now Ma tt5es Raigne intitled an 
Additional Act for the better Orderinge and Collectinge the Revenue 
ariseing out of hearth money and by us whose names are hereunto Sub- 
scribed Justices of the peace of the said County retorned into his Ma ties 
Court of Excheqf and is as ffolloweth : 
BRIXTON HUNDRED. 
Cammerwell Libty psons Chardgeable. 



Sr. Edmond Bowyer, Knight 
John Scott, Esqr 
Sr. John Bowre 
Mr. Delve 
Doctor Parr 
Mr Byne 


. 20 
. . 17 
. 10 
. . 17 
. 10 
. . 7 


Geo. Gibbins . 
Peter L 
Tho. L. 
Be 
W. . . 
W. . . . 




Mr fifox .... 


. 13 


Widd. 




Mr. Cooke 
Mr. Curwin 
Mr Meorfatt 


. . 6 
. 8 

. . 8 


Widd 
Willm 
Hen. Hughe .... 




Mr. Danson 
Mr.Hunt 
Mr. Kempe 
Mr ffoster 


2 

. .' 6 
. 6 
. 3 


Widd. Clarke 
Rob. James 
John Hall 
Hath. Lettbitter ... 




Arthur ffrench 
John Ward 


. 3 
4 


Tho. Leaueside 
John Killett .... 




Tho Phillips 


8 


John Parson Juni 




Hen. Abbitt 
Robt. Loneley 
John Page 
Mr. Castleman . 
Mr. Walker 
Mr. Harris 
Mr. Blackstone 
Mr. Carter . . ... 
Evan Tuder . . 
John Egerton 
Mrs.Batt 
James Early 
Nich. Hefford 
Mrs. Pellham 
John James 
Geo Kinge .... 


. . 4 
. 4 
. . 7 
. 14 
. . 12 
. 4 
. . 4 
. 6 
. . 2 
. 1 
. . 4 
. 8 
. . 1 
. 4 

6 


Willm 
EMPTY HOWSES. 

Mr. Rich Shelberry in 4 bowses . 
Mr. Anthony Stanlock 
Mr. Rob. Bowles ... . 
Willm. Werrell 

PSONS NOT CHARDGEABLE BY CERTIFICATE. * 

Widd. Perce 
Widd. ffloyd 
Widd. ffawsett 
Widd Glascock 


IS 
8 

8 

2 

36 


John Simons 


. . 1 

9 


John Pallmer 




Goodm. Swallow 
Willm. Poole 
Widd. Stretcher 
John Colegate 
Rob. Bale 
John Seares 
Mr. Ybelstone 
Hen. Stockwell 
John Pearson, Seni .... 
ffran Hard 


. . 3 
. 1 

. . 4 

2 
. 4 
. . 1 
. 4 
. . 2 
1 


Widd. Page 
Widd. Wiggin 
Widd. Dandy 
Widd. Bracey 
Widd. Whidhop 
Widd. Kinge 
Widd. Player 
Widd. Simonds 
John Hallins 




Robt. Audley 
Widd. Waint 
Mr Waythin 


. . 1 
. I 

4. 


John Hale 
John Hall 
Nich Budd 




Mr Scott for Plastow .... 


5 


Marke ffeild 




Widd. Jackson 
John Sears, Juni 
Willm Ballard 


. . 7 
2 
8 


Hen. Harte 
Rich. Jackson 
Rob Lett 




PSONS NOT CHARDG [EABLE], 

Cammerwell Peckham . 
Nich. Allen 




Rich. Lett 
Willm. Crawley 
John Bagford 
Tho. Hurst 
John Woods 





* "If the Churchwardens and Overseers, with 
the Minister, shall, under their hands, certifie a 
house to be under twenty shillings per annum, nor 
hath lands or goods to 10 value, upon such 



certificate made to the two next Justices of the 
Peace and allowed, the party shall be discharged." 
14 Car. II. c. 10. 



PAEOCHIAL HISTORY. 



145 



John Hichinton 
Tho. Child 
Tho. Barker 
John Hassord 
DULWICH. 

PSONS CHARDGEABLfi. 

God's Gift Colledge .... 


. 33 
9 


John Oxley 
Rob. Budder . 
Margarett Essow 
Damns . . . Stedn 


1 
1 

9 


ian 2 

. 4 


Tho Hamond . 
Tho Windfeild 


. 3 

. 2 


Bethiah Downer 
Tho Collins . 
Silvester Cutter 
Nich Staples 
Abijah Perry . 
John Barrett 
Mr. Rubin son . 
Rob Gl ors. 




Mr. Vai-man 
Mr. Geo, Portman .... 
MF. Charles Weathersby . 
Mr Rob West 


. 8 
. . 10 
. 2 
. . 11 


.'..'.'.. 1 




2 


Willm Ballet 


. . 3 


widd 1 
2 
1 

158 e 

Tho Butterfeild. Constable. 
Tho Collins Headborough. 


John Sterkey 
Rich Wells 2 howses . 
Tho Wrench 
Daniell Scrivener 
Tho Butterfeild .... 


2 
. '.12 
. 6 
. . 1 
. 4 


ffran. Payer ?. 
Rich Wells tenem' 
Nich Wicks . 
John Hamond 


Tho Oxley 
Valentine Daniell .... 


. . 5 
. 3 


and his tenante .... 


2 
.' 5 



But if we want to arrive at the perfection of ingenuity in the mode of taxing the 
people we must come down to the days when " George III. was King." 

At that time, when taxes became so numerous that there was nothing further left 
to tax, Sydney Smith thus graphically describes the state of affairs. 

" We must pay taxes upon every article which enters into the mouth or covers the 
back, or is placed under the foot ; taxes upon everything which is pleasant to see, 
hear, feel, smell, and taste ; taxes upon warmth, light, and locomotion ; taxes upon 
everything upon earth, and the waters under the earth ; on everything that comes 
from abroad, or is grown at home ; taxes on raw material ; taxes on every value 
that is added to it by the industry of man ; taxes on the sauce which pampers man's 
appetite, and the drug which restores him to health ; on the ermine which decorates 
the judge, and the rope which hangs the criminal ; on the brass nails of the coffin, 
and on the ribands of the bride ; at bed or at board, couchant or levant, we must 
pay. The beardless youth manages his taxed horse with a taxed bridle on a taxed 
road ; and the dying Englishman, pouring his medicine which has paid 7 per cent, 
into a spoon which has paid 30 per cent., throws himself back upon his chintz bed 
which has paid 22 per cent., makes his will and expires in the arms of an apothecary 
who has paid ,100 for the privilege of putting him to death. His whole property 
is then taxed from 2 to 10 per cent. Besides the probate, large fees are demanded 
for burying him in the chancel ; his virtues are handed down to posterity on taxed 
marble, and he is then gathered to his fathers to be taxed no more." 

The financial schemes of " Billy Pitt" were a fruitful source of satire, and the- 
following lines, published in 1784, will be read with interest even in the present, 
day: 



" Should foreigners, staring at English taxation, 

Ask, why we still reckon ourselves a free nation, 

We'll tell them, we pay for the light of the sun ; 

For a horse with a saddle to trot or to run ; 

For writing our names ; for the flash of a gun ; 

For the flame of a candle to cheer the dark night ; 

For the hole in the house if it let in the light ; 

For births, weddings, and deaths ; for our selling 
and buying ; 

Though some think 'tis hard to pay 3d. for dying ; 

And some poor folks cry out ' these are Pharaoh- 
like tricks, 



To take such unmerciful tale of our bricks. ' 
How great in financing our Statesmen have been, 
From our ribbons, our shoes, and our hats may be 

seen; 

On this side and that, in the air, on the ground, 
By act upon act now so firmly we're bound, 
One would think there's not room one new impost 

to put 

From the crown of the head to the sole of the foot,. 
Like Job, thus John Bull his condition deplores 
Very patient, indeed, and all covered with sores." 



In this year (1784) there is an account of new taxes in the "Annual Register," 
levied on the following : Candles, bricks, pleasure horses, British linens and cottons,, 
ribands, beer, sportsmen, paper, hackney coaches, silver plate, lead, &c. ; but the tax 
which called forth the most ridicule was that levied on hats. 



146 Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

Gilray, in a caricature, entitled " Le bonnet rouge, or John Bull Evading the hat 
tax," intimated that such taxes might drive John Bull to adopt the Republican 
costume of his neighbours. John chuckles in contemplation of the astonishment his 
ruler must feel when he beholds the strange effect of his taxes. " Waunds ! when 
Master Billy sees I in a red cap, how he will stare ! Egad, I think I shall cook'em 
at last ! Well, if I could once get a cockade to my red cap and a bit of a gun why 
I should make a good stockey soldier !" 

In 1797 a caricature was published, entitled "More visitors to John Bull ; or the 
Assessed Taxes." It represented the unwelcome guests introducing themselves to 
John Bull in a bodily form. John Bull asks, in surprise as well as alarm, " What 
do you want, you little devils ? ain't I plagued with enough of you already ? More 
pickpockets' work I suppose?'' The corps reply, in the most courteous manner, 
" Please your honour, we're the Assessed Taxes ! " 

In 1799 Gilray published a clever caricature on the Income Tax, entitled "John 
Bull at his studies, attended by his guardian angel." John Bull is seen puzzling 
himself over an immense mass of paper, ironically entitled " A plain, short, and 
easy description of the different clauses in the Income Tax, so as to render it familiar 
to the meanest capacity." He remarks very gravely, " I have read many crabbed 
things in the course of my time ; but this, for an easy piece of business, is the 
toughest to understand I ever met with." 

Among the taxes announced in 1799 was one upon beer, which would have the 
effect of raising the price of porter to fourpence per pot, and which would weigh 
especially heavy upon the labouring classes. The satirists on the Tory side pretended 
to sympathize most with the staunch old whig, Dr. Parr, who was a great porter 
drinker and smoker, and no less an opponent of the government of William Pitt ; and 
on the 29th November Gillray published a spirited sketch of the supposed " Effusions 
of a pot of porter; or ministerial conjurations for supporting the war, as lately dis- 
covered by Dr. P r, in the froth and fumes of his favourite beverage." A pot of 
fourpenny is placed on a stool, with the Doctor's pipe and tobacco beside it ; from the 
froth of the porter arises Pitt, mounted on a white horse, brandishing a flaming 
sword, and breathing forth war and destruction on everything around. The Doctor's 
" reverie " is a satire on the innumerable mischiefs which popular clamour laid to 
charge of the minister. " Fourpence a pot for porter ! Mercy on us ! Ah ! it's all owi: 
to the war and the cursed ministry ! Have not they ruined the harvest ? Have th< 
not blighted all the hops ! Have they not brought on the destructive rains, that 
might be ruined in order to support the war ? and bribed the sun not to shine/that 
they may plunder us in the dark ? " 

Pitt's Budget of 1805 was not allowed to pass without severe remarks, and a heav: 
increased duty on salt excited general dissatisfaction. People said that when 
grand contriver of taxes had visited every corner of the house above stairs, he h 
now descended into the kitchen ; and one of the caricatures published at this peril 
represents the Premier alarming the poor cook by popping his head out of the salt 
box, with the unexpected salutation : " How do you do, cook, eh ? " The person thus 
apostrophized cries out in consternation : " Curse the fellow, how he has frightened 
me ! I think in my heart he is getting in everywhere ! Who the deuce would have 
thought of finding him in the salt-box 1 " 

In 1806, during Fox's administration, was published "The 'Friend of the People," 
.and his Petty New Tax-gatherer paying John Bull a visit." Fox and Lord Henry 
Petty with a terrible book of new taxes, make their call on John Bull, who has shut 
up his shop (which is announced to let), and removed his family to the first floor, 
from motives of economy. Lord Henry Petty knocks and raises the cry " Taxes ! 



^77^ 0r) 




- ~ x> **&&*?**&&. 

s^aa& 



S> <*&&*% #3W^K* 
*H^Z%^l-j^<>6*i4 t <4*JKt 




IV Griff g^ 



PAROCHIAL HISTOEY. 147 

taxes ! taxes ! " to which John Bull responds from the window above, " Taxes ! 
taxes ! taxes ! why how am I to get money to pay them all ? I shall very soon 
have neither a house nor a hole to put my head in." The man of the people, 
little touched by this appeal, shouts to him, " A house to put your head in ? why, 
what the devil should you want with a house ? haven't you got a first floor room to 
live in ? and if that is too dear, can't you move into the garret, or get into the cellar ? 
Taxes must be had, Johnny ; come, down with your cash ! It's all for the good of 
your dear country! " 

An income-tax novelty of about this time (1810) has been courteously forwarded to 
the writer by Mr. R. Strong, J.P., into whose possession it came on the purchase of 
the Grammar School Estate. It is a demand for income-tax made upon Mr. Perkins, 
for many years occupier of the fine old house recently known as the Denmark Hill 
Grammar School. After enumerating various items of taxation, a deduction there^, 
from is made for all children above two or rather the deduction would have been 
made if Mr. Perkins's children had exceeded that number ; but as the allowance was 
not carried out, it is reasonable to suppose that Mr. Perkins was not entitled to it. 
The trouble and inconvenience of obtaining this allowance as well to the party as to 
the commissioners, eventually induced the authorities to repeal it.* The residents of 
Camberwell, of course, bore their part in the above universal system of taxation. 
Our province is with the local taxes which more immediately concern the parish, and 
with one tax in particular, which has stuck to us " closer than a brother " for two 
hundred and seventy-three years ; and, judging from its present vitality, has the prospect 
of remaining true to us for another two hundred and seventy-three years at least ! 
We have had our rates for the churches, church ornaments and bells ; our improve- 
ment rates ; our spasmodic and unsatisfactory sewers' rates ; our consolidated and 
general rates ; our lighting and watching rates ; our composition for statute duty 
and other rates, too numerous to mention, and certainly too numerous to discuss. 

The poor rate is interesting from its great staying power its historical associations, 
its many- headed monstrosities, its misleading nomenclature, and its peremptory order 
to be settled forthwith. The poor rate has the advantage over all other rates in 
having a " guide, philosopher, and friend," in the shape of the overseer, who stands 
by it faithfully in all its little vagaries. It knocks at our houses in the name of the 
poor, and divides the spoil in the name of the many. It not only follows us whilst 
living, but haunts us when dead. Whilst our bones are resting in their last long home, 
they will contribute something towards the purchase of Australian meat for the 
ungrateful pauper ! 

About the year 1682, complaint having been made to the Surrey Sessions (see 
plate A f ) of the manner of making " The tax for the relief of the Parish of Gamer- 
well," it was ordered at the general quarterly session of the Peace under the King's 
Commission, held at Dorkeing in the same county, on Tuesday in the week after the 
Epiphany of our Lord, the 17th day of January, in the 33rd year of the reign of our 
King Charles the 2nd, " that the tax in future be equally and indifferently assessed on 
all the inhabitants and others, and that the poor be relieved generally, according to 
law, and not according to particular hamlets and villages as hath been lately used." 

In connection with this branch of the subject, the following rate, which is the 
earliest complete rate we have been able to trace, will no doubt be read with interest 
by many readers, as it not only furnishes us with the names of Camberwell residents 
in 1697, but gives us a fair idea of the relative social positions of the inhabitants of 
the respective districts, and affords us also an amusing illustration of the manner in 

* The items charged against Mr. Perkins were as carriages, 24 14. ; 4 horses, 20 Ss. ; 5 dogs 
follows : Windows, 51; house duty, 17; 6 2 17s. 6d. ; armorial bearings, 2 8*-.; hair- 
servants, 28 4s. ; 2 gardeners, 12s. ; 2 four wheel powder, 3 10s. 6d. ; in all, 150 14s. 

L 2 



148 



Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 



which the rates not recovered were accounted for. The phrase, " not to "be gotten," which 
appears against the names of Richard Vockins and John Marshall is most expressive, 
the modern rendering of which " not to be had " is certainly weak in comparison. 

POOR RATE, 1697. 

An Assessment made the 10 th Day of February 1697 by the churchwardens and 
overseers of the poor, and other the inhabitants of the parrish of Camerwell for the 
farther Relief of the poor and other necessarys and for Reinbursing the churchwardens 
theire Extraordinary Charge for six months from S l Michael-Masse 1697 to Lady Day 
1698 after the Rate of Three pence in the pound. 



Asst. 


THE LIBERTY OF CAMERWELL. 








Asst. 










. 








s. 


d. 


. 







s. 


d. 


136 


Anthony Bowyer, Esq. . 


I 


14 







Brought forward 


20 


5 


9 


100 


Iccabod Tipping . . . . 


1 


5 





50 


Wm. Chandler .... 





12 


6 


14 


Nehemiah Lambert 





3 


6 


3 


Anthony Cock. . 








9 


22 


Mr. De Worth .... 





5 


6 


17 


Widdow Ways .... 





4 


8 


27 


Jno. phillips .... 





6 


9 


149 


Jno. Bowden, Junr. . 


1 


17 


j 


14 


Thomas Brooke . . . . 





3 


6 


18 


Joseph Hill, Senr. . 





4 


,5 


30 


Henry Stockwell 





7 


6 


39 


Joseph Hill, Junr. . . . 





9 


9 


5 
16 


Wm. Rippley .... 
Jeremiah Watling . 






1 

4 


3 



4 

4 


Simon Reding .... 
Widow adams . ... 






1 
1 






3 


Francis page . . . . ) 








9 


2 


Jno. Hone .... 








9 


3 

4 


Robert Chappel . j 
John Beech . . . . < 







1 


9 



Out-) 
lyers \ 


Tobias Lane .... 


1 


10 




4 


Mr. Bateman ) 





1 





121 j 










3 


Thomas Baggford . . . 








9 


83 


Thomas Baker .... 


1 





9 


40 


Mary Jackson .... 





10 





43 


Mr. Cripps 





10 


0i 


69 


Mathew Shaw . . . . 





17 


3 


58 


Nathaniel Browne . 





14 


(j 


39 


Walter Cock . 





9 


9 


24 


Mr. Miller 





6 





40 


Wm. Mather .... 





10 





24 


Richard Vokins 





6 





23 


Edward Phillips 





5 


9 


8 


Jno. Allen 





2 


0* 


86 


Wm. Scott 


1 


1 


6 





Jno. Lewes (poor) . 











10 


Wm. Hammon .... 





2 


6 


37 


Isaac Cannon . ... 





9 


8 


10 


Stephen pickton . . . . 





2 


6 


22 


Jno. Meed 





5 


ft 


5 
9 


George page .... 
Henry Symons . . . . 






1 


3 
3 


11 
35 


Wm. page 
James Keeley .... 






2 
8 


9 

9 




Wm. Ryce .... 











8 


Jno. Marshall of Camerwell . 





2 





20 


Thomas Watts . ... 





5 





24 


Joseph Howard . ... 





6 





4 


Stephen Warde . . 


o 


1 





22 


Mr. King . 





5 


6 


5 


Ad. Lambe 





1 


3 


27 


Jno. Foxcraft . . . . 





6 


9 


7 


Jno. Holford .... 





1 


9 


5 


Wm. Bensted .... 





1 


3 


6 

7 


Henry Gardner . . . . 
Wm. Starkey .... 






1 

1 


6 
9 


2 
15 


Jno. Marshall of peckham Rye 
Widdow Snapes .... 







3 


6 

9 


14 


Christopher Hancock (poor) . 
Simon Turfrey . . . . 







3 



6 


36 


Mr. Gatlin 
31 7. 9d. 





9 





17 


Robert Rodgers 





4 


3 












50 


Ralph Killick . . 





12 


6 




THE LIBERTY OF PECKHAM. 








5 


Thomas Carpenter . 





1 


3 















Nicholas Alleyn (poor) . . 











9 


Robert fford .... 





2 


8 


7 


Henry Davies .... 





1 


9 





Robert Castel . ... 














Edward Smith (poor] . . . 











10 


Daniel Simmons 





2 


6 


25 


Charles Duke .... 





6 


3 


20 


Walter Hombey .... 





5 


9 


12 


Thomas Hooke . . . . 





3 





4 


William Smart .... 





1 





5 


Richard Harvey 





1 


3 


8 


Widdow Sleys . . 





2 







Richard Toombs (poor) . . 











14 


Samuel plummer 





3 


(5 


39 


Edward Woodward . 





9 


9 i 


8 


Joseph Selmes . . . . 





2 





4 


Katherine Lysseman . . . 





1 





24 


Jasper Rawlins 





6 








Joseph Atkins (poor) 











3 


Jno. Greathed . . . . 








9 


4 


Jno. Over . . . . 





1 





8 


Joshua Hutchinson . 





2 





9 


Captn. Trayherne . 





2 


3 


3 


Richard Mills .... 








9 


11 


Mr. Elis 





2 


9 


151 


Richard ffloyde 


1 


17 


9 





2 Emty Houses 











7 


Widdow Loyde .... 





1 


9 


47 


Wm. Osborne . . . . 





11 


9 


8 


William Coltman . 





2 





4 


Stephen Edgerton . 





1 





16 


Ashby. . 





4 





68 


Mary Smith 





17 





4 


Oliver Cox .... 





1 





3 


James Fox .... 








9 


4 


Widdow Williams . . . 





1 





3 


Michael Arnold .... 








9 


10 


Wm. Bensted .... 





2 





5 


Jno. Killick .... 





1 


3 


3 


Thomas Byford . . . . 








9 


10 


Jno. Yates 





2 


6 


3 


Goody Barker .... 











83 


Ambros Hawkins . 


1 





9 


7 


Budgin . . . . 





1 





2 


Jno. Buckland . . . . 








6 1 


53 


Wm. Ransford .... 





13 


3 


110 


Thomas Allen .... 


1 


7 


6 


2 


Thomas May . . . . 








6 


66 


Wm. perkins . 





16 


6 


10 


Widdow Morgan 





2 


6 


5 


Edward Gates . 





1 


3 : 


16 


Mr. Winter 





4 





3 


Jno. Hall . . . * . . 








9 


73 


Jno. foxcraft .... 





18 


3 


3 


Thomas farlow .... 








9 


24 


DeMouline. . . . 





6 





22 


Wm. Rooke 





5 


6 


41 


Thomas Spicer .... 





10 


3 


98 


Elizabeth King 


1 


4 


6 


11 


Thomas Hammond . . . 





2 





125 


Jno. Jackson . . . . 


1 


11 


3 


11 


Jno. Gregory .... 





2 


9 




Carried forward . . . 


20 


5 







Carried forward . . . 


7 


1 


3 



PAROCHIAL HISTORY. 



149 









Asst. 













s. 


d. 


. 







s. 


Brought forward . . . 


7 


1 


3 




Brought forward .... 


3 


7 


King 





19 


6 


30 


Thomas Crauwell . . . 





7 


Hazard .... 





4 


6 


61 


Robert Budder. 





15 


Tayler . . 





2 





48 


Thomas Caine . . . . 





12 


Fitzheugh 
Widdow Major .... 
Gatton. 







4 

1 
1 




9 
9 


44 
20 
33 


Richard perry .... 
William page . . . . 
Henry Thorpe .... 





o 


11 
5 

8 


Tobias Lane 





5 


9 


24 


William Marlow .... 


o 


6 


Thomas Slaughter . 





1 





36 


Jno. Da,vis .... 





9 


James Bylow . . . . 





2 


3 


39 


Jno. Russel, Senr. . . . 





9 


Sr. Thomas Trevor . 





15 





4 


Jno. Hammond 





1 


Mary Robinson . . . . 





2 


6 


15 


Jno. Scrivener . . . . 





3 


Adam Bodden .... 





3 





13 


Thomas Frisby . 





3 


Thomas Turgis, Esq. 





3 


9 


9 


Favor Barrett . ... 





2 


Robinson . . . 





1 


6 


15 


Wm. Hicks .... 


o 


3 


Phillip Price .... 





2 


3 


2 


Jno. Russel, Junr. . . . 








Jno. Hall 








9 


2 


Jno. Ottway .... 


o 





Henry Wheatley, Esq. . 
Garrit 






6 

2 


9 



22 
6 


Richard Cooper . . . . 
Widdow & Thomas Janes 







5 
1 


Dionys Herbert 





1 


3 


33 


Jno. Burges 





8 


Lawrence Hart . ... 





1 





28 


James Ireland .... 





7 


Robert Steers .... 





1 


3 


12 


Widdow Terry . ... 





3 


Nicholas Abbis . . . . 


1 


16 


6 


10 


Wm. Jeeves .... 





2 


Thomas Stoakes 








9 


4 


phillip Cane 





1 


Anthony Cock . ... 





1 





20 


Moses Alleyn .... 





5 


Givet. 





1 


3 


22 


Thomas Green . . . . 





5 


Jno. pearce 





1 





9 


Wm. Eades .... 







Widdow adamson 





2 


6 


6 


Roger Hammond . . . 





1 


Mr. Strong 





2 





18 


Widdow Watkins . 





4 


George Widgeon 





1 


3 


6 


Henry Warde . ... 





1 


Doctor Roberts .... 





9 





4 


Jno. Humphreys 





1 


Daniel Allen .... 





3 


6 


4 


Thomas Chube .... 





1 


Wm. page 





5 


6 





Jno. Lewis (poor) . . . 








Widdow Stanton 








9 


6 


Peter White .... 





1 


Daniel Randall .... 





3 


6 


5 


James Wood . . . . 





1 


Jno. Hickman .... 





1 


6 


2 


George Gibba .... 








Nicholas Hodsel .... 





1 





3 


Hall 








Jno. Comfort (poor) 








6 




11. 1*. Od. 






Jno. Westoii . . . . 








6 


5,832 


The total of the Role 








Thomas Nott .... 





10 


9 




amounts to . 


72 


18 


Widdow Steer . . 





2 


6 










Mr. Aldersea .... 





1 


6 




The totall of Cammerwell 






Jno. Guest 





2 


6 




Liberty amounts to . . . 


31 


7 


Joan Bagford .... 








6 




The total of Peckham Liberty 






Joseph Howard . . . . 





5 







amounts to . 


30 


9 


Thomas Nash .... 





16 


3 




The total of Dulwich Liberty 






Elizabeth Childe . . . . 





1 


6 




amounts to .... 


11 


1 


Widdow Nash .... 


2 


11 


6 










Richard Alleyn .... 





7 







Total . 


72 


18 


James Benn or Mr. King 





3 













Wm. Buckle 





7 


6 






Received short 












Thomas alleyn .... 





16 


6 




in Camerwell 












Thomas Faulkner . . . 





11 


6 




Liberty of the 












Edward Gates .... 





2 


6 


Reasons 


severall per- 












Wm. Rooke 





11 


3 


why not 


sons under 












Elizabeth King. 





3 





Received 


mentioned 












Jno. Eynstone . . . . 





2 


6 


_ 















Constantino Barr 





3 





Runaway 


Edward Wood- 












Widdow Hall .... 


1 


3 







ward 





9 


9 






Simon Reding .... 





6 


3 


poor 


Mr. Ellis . . 





2 


9 






Widdow Batt .... 





7 


6 


Ded 


Joseph Hill, 












Richard Low & Tennant 





18 







Senr. . 





4 


6 






George Buddel . . . . 





13 


9 


Charged 














Widdow Stapels 





19 


9 


to mutch 


Wm. perkins . 








3 






Jno. feild 





1 


3 


not to be 














Thomas Baker .... 





6 


3 


gotten 


Richard Vockins 





6 









James Abbis . , . 


o 


17 


6 


not to be 














Thomas Edling. 





1 


9 


gotten 


Jno. Marshall 












Wm. porter . 


o 


4 


6 




of Peckham 












White .... 





1 


6 




Ry. 








G 






Warman . . . . 


o 


1 


6 


3 &U 














Widdow Waters 





6 


6 


short of 


Wm. page . . 





1 


10 






Richard Alleyn . ... 


o 


16 





Rest 














Wm. Perkins .... 


o 


8 


9 


towards 


1 5g. 7d. 












30. 9s. 3d. 








ye war- 






















rant. 


IN PECKHAM 












THE LIBERTY OF DULWICH. 










LIBERTY. 












The College .... 





6 


3 




Richard ffloyde 


1 


17 


10 






Mr. Thompson and Hunter . 





2 


6 




Mr. Ashby 





1 









Jno. Alleyn .... 





10 


9 




GoodyWilliams 





1 









Jno. Cox 





4 







Goody Barker . 








9 






Grover .... 





2 


3 




Thorn. Nash . 





10 


9 






Jno. Bowden, Junr. . . . 





6 


9 




Hen. Wheatley 





2 


3 






Jno. Bowden, Senr. , & for Jno. 










Lawrence Hart | 


1 









Starkey's Land . 


1 


14 


9 




Jno. Hickman 


1 j 6 




1 


Carried forward . . . , 3 j 7 3 




Carried forward: 2 


16 


1 


) 



150 



Y e PARISH OF CAMEKWELL. 










s. 


d. 





s. d. 









s. 


d. & 


s. 




Brght forward 
Joseph Howard 
Richard Low . 


s 





16 

3 


I 

6 










Brght forward 
Burges 
Chubbe 







2 
1 




3 

3 








Geo. Buddell . 





2 


(i 










Green . 





1 


5 








James Abbis . 





5 













Warde 


6 





9 








3. Is. 9d. 
















Peter White . 








3 
























5. lid. 














JN DlTLWICH 






























LIBERTY. 
















Receivd short 

































on ye 'Ad Rates 


4 


19 


3 


4 


19 




Cover 





1 


3 















_ 


'- _L_ 


. 







Jno. Hammond 








S 










TheTotallSum 














James . . 





| 9 










Receivd on the 


























_ 




3d Rate . . 








67 


18 




Carrd forward 





2 


3 ! 






| 















With respect to poor rates made since the one given above, it was intended to 
tabulate them for such as might feel an interest in the subject, but in consequence of 
several missing rates, the table is kept back for a later edition, when it is hoped a 
more complete record may be attempted. 

In the mean time, the following particulars may not be without interest : 

The lowest poor rate made in Camberwell was that of the 10th July, 1694, when 
a rate of three halfpence in the was made by the churchwardens and overseers, and 
in December, 1739 another rate of two pence in the was declared. 

In order that these small rates may not give the reader a wrong impression of the 
" good old times " considered raterially, it may be stated on the other side that in 
consequence of the defalcations of a collector of the inhabited house tax in 1791, a 
rate of 12s. in the was levied upon the inhabitants of Camberwell ! 

The quarterly system of rate collection adopted in this parish since 1871, has been 
found to work in every way satisfactory, for according to a report recently presented 
to the vestry, it appears that the per centage of deficiencies including empty houses, 
excusals, allowance to owners for property under]compound, and rates otherwise irre- 
coverable is only 10 per cent, against 15 per cent, in 1870, so that should ratepayers 
object to the quarterly call, as a too frequent reminder, they have the satisfaction of 
knowing that prompt payment means reduced rates for a saving of 5 per cent, is 
equal to <7,000 a year, or a rate of 3^c?. in the . 

And this quarterly collection of rates is not a new system in Camberwell, as will 
appear from the following extract of the auditors' report in 1832 : 

" Your auditors feel it due to the parish officers to testify their full and decided 
concurrence in the present system of quarterly rates, and a quarterly audit ; your 
auditors feel satisfied that i the quarterly collection is persevered in, it will prove 
beneficial to the parishioners ; they also approve the present plan of making out and 
arranging the collectors receipts, which although attended with increased labour and 
expense, is fully compensated for by the regular check thereby kept upon the 
accounts, and the facility afforded for ascertaining whether any particular rate had or 
had not been paid." 

. The poor rates levied in this parish at the present time may be put down roughly 
at 65,000 a year, and the following table, taken from a parliamentary return, will 
show the amount levied in one year on this and neighbouring parishes 70 years ago. 



Parish. 


Houses. 


Persons. 


Poor Rate. 


Camberwell . . . 
Lambeth .... 
Bermondsey . . . 


1,162 
5,019 
3,131 


7,059 
27,985 
17,169 


3,890 4 
10,436 1 
6,139 18 


Newington . . . 


2,940 


14,847 


6,685 9 


St. George . . . 


3,964 


22,293 


6,025 2 



PAKOCHIAL HISTORY. 151 

The following entries concerning the making of rates are peculiar : 

s. d. 
1671. Paid for makeing and figering 3 assessments 00 18 00 

1688. Expended at several meetings about y e poore's book . . . 00 06 00 

For writing y e book twice over and signing y e book . .. 00 05 00 

1698. Paid Mackthorne for attending and makeing y e poore's book . 00 01 06 

1699. Paid M r Alleyn for makeing y e threepenny rate . . .. 00 10 00 
1708. Paid Alleyn for makeing several bookes of rates . . . 00 10 00 

Before concluding this chapter of local history, it may interest certain of our 
readers, if we notice briefly the contents of the two following rate books, one on the 
Liberty of Peckham, exactly a century old, and the other dating back fifty years and 
embracing the entire parish. 

The rate book of the Liberty of Peckham is simplicity itself : it contains but two 
columns of figures, one giving the rateable value and the other the amount of 
rate levied. There are no columns in which to enter the amount of rate received 
from each individual ratepayer, and the payment is shown by a cross being placed 
against the name. The system of rating too was evidently not complicated by any 
abstruse calculation to determine the gross estimated rental and rateable value of any 
given hereditament. 

It may not accord with modern notions of rating, but nothing can be more majesti- 
cally simple than to assess a house at so much per room, as there are numerous 
instances in this rate of houses of ten rooms being assessed at ,10. 

The licensed victuallers were especially well treated, for the " Kentish Drovers," 
which in those days was a noted county house, was assessed at only .16. Its 
present rating is .150. The "Red Cow" and "Red Bull," both of which are now 
rated at .100, were then rated at 16 and 18 respectively. "Marlborough House," 
a well-known Peckham mansion, was rated at 80. Tradition states that this house 
was the residence of the Duke of Marlborough, which is more than doubtful, but that 
it was occupied by some member of the Marlborough family may fairly be assumed. 

At the beginning of the present century it became the " casual " workhouse of the 
city of London, and the respectable inhabitants of the neighbourhood were much 
annoyed by having about 300 of the casuals turned loose upon them every morning. 
The master of the workhouse received a given sum per head for " farming " his 
disorderly crew. Another fact worth noting in these days of rapid building is the 
circumstance that in the Camberwell portion of the Old Kent Road only four houses 
were assessed for the relief of the poor. 

The book contains only 243 assessments, of which 56 were for land, so that there 
were only 187 rateable houses in the Liberty of Peckham a hundred years ago. 
The rateable value was 4,986, and the amount of a shilling rate, 249 6s. 
In the rate on the whole parish fifty years ago the rateable value had increased to 
90,000. The following among others were assessed : 

Assessment. 

Admiral Sir John Knight 160 

He resided in the house situated at the corner of what 
is now known as Bushey Hill Road. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Reade 130 

The house is now occupied by R. A. Gray, Esq., J.P. 

Mr. W. Reade 160 

Son of the above, by whom this house was built, now 
occupied by Mr. Peerless. 



152 Y PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

Assessment. 

Mr. Charles Baldwin, J.P 180 

The house was formerly occupied by Dr. Lettsom. 
Mr. Baldwin was proprietor of the Standard and 
J.P. for the county. 

Mr. John Pirie 68 

This gentleman was Lord Mayor of London and re- 
ceived the honour of knighthood. 

Mr. Ernst 40 

The female portion of the Ernst family who resided 
in Grove Lane were very eccentric characters, and 
one was known by the elegant sobriquet of " Mad 
Moll." 

Mr. Robert Puckle 136 

A description of this house which stood on Camberwell 
Green, is given elsewhere. Several members of this 
family still occupy leading positions in the parish. 

Mr. James Pew 32 

Mr. Pew was churchwarden of the parish for 29 years. 
A memoir is given in another chapter. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Perkins 180 

This lady was the widow of John Perkins, a friend of 
Dr. Johnson, to whom several letters were written 
by the learned lexicographer (vide Boswell's Life 
of Johnson.) A granddaughter of this lady was 
married to the son of Mr. Farmer Bailey, of East 
Dulwich. 

The house formerly occupied by the Perkins family 
was subsequently known as the Denmark Hill 
Grammar School, and the site is now known as the 
Denmark Hill Estate, the property of Richard 
Strong, Esq., J.P. 

Sir William de Crespigny 160 

Sir William succeeded his father, Sir Claude de Cres- 
pigny who was created a baronet in 1805, a year after 
his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales honoured 
Champion Lodge with a visit. Champion Lodge 
was pulled down in 1841. 

Mr. Silverthorne .28 

The brewery for which Mr. Silverthorne was assessed 
appears in the old map of the parish given in this 
work. The brewery is still carried on by Mr. 
Jenner. 

Mr. R. A. Gray .60 

This house, situate on Peckham Rye, was the first 
occupied by Mr. Gray in this parish. 



The following table shows the increase in rateable value and number of assessments 
from 1697 to present time : 



PAROCHIAL HISTORY. 



153 



Date. 


No. of 
Assts. 


Rateable 

Value. 


Increase. 


Average Annual Increase. 


No. Assts. 


R. V. 


No. Assts. 


R. V. 


1697 


233 


5,832 










1732 


330 


7,581 


97 


1,749 


2-77 


49-97 


1742 


376 


7,726 


46 


145 


4-60 


14-50 


1752 


424 


7,813 


48 


87 


4-80 


8-70 


1762 


467 


8,293 


43 


480 


4-30 


48-00 


1772 


558 


13,373 


91 


5,080 


910 


508-00 


1780 


632 


15,118 


74 


1,745 


9'25 


218-12 


1792 


900 


22,609 


268 


7,491 


22-33 


624-25 


1806 


1,396 


29,446 


496 


6,837 


35-42 


488-35 


1827 


3,732 


99,009 


2,336 


69,563 


111-23 


3,312-52 


1832 


4,980 


122,888 


1,248 


23,879 


249-60 


4,775-80 


1871 


19,762 


494,572 


14,782 


371,684 


379-02 


9,530-35 


1874 


21,382 


530,016 


1,620 


35,444 


540-00 


11,814-66 



In 1697 a shilling rate in the realized .291 12s., and in 1874, ,26,500 16s. 
In 1872 the number of assessments (20,518) was divided as follows : 



Houses under 
.20 R.V. 



21 35 



36 50 



51 75 




76 100 


Over 

-100 


13,447 


4,613 


1,277 


492 


275 


414 



THE WORKHOUSE. 

On the 26th December, 1726, it was " unanimously agreed " by the vestry " that a 
workhouse shall be built for Lodging and Imploying the poor in work," and on the 
4th January, 1727, a committee, consisting of the vicar (Dr. Tipping), Mr. James 
Alleyn, " Master of the Colledge," and fourteen others, were appointed members of a 
committee to carry out the work, seven members to be a " Corrum." The com- 
mittee was instructed " to inquire into the present state of the poor, how much the 
parish allows towards the maintenance of each, and payment of their several rents, and 
also to endeavour to find out a convenient place in the parish where the said work- 
house may be built ; and to treat with workmen about it, and to receive their pro- 
posalls in writting in order thereunto." Notwithstanding the appointment of the 
committee, grave doubts were evidently entertained by many parishioners concerning 
the radical change proposed. 

To give a " local habitation "to the scattered forces of pauperism ; to encourage the 
casual mendicant to qualify into the permanent pauper, and to form a centre of 
attraction to the passing poor the " casual" of modern days all this was carefully 
considered by the parishioner of 1726. And then it was very properly urged that a 
paid official staff to take charge of the poor would be an inevitable charge upon the 
rates if the proposed change were adopted. Numerous meetings were held on the 
subject, and much attention was given to it by the leading gentry. At length at a 
vestry held on the 1st of February, 1727, "the churchwardens with some other 
parishioners, finding the number of their poor dayly increasing, consulted together 
how they might not only lessen the parish charge in maintaining them, but also 



154 Y e PAEISH OF CAMERWELL. 

promote their industry, and provide for them in a better manner than had been done 
before ; and observing how successfully these proposales had been effected in other 
parishes by erecting houses for the reception of ye poor, and setting them to work, 
were willin " to make use of y e same method. In order to which they gave publick 
notice in the church that there would be a vestry on y e 26th day of December last 
past to consider this matter. At which time, there being a great appearance of 
inhabitants, the thing was proposed, and after some debate approv'd of as beneficial 
both to the parish and poor ; " whereupon all those present unanimously agreed 

"That a house should be erected for lodging the poor and employing them in work, 
for the better management of which affair, they did in another vestry, held the 
fourth day of January next following, choose a certaine number of persons to take 
care about building y e said intended workhouse ; but some of them not being present 
at either vestry, desired that a committee might be appointed further to consider 
whether such a workhouse would be for the bennefitt of y e parish, r which was agreed to 
in a third vestry held the 18th day of y e same month, when a committee was ap- 
pointed. The committee met on the 26th of January, and having inquirM into the 
state and condition of the poor. They, after mature deliberation, were of opinion that 
building such a workhouse would be for the benefit of the parish, and declared y e 
same in writing under their hands, which being now read Resolved That this vestry 
do confirm and adhere to the agreement in vestry on 26th day of December to erect 
one, and that the said committee be desir'd to treat with some proper person to build 
the same of such dimensions, and with such convenient rooms as they think sufficient 
to contain y e poor who shall be received into it ; as also to report to the next vestry 
in what manner and upon what terms y e person whom they treat with will under- 
take to perform y e whole work, his proposal concerning which to be given in writing 
under his own hand." And on the 7th March, 1727, it was " unanimously agreed 
that Mr. William Norman shall build the workhouse according to his draught and 
article given in, without the additional part, at the price of .365 ; " and the church- 
wardens and overseers were authorized to borrow the sum of ,400 " to pay Mr. 
Norman and other workmen." In the following year, before the " furnishing and 
compleating" had been got through, the expenses had reached ,500, and bonds to 
that amount were duly signed. On the 31st June, 1731, William Row was ap- 
pointed master of the new workhouse, at a salary of ,10 a year ; but he was required 
to " give his attendance as beadle of the parish," in consideration of which the vestry 
agreed at a subsequent meeting to give the beadle the sum of 3 5s. per year to buy 
him a " suit of cloathes." It is rather remarkable that no mention is made of the 
workhouse site until December 1731, when it unanimously resolved "That y e large 
Pew in the North Isle of y e Church where y e children of the Dancing school formerly 
use to sett, be for the future appropriated to y e use of y e new house on the Green, the 
property of Sir W m Bowyer, Bart, in Consideration of his Benefaction to the 
Parish in giveing a piece of ground whereon y e workhouse is now built ; and that 
the Parish hereby acknowledge their obligation, and desire their thanks may be 
returned for the same ;" and at a subsequent vestry, the sum of five guineas 
ordered to be paid to Mr. William Hester for "drawing the leases in that 
affaire." 

The management of the workhouse was vested in a committee, elected annually, 
and no change would appear to have taken place in the mode of management until 
the year 1756,* when, after considerable discussion, Mr. Richard Aslee, of St. 

* Ratepayers 120 years ago were as supine in local move that which causes complaint. The following 

matters as the ratepayers of the present time. We resolution, passed at a Vestry held on the 2nd day 

can all grumble at high rates, expensive manage- of January 1755, is a striking illustration of this : j 

ment, &c., but few there be who set about to re- "It was Proposed that the Cause of the Great 




OLD WORKHOUSE. 




I 



OLD VESTRY HALL. 



PAKOCHIAL HISTORY. 155 

Dunstan's-in-the-West, was appointed master of the workhouse, and acccording to an 
agreement drawn up the churchwardens and overseers agreed to pay Mr. Aslee the 
sum of 3s. per head per week for all inmates of the house if the number exceeded 
30, and 3s. 3d. per head if the number did -not amount to 30. In consideration of 
receiving the above amount, the said Richard Aslee agreed to provide for the poor of 
the parish " meet, drink, fireing, washing, physick, midwife, cloathing, beds, beding, 
sheets, and allowances in as good, clean, and ample a manner in every respect as they 
usually enjoyed ; and to give the poor their meals at proper times, and in decent 
manner, and the said Richard Aslee engaged to employ an apothecary." It was 
further agreed " that such poor as were capable of working should be employed in 
winding of silk, knitting of purses, gloves, caps, cauls, and all manner of plain work, 
and the profits to be derived from their labour were for the sole benefit of the said 
Richard Aslee." 

This method of providing for the poor has seldom proved satisfactory ; and in this 
particular instance, for six months after his appointment, Mr. Aslee reported to the 
Vestry that " in consequence of the dearness of provisions, &c. &c., he could not 
maintaine the Poor of the workhouse upon the Terms agreed upon between him and 
the Vestry ; " and the agreement was determined three weeks after his report, and Mr. 
Gershon Osborn, the beadle, was allowed ten guineas a year " to visit the Poor in the 
Workhouse every day, and the said Vestry to give him full power and authority to 
act as master of the said workhouse, and that he take care to employ the poor in some 
kind of manufacture." * 

In 1771 the workhouse was reported to be too small for the increasing number of 
paupers, and the Vestry accepted the plans of Mr. Purkis, for building an additional 
wing and " an extraordinary poor rate of one shilling in the pound was levied upon 
the inhabitants " in order, amongst other things, to pay off a debt of 1 00 incurred in 
building the above wing. 

In 1796 f the vestry decided, by resolution, that it was advisable to erect an additional 
room over the dining-room of the workhouse, which resolution was passed in con- 
sequence of the report of a committee appointed in the previous month to " examine 
the state of the Parish Workhouse." Indeed, at the end of the last and beginning of 
the present century, the Parish Church and Workhouse formed the staple articles of 
parochial existence. A committee was always sitting either upon one or the other. 
When the church had been " beautified " to the satisfaction of one committee, the 
workhouse providentially called for the attention of another ; and it is not a little 
curious to notice how gentlemen who had served upon a " Workhouse Enlargement 
Committee " were usually selected as thejbest qualified to act upon the " Church Beau- 
tifying Committee." 

In 1797 a plan and estimate for the enlargement of the workhouse were submitted 
to the Vestry by Mr. Titchener,^ who undertook to " compleat the same in a work- 
manlike manner for the sum of .149, which was approved of ; " but it would appear 

expence of the Poor at the Workhouse should be 4 o'clock in the afternoon, in order to consider and 

Considered at this Vestry, and a Method observed settle some affairs relating to the Poor's Rate, and 

in order to Lessen the said Expence, by removing that the Officers of the Parish and as many other 

the Cause or otherwise, as the Said Vestry should persons as can conveniently be desired to attend 

think most fitt, for the Interest of the Parish ; but the same." 

as the Officers and a Sufficient number of Pa- t Vestry minute, Nov. 21st. 

rishioners did not attend upon such an Important j Mr. Titchener was a tradesman at Peckham, 

affair, We think it Necessary to postpone it until and the selection of a local man to do the work was 

another Opportunity." in accordance with a resolution passed by the 

* The following resolution, which we extractfrpm Vestry about this time, that "All repairs, improve- 

the Vestry minutes (1768), conveys the .impression ments, or alterations, necessary to be made to the 

that legislating for the poor was not exclusively a Church or Workhouse or other building, be done by 

dry matter of business :- contract, and that a preference be given in all 

"Adjourned this vestry to Mr. Clark's at the business of this nature to tradesmen residing in the 

' Artichoak.' and from thence on Friday next to Parish." 
Mr. BoxaU's at the 'Greyhound,' Dulwich, by 



156 Y c PARISH OF CAMERWELL, 

that Mr. Titchener's plans, although approved of, were not carried out at the time, as 
another resolution of the Vestry,* whilst confirming the previous report, orderedjtheir 
execution to be " deferred for the present." It does not appear from the parochial 
records whether Mr. Titchener's " improvements" were ultimately carried out ; but in 
January, 1812,f a plan for an alteration in the workhouse was ordered to be left at the 
workhouse for one month, for the inspection of the parishioners. This plan was 
specially ordered to be prepared by the vestry, who refused to sanction the recom- 
mendation of a committee for the erection of an entirely new building. J This plan 
suffered the fate of the previous ones, and at last, so urgent had the matter become, 
that in the year 1815, the Vestry, after reporting, referring back, rescinding, and 
doing all that the most economical select vestrymen of our day could desire to post- 
pone the inevitable outlay, consented to sanction the erection of a building, and the 
churchwardens and overseers were empowered to raise " a sum of .2,000 towards 
defraying the expense of its erection." A fac-simile of the auctioneer's catalogue for 
the sale of the materials of the old building (see plate s), will no doubt be regarded as 
an interesting parochial curiosity by many readers. 

The low building adjoining the house was built expressly for the receptacle of the 
" parish squirt," || as it was not inaptly termed, and in front of the principal gate 
stood that instrument of torture known as " the stocks," and many old residents of the 
parish well remember that remnant of the good old times. 

To return to the new building. It soon became evident to the parishioners of 1815, 
that in order to complete the new workhouse in a satisfactory manner, a much larger 
outlay was rendered necessary than that at first contemplated, and an expense of at 
least 6,000 was incurred before its completion. 

Considerable additions have taken place since 1815, the principal enlargement being 
carried out in 1849. Very extensive additions are contemplated at an early date. 

The present Master and Matron (Mr. and Mrs. Smithers), were appointed August 
1850, and it may be fairly stated, without exaggeration, that the arrangements at the 
Havil Street Hotel, as it has been called, are carried out in a most satisfactory 
manner, with a due regard to the comfort of the poor and the pockets of the 
jatepayer. 



PARISH BOUNDARIES. 

The boundaries of the parish are, as a rule, perambulated once in three years by the 
churchwardens and overseers and other officers of the parish. No authentic 
record has been preserved of the precise origin of this custom, which appears to have been 
derived from the French ; for we find Mamertus, the Bishop of Vienne, first ordered 
it to be observed about the middle of the fifth century, upon the prospect of some 
particular calamity that threatened his diocese. By an injunction of Queen Elizabeth 
it was ordered " That the people shall once a year, at the time accustomed, with the 
curate and substantial men of the parish, walk about the parishes as they were 
accustomed, and at their return to church, make their common prayers, as hereto- 
fore in the days of Rogation.1I The minister at certain convenient places shall 
admonish the people to give God thanks in beholding of God's benefits for the 

* Vestry minute, March 20th 1797. liament " 

t Vestry minute, Aug. loth 1811. || A Vestry Hall was built on the site of the old 

I Some idea of the increase of pauperism at this workhouse in 1625, and this in its turn has been 

time may be gathered from the fact that in 1812 a very properly condemned as unsuitable for the 

committee reported that the charge for relieving rapidly increasing wants of tbe parish 

the poor was increasing at the rate of 500 per ^ " The service appointed was the 103 and 104 

y*- Psalms, with the Litany and the Homily of Thanks- 

Mr. bam. Closs, the auctioneer, was the father giving." Sparrow's Rationale, p. 1(51. 
of Mr. J. J. Closs, a member of our " local par- 







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PAROCHIAL HISTORY. 157 

increase and abundance of the fruits upon the face of the earth, at which time the said 
minister shall inculcate this and suchlike sentences ' Cursed be he which translateth 
the bounds and doles of his neighbour/ or such other order of prayer as shall be 
hereafter appointed." * 

" On Ascension Day," says Sir John Hawkins, " it is the custom of the inhabitants 
of parishes, with their officers, to perambulate, in order to perpetuate the memories of 
their boundaries, and to impress the remembrance thereof in the minds of young 
persons, especially boys." f 

There does not appear to be any law by which the observance of this custom can be 
enforced ; nor can the ecclesiastical judges oblige the churchwardens to go their 
bounds. The right to perambulate parochial boundaries, to enter parochial property 
for that purpose, and to remove obstructions that might prevent this being done, 
cannot be disputed. It prevails, as a notorious custom, in all parts of England ia 
recorded by all our text writers, and has been confirmed by high judicial sanction. 
In consequence of the Popish abuses arising from feasting, processions, and supersti- 
tion, during these boundary journeys, Queen Elizabeth forbade processions, but 
retained the useful and innocent part of the perambulations.^ 

We have elsewhere alluded to the fact that it was owing to the zeal of one of our 
parish officers that the Camberwell portion of the site of the Crystal Palace was made 
good ; and though in more recent times the Ordnance Survey Department, and the 
appointment of a local survey or, have rendered perambulations almost unnecessary, there 
is much to be urged in favour of keeping up the custom of perambulating the bounds. 

Honor Oak, which is one of the boundaries of the parish, has witnessed many 
interesting gatherings, and there are residents now amongst us who think that 
no perambulation of the parish boundaries would be complete without the singing of 
the 104th Psalm, under the shadow of the Oak of Honor Hill. 

This place once served as a beacon hill, and many residents of this parish remember 
the semaphore signal post here fixed, and the anxiety with which it was watched 
the last thing every night, to know if the dreaded landing of Bonaparte had taken 
place. 

At the extreme southern boundary of this parish, where four parishes meet, 
Camberwell, Lambeth, Battersea, and Streatham, formerly stood a well-known 
boundary point, known as the Vicar's Oak. 

In the Magna Britannia is the following respecting this wonderful oak : 
" Here was a great wood, called Norwood, belonging to the Archbishop, wherein was 
anciently a tree, called the Vicar's Oak, where four parishes meet as it were in one 
point. It is said to have consisted wholly of oaks, and among them was one that 
bore misletoe, which some were so hardy as to cut for the gain of selling it to the 
apothecaries of London, leaving a branch to spout out. But they proved unfortunate 
after it ; for one of them fell lame, and another lost an eye. At length, in the year 
1678, a certain man, notwithstanding he was warned against it, on account of what 
others had suffered, adventured to cut the tree down, and he soon after broke his leg." 

In the Lambeth parish books are the following curious items : 

s. d. 

1583. When we went our perambulation at Vicar's Oke in Rogation week 2 6 

1704. Paid for lOOlb. of cheese, spent at Vicar's Oke . . . .80 

The " Swan " Tavern, Sydenham, now stands on the spot where the Vicar's Oak 
formerly grew. 

* Gibson, Code of Ecclesiastical Law. t History of Music, vol. ii. p. 112. 

I Prideaux, on Churchwardens, p. 253, et seq. 



158 Y e PAKISH OF CAMERWELL. 

EXTRACTS FROM CHURCHWARDENS' BOOK OF ACCOUNTS FROM 1671 TO 1720. 

s. d. 
1679. Disbursed at the procession 00 07 06 

1682. 

May 2. Expended att y e procession .. 01 02 00 

1688. Expended for the procession dinner and other charges . . 03 02 00 

1701. Expended at a persesioiiing 03 05 00 

1702. Rec d of M r Tipping towards persessioning 00 10 00 

1711. Expended at a prosessioning 450 

1716. Rec d of M rs Bowyer toward defraying part of the charge of the 

Procession . . 400 

1716. By going a presesioning 186 

1718. By disbursements at the Processioning : 

By cheese at M r Cox's and at home . 1 01 

Rowls 12 

Bacon 10 3 

Rods 036 

Points 060 

Mutton 040 

one to carry the plank and rods . .026 

Peter White 010 

the Diner . . . . 3 11 



POOR RELIEF. 

From the sixteenth century to a very recent period the principal unit of local 
government and taxation was the parish or township. The vestry was its parlia- 
ment, and the overseers and churchwardens its temporal and ecclesiastical officers.* 
The distressed poor were originally maintained by ecclesiastical revenues and by 
voluntary contributions collected and administered by the church and by permission 
to beg within their own parishes. After the suppression of the religious houses an 
act was passed, in 1536, introducing a system of compulsory charity, to be collected 
by the churchwardens. But as this proved inadequate to cope with the terrible evil 
of mendicancy, the Poor Law Act of Elizabeth was passed in 1601/j* ordering rates to 
be paid in every parish for the support of the poor. The relief was moderate in 
amount, and in case of able bodied men was only granted in return for work, and not 
as a supplement for wages. It was distributed by the overseers under the super- 
intendence of the justice. The total amount was comparatively small, being 
returned in 1700 at .700,000, and in 1750 at a very similar figure. 

In 1585 the county of Surrey appears to have been the special resort of idle and 
dissolute persons, if we may judge from the following missive from the Queen in 
Council, directed to the Lord Lieutenant of the county, dated September 8th, 1585 : 

" Understanding that in the County of Surrey, under your Lordship's Government, 
there are great stoare of stout vagabonds and maysterless men, able inoughe for 

* Baxter, Local Government and Taxation, p. 6. The clerk shall sing, the bells shall ring, 

t Amongst the catches contained in Playford's And the old, the old wives wind us ; 

Musical Companion, 1673, is one set for four voices Sir John shall lay our bones in clay, 

to the following words : Where nobody means to find us." 

" A fig for care, why should we spare ? These words are generally supposed to be part of a 

The Pai-ish is bound to find us ; ballad written as an attack upon the Poor Law of 

And thou and I and all must die, Elizabeth of 1601. 
And leave the world behind us : 



S T GILES, CAMBBRWSLL. -i7j4 



Uu^^^rtfl*^ 1 ^; '^ *-'* !-*. 




Copied by permission from ii Map in the Guildhall Library. 
Tlic Hamlet of Dulwich is incomplete. 



I 



PAROCHIAL HISTORY. 159 

labour, which do great hurt in the County of Surrey by their idle and naughtie life ; 
it is ordered to take up all the strongest and most able rogues, &c., to be sent to the 
Port of London, whence they shall be transhipped into the Low Countries, where 
they shall be well used and entertained." 

The parish of Camberwell, from its proximity to the metropolis, no doubt had its 
share of the " stout vagabonds ;" but it would appear from the parish books that, as a 
parish, it was at that time comparatively free from "permanent paupers." 

Some idea of the limited extent of the parochial exchequer for relief purposes may 
be gathered from an interesting facsimile of the vestry minutes for the year 1675. 
It appears that a poor woman was reported to the parishioners in vestry assembled 
" to be lunatic and out of her witts for more than one yeare last past ;" and this 
lunatic pauper being somewhat of a novelty in the year of our Lord 1675, the 
"minister, churchwardens, and other the officers and parishioners" were sorely 
puzzled to know what to do with her. It was ultimately resolved to send her to the 
" Hospitall of Bethlem, commonly called Bedlam," and to pay the authorities of the 
Hospital the sum of 5s. weekly for her support. 

Having settled so much, the parochial authorities found themselves face to face 
with a tremendous difficulty. The overseers, in making their estimate for the six 
months' poor relief, had not foreseen the " extraordinary charge" which was destined 
to be made upon them " by reason of this distempered woman ;" but the vestry 
considerately helped the overseers over the difficulty by empowering them to levy 
" an additional tax ! " 

They were happy days, parochially and poor-raterially, when one pauper lunatic 
could so sensibly affect the rates. 

There is another singular entry in the vestry minutes (Ap. 14th, 1696), by which 
it was ordered " that the churchwardens and overseers of the poor for the time being 
doe meet every first Sunnday in y e month after the sermon in the afternoon, conforme 
to an Act of Parliament of the 3rd and 4th year of king W m - & Queen Mary, 
entitled an Act for the better explanation and supplying the defects of the former 
laws for settlement of the poor and call before them all the pensioners of the said 
parish and examine their necessities conforme to y e directions of the said Act." 

These pensioners, who, at that time, were of course few in number, were required 
to wear a badge on one arm,* and numerous entries occur in the churchwardens' 
accounts of sums spent in the purchase of badges for the use of the pensioners. 

From this year (1696) to the opening of the workhouse in 1728, the poor who 
received weekly relief were known as "pensioners;" and the following interesting 
return will give the reader a good idea of the number of poor persons so pensioned 
in each district of the parish. The sums of money voted for the payment of rent, 
was almost wholly granted to widows in distressed circumstances. 

* By the 5 & 6 Edward VI. c. 2, the poor were back of his outermost garment some notable badge 
allowed to beg, and such as were licensed were to or token." 
"weare openly upon him bothe on the breast and 



160 



Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 
POOR BELIEF, 16961728. 



District. 


Years. 


Number o 
Pensioners 


Amount granted. 
Weekly. 


Amount paid annually 
in Rents. 








8. d. 


s. d. 


Camberwell 


1696 


15 


1 12 6 


600 


m 


1697 


14 


1 15 6 


650 


)9 * 

y) * 


1698* 


12 


1 18 


10 15 




1709 


5 


12 


3 16 


Peckham .... 


)) 


12 


173 


14 


Dulwicli . . . . 


?j 


4 


056 


8 17 


Camberwell 


1711 


11 


148 


11 10 6 


Peckham . . . . 


)j 


11 


190 


17 


Dulwicli .... 


ti 


7 


10 


600 


Camberwell . . . . 


1712 


12 


110 


11 10 6 


Peckham .... 


yy 


11 


136 


11 10 


Dulwich . . . . 


yy 


4 


12 6 


8 17 


Camberwell 


1713 


10 


146 


11 11 


Peckham . . . . 


yy 


12 


136 


11 5 


Dulwich . . . . 


yy 


6 


15 6 


720 


Camberwell . . . . 


1714 


11 


156 


9 16 


Peckham .... 


yy 


13 


160 


13 12 


Dulwich . . . . 


yy 


5 


11 


4 10 


Camberwell 


1715 


10 


150 


8 10 


Peckham . ... 


yy 


11 


130 


11 4 


Dulwich .... 


yy 


3 


11 6 


4 10 


Camberwell . . . . 


1716 


10 


140 


not stated 


Peckham .... 


yy 


12 


1 11 6 


D 


Dulwich . . . . 


yy 


5 


10 6 


)) 


Camberwell 


1717 


8 


14 


9 17 


Peckham . . . . 


yy 


14 


1 13 


10 2 6 


Dulwich .... 


yy 


5 


10 6 


500 


Camberwell . . . . 


1718 


9 


12 6 


9 17 


Peckham .... 


yi 


14 


1 12 6 


11 8 6 


Dulwich . . . . 


yy 


5 


10 6 


6 10 


Camberwell 


1719 


9 


14 6 


9 17 


Peckham . . . . 


yy 


13 


196 


11 8 6 


Dulwich .... 


yy 


6 


12 6 


4 10 


Camberwell . . . . 


1720 


15 


186 


11 1 


Peckham .... 


yy 


15 


190 


11 18 6 


Dulwich . . . . 


yy 


6 


13 


650 


Camberwell 


1721 


13 


1 11 6 


17 6 


Peckham . . . . 


yy 


10 


156 


]0 14 6 


Dulwich .... 


yy 


4 


096 


350 


Camberwell . . . . 


1722 


15 


1 10 6 


15 15 


Peckham .... 


yy 


11 


110 


7 14 6 


Dulwich . . . 


yy 


5 


11 


350 


Camberwell 


1723 


18 


1 10 


15 15 


Peckham . . . . 


yy 


11 


19 


5 14 6 


Dulwich .... 


yy 


6 


12 6 


350 


Camberwell. . . . 


1724 




not stated 


21 12 6 


Peckham .... 


yy 




jj 


1 13 


Dulwicli . . . . 


yy 




jj 


350 


Camberwell 


1725 




jy 


13 10 


Peckham . . . . 


yy 




)) 


200 


Dulwich .... 


yy 




j 


5 15 


Camberwell . . . . 


1726 




)) 


15 8 


Peckham .... 


yy 




y) 


3 10 


Dulwich . . . . 


yy 




yy 


6 15 


Camberwell 


1727 




)) 


11 7 6 


Peckham . . . . 


j> 




J> 


200 


Dulwich .... 


V 




J) 


4 15 


Camberwell . . . . 


1728 




JJ 


10 17 6 


Peckham .... 


jj 







200 


Dulwich . . . . 






JJ 


4 15 



* In this year it was ordered that five poor per- weekly bred, each of them one penny loffe, and not 
sons from Camberwell, five from Peckham, and to absent themselves without Lawfull Excuse on 
two from Dulwich, "doe appear at church for the forfeiture of the bred at such time." 



PAEOCHIAL HISTORY. 161 

It would appear from the above return that the district of Dulwich, notwith- 
standing the limited number of its inhabitants and their undoubted wealth, had a 
large proportion of poor, compared with the other districts. 

The board of guardians was established under the provisions of the Poor Law Act 
on the 24th November, 1835, and the following particulars are taken from the first 
annual report of the board (1836) : 

On the 31st December, 1835, the total number of indoor poor was 267, divided as 
follows : men, 75 ; women, 126 ; children, 66. In the same year the recipients of 
outdoor relief numbered 1,700 viz., 242 men, 538 women, and 920 children. 
Within twelve months of the new act coming into operation, a marked change had 
been brought about, as, on the 31st December, 1836, the number of outdoor poor 
had been reduced from 1,700 to 605 ; whilst the total indoor poor had increased 
from 267 to 271. 

"It may be considered by many individuals," states the report, "that reduction 
in the allowance to the poor cannot by possibility have bettered their condition, but 
only have deprived them of a few comforts previously enjoyed, and that the loss is 
far more deeply and severely felt by them than the proportionate saving is appre- 
ciated by the ratepayer; but such, the board are convinced from experience, is not 
the case. So far from the individuals whose relief has been discontinued being 
sufferers by the change, the board have in their possession a list of no less than 207 
persons, the greater portion of whom are still resident within the parish, the 
numerical number of whose families amounts to 664, who under the old system were 
regular in their attendance at the board for parochial relief, but are now maintaining 
themselves and their families solely by their own industry and labour ; while the 
difference between what they were and what they are, both as to morals and comfort* 
is most remarkable. 

" In the former case, while they leaned on parochial aid, most of them bore idle and 
dissolute characters, their families were ragged and starved, and their hovels filthy 
and wretched. In the latter case, now that they depend on their own energies, they 
readily find employment are reported industrious ; whilst their children are decently 
clad and go to school, and their dwellings present the appearance which would be 
desired in the cottage of an English labourer." 

The reduction of expenditure effected by the introduction of the new system was 
considerable. 

In the year ending April, 1834, the sum expended in s. d. 
relieving, maintaining, and providing for the poor 

amounted to 15,759 6 2 

The same in 1835 14.787 15 1 

1836 8,700 

Thus showing a reduction of 411 per cent, between the expenditure of the year 
ending April, 1835, and that ending December, 1836, and a reduction of 44| per 
cent, upon the expenditure between the year ending April, 1834, and the year 
ending December, 1836. 

In these days, when a poor-rate of 2s. Qd. in the pound per annum is considered 
excessive, it may be well to mention that in the year ending April, 1834, the poor- 
rates amounted to 4s. in the pound. 

The increased cost of the poor which subsequently took place is set forth in a 
report of the board of guardians dated 1853, from which the following particulars 
are extracted : 

M 



162 



Y c PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 



Year ending Lady 
Day. 


Total Number. 
Relieved. 


Expenditure.* 






s. d. 


1846 


1,429 


7,980 4 5 


1847 


1,667 


9,051 3 10 


1848 


2,832 


12,459 5 3 


1849 


4,296 


13,872 10 4 


1850 


4,584 


13,073 16 8 


1851 


3,370 


12,089 4 11 


1852 


3,107 


10,476 12 9 



So large was the increase in the number of chargeable poor between March, 1846, 
and March, 1847, amounting to 45 per cent., that the increased cost of relief upon 
that year alone was no less than .1,290, being in fact more than the total increase 
in the expenditure ; and the increase in the cost of relief in the following year 
amounted to the still larger sum of ,2,993 over and above the previous year. 

Although this alarming increase in the pauperism of the parish was at the time 
to be accounted for by a variety of circumstances, it happened that the workhouse 
was neither adequate in extent nor fit in its arrangement as to classification and 
facilities for efficient management to enable the guardians to use it as a check to the 
rapidly increasing demands upon the parish funds. In 1847 it was found necessary 
to farm out a considerable number of the aged poor, at an expense and under circum- 
stances that could not consistently be continued ; but it was not until 1848 that any 
steps were taken towards meeting the necessity of the parish in that respect, when a 
classification of the inmates was carried out. By the time the increased workhouse 
accommodation was ready, the number of inmates had (notwithstanding every effort 
to diminish it) risen to within sixty of the total number provided for. 

The tide of pauperism subsequently ebbed somewhat, and the reduction was 
attributed at the time to the influence of improved classification and discipline in 
the workhouse, admission orders having been offered to 2,680 persons during the 
years 1851-52, a large portion of which were not accepted ; and on comparing 
the total number of chargeable poor on the 1st January, 1853, with the number on 
1st January, 1850, a decrease of no less than 42-67 per cent, was shown, whilst the 
average decrease for the whole of England was only 14-16. Coming down to the 
report of the guardians recently issued, we find that at Lady Day, 1874, the number 
of poor chargeable to the parish was 3,848, divided as follows : Camberwell work- 
house, 422 ; the Infirmary, 107 ; Nazareth House, 96 ; Poplar Union House, 3 ; 
receiving outdoor relief, 2,542 ; lunatics and imbeciles at asylums, 264 ; children at 
the district schools and other establishments, 396 ; paupers at hospitals, &c., 18. 

STATEMENT OF THE GROSS NUMBER, OF PAUPERS RELIEVED DURING THE 
HALF-YEARS ENDED MICHAELMAS, 1873, AND LADY DAY, 1874. 



Half-years ended. 


INDOOR. 


Vagrants relieved 
in the Work- 
house. 


OUTDOOR. 


Persons who re- 
ceived Medical 
Relief only, not 
included in pre- 
ceding columns. 


Adults. 


Children. 


Total. 


Adults. 


Children. 


Total. 


1873. 
Michaelmas . 


1,150 


712 


1,862 


6,050 


2,605 


2,397 


5,002 


745 


Lady Day . . 


1,186 


557 


1,743 


5,795 


2,769 


2,319 


5,088 


750 



* The above table includes emigration, vaccination, registration, and sanitary charges, but exclusive 
of the county rate. 



PAROCHIAL HISTORY. 



163 



The receipts of the guardians for the year amounted to ,61,755 2s. Id., and the 
expenditure 61,054 14s. 3d., leaving a balance of 700 7s. lOd. 

The total amount of poor-rate received was 65,238 18s. 3d, of which 21,191 2s. 7t?. 
was expended for purposes totally unconnected with the relief of the poor. 

The following table will show the increase during the last half-century : 



Year. 


Population. 


Poor Rate. 


Expended in 
Poor Relief. 












1821 


17,876 





7,952 


1831 


28,231 





9,595 


1841 


39,868 


11,468 


6,918 


1851 


51,667 


24,541 


11,975 


1861 


71,488 


25,851 


14,282 


1871 


111,306 


57,282 


35,116 



The clerks to the board of guardians have been as follows: 
Thomas Webb Gilbert, appointed 24th Nov. 1835, resigned 20th Dec. 1837. 
William Greenaway Poole, appointed 17th Jan. 1838, resigned 13th Aug. 1838. 
Thomas William Plum, appointed 31st Aug. 1838, resigned 10th Dec. 1856. 
Alexander Lodwick Irvine, appointed 31st Dec. 1856, resigned 5th March, 1870. 
Charles Samuel Stevens, appointed 16th March, 1870. 



DUST AND BREEZE. 

Dust has always been a vexed parochial problem. Formerly the dust of a 
parish was eagerly bought up. The Camberwell brickmakers could no more do 
without "breeze" and ashes than they could in old times without straw. But 
this happy period, when dust was called "gold dust" from the much-desired and 
valuable ingredients it contained, gradually passed away, and now, instead of con- 
tractors paying handsome sums for the privilege of " dusting " a parish, the rate- 
payers have to pay heavily for having it done, and to make an additional pecuniary 
recognition of the dustman's obliging conduct. It may be that the dust of our day is 
not exactly the dust of the past, and there is no doubt a greater cost in collecting and 
a greater difficulty in disposing of it ; but nearly 1,500 or 1,600 per annum seems a 
large sum to pay a man to take something which sooner or later he may convert 
into money. Household refuse, such as cinders, dead kittens, old slippers, straw, 
shavings, broken glass and earthenware, dilapidated chignons, Australian meat tins, 
and all kinds of animal and vegetable odds and ends, may not be valuable to any 
particular buyer, but passed through various and sundry avenues they will all 
realize a value of some kind. 

The dust contracts of this parish have been such as to defy the reasoning powers 
of the most enlightened ratepayer. In 1870, Mr. Lipscombe's tender of 750 for 
the removal of the dust of the parish was accepted, but in the following year it was 
found impossible to get the work done for less than 1,872. 

In 1872 the vestry undertook its own dusting, but in 1873 the tender of Mr. 
Parsons was accepted for 1,400, and for the present year (1874) the amount has 
reached 1,625. That these various amounts are regulated by some mysterious 
cause not to be revealed to the profane, cannot for a moment be doubted ; but we 
regret to state our utter inability to detect the reasons of the altered values : 
perhaps, after all, the reasons, if found, would be like those described by Bassanio in 
the " Merchant of Venice," " like two grains of wheat hid in two bushels of chaff ; 

M 2 



164 



Y e PAEISH OF CAfiERWELL. 



you shall seek all day ere you find them ; and when you have found them they are 
not worth the search." 

It has been suggested that as manufacturers consume their own smoke, so house- 
holders should consume their own dust. The landlord is to be compelled to construct 
on the premises some kind of furnace, which should utterly change into innoxious 
gases all household refuse by a process of cremation. Edinburgh has, in a certain 
sense, solved the problem by having no dust-bins at all, and by each householder 
bringing his previous day's dust in a movable receptacle to his door each morning for 
the scavenger's cart to take away. In the meanwhile, and until the great dust 
problem is solved, he would be a real benefactor to that portion of his race which 
lives in large towns, who would discover some method for profitably utilizing dust. 

The following table, kindly placed at our disposal by Mr. J. J. Gloss, gives the 
amount realized for " dust and breeze " in this parish for nearly thirty years. These 
annual sales were important events in the village of Camberwell, and were usually 
attended by the churchwardens and overseers, the beadles and many of the principal 
residents of the place. Mr. Gloss, who acted as auctioneer to the parish for nearly 
forty years, is described as a man of wonderful tact and business ability; and it 
was all required in his annual "interviews" with members of the brickmaking 
fraternity. 

AN ACCOUNT OF THE SALES OF THE ASHES, DUST, BREEZE, ETC., BY ORDER OF 
THE PARISH OFFICERS OF ST. GILES, CAMBERWELL, FROM THE YEARS 1815-45. 
By MR. GLOSS. 






Years. 





Camberwell. 


Peckham. 


Dulwich. 


Total 
Amount. 








s. 


s. 


s. 


s. 




1815 













68 10 




1816 




48 


16 


3 3 


67 3 




1817 




49 7 


12 


1 


62 7 




1818 




87 3 


35 


3 3 


125 6 




1819 




113 


58 


9 


180 




1820 




201 


64 


15 


280 




1821 




107 


33 


8 


148 '0 




1822 




199 


94 


27 


320 




1823 




335 


155 


30 


520 




1824 




305 


156 


10 


471 




1825 




285 


125 


27 


437 




1826 




100 


90 


10 


200 


Mr. Cockerell 


1827 




109 


120 


16 


245 




1828 




35 


26 


1 


62 




1829 




41 


38 


4 


83 




1830 




6 


6 


3 


15 




1831 




12 


2 


1 


15 




1832 


No bidders 


. 













1833 


No sale 
















1834 




32 


37 


1 


70 




1835 




150 


56 


1 


207 




1836 




62 


25 


3 


90 




1837 




72 


50 


5 


127 




1838 




41 


37 


1 


79 




1839 




140 


65 


12 


217 




1840 




300 


200 


16 


516 




1841 




86 


48 


3 


137 




1842 




130 


80 


5 


215 




1843 




161 


102 


12 10 


275 10 


t 


1844 




180 


195 


3 15 


378 15 




1845 




147 


257 


6 15 


410 15 



PAROCHIAL HISTORY. 165 



OLD AND NEW VESTRY HALLS. 

Previous to 1827 the parochial business was carried on either at the workhouse or 
the church vestry-room. In that year (May 3), however, a resolution was carried in 
vestry declaring it to be " highly expedient forthwith to erect or provide a more 
suitable place for the holding parish vestries and the transacting the business of the 
parish ;" and a committee, consisting of the vicar, churchwardens, and twelve 
inhabitants, was appointed " to consider and determine upon the best mode of 
carrying the above-mentioned resolution into effect," and the committee was 
empowered "to apply and appropriate such portion of the sum of 608 10s., lately 
received as a drawback upon the materials used in the erection of St. George's 
Church, as may be necessary for that purpose, not 'exceeding in the whole on any 
account the sum of 500." 

The new hall was first used for vestry purposes on the 1st November, 1827, and it 
continued to be so used until the opening of the new hall in 1873. The old building 
was very hot in summer and particularly draughty in winter. Externally an 
abortion, it was internally an infliction to all concerned members, ratepayers, and 
the press. It is now used as a vaccination station, for which purpose it is no 
doubt well adapted. 

On August 8th, 1872, Mr. G. L. Turney laid the memorial-stone of the new 
vestry hall, which on the 22nd day of October, 1873, was opened with some degree of 
ceremony. The building was erected by Messrs. King and Son, from designs supplied 
by Mr. Edward Power, who had gained the first premium of 50 for the best design, 
the second premium of 25 being awarded to Mr. Win. Berriman. 

Havil House, the freehold of which had been bought by the vestry a few years 
since, was razed to the ground to make way for the new building, and the site is 
unobj ectionable. 

The cost of the building, including furniture, may be put down at 16,000,* an 
amount which the report correctly stated " had been laid out judiciously and with a 
due regard to economy, and will be found to compare favourably with the cost of 
buildings erected for a similar purpose in other parts of the metropolis." That the 
new hall was urgently required may be gathered from the following particulars : 

The growth of the parish in rateable value, from 1772 to 1873, has been prodigious. 
In the former year it amounted to 13,233, and in the latter to 515,599 ; whilst the 
number of assessments had also increased from 558 to 21,110 ! 

The increase which had taken place since the opening of the old vestry hall (1827) 
was as follows : 

Rateable value, 416,590, and the number of assessments 17,378 ; the particular 
figures of the two years being 

jb 

Rateable value 1827 99,009 

1873 515,599 

Number of assessments . . . 1827 3,732 

. . . 1873 21,110 

So rapid is the growth of Camberwell, that even during the progress of the 
building operations connected with the new hall the rateable value increased from 
494,573 to 515,599, being an increase of 21,027, or 4-25 per cent. 

As regards population, the following interesting table shows clearly enough the 
position which Camberwell' is taking amongst metropolitan parishes : 

* By the statement just published by the Vestry Hall Committee, the precise amount is stated to be 
15,711 6s. <5d. 



166 



Y c PAKISH OF CAMERWELL. 





Population. 










Parish. 






per cent. 




1821. 


1871. 




Camberwell . 


17,876 


111,306 


522-96 


Lambeth . . . . 


57,638 


208,342 


261-46 


Newington 


33,047 


88,722 


168-47 


St. George the Martyr . 


1 36,368 


56,077 


54-19 


Bermondsey . 


25,235 


80,429 


218-72 



Camberwell contributed to the police, in 1844, the sum of .3,831 19s. ; its con- 
tribution for the same in 1873 amounted to .14,009 Is. 5cl, being an increase of 
265-67 per cent. 

From 1856 to 1873 Camberwell has contributed ,123,767 10s. 3d. to the Metropo- 
litan Board of Works ; and its contributions to the London School Board have been 

as follows : 

s. d. 

1871 956 2 5 

1872 1,827 10 10 

1873 1,510 15 5 

1874 3,655 10 3 

It will be seen from these particulars that the rapid growth of the parish fully 
justified the erection of more suitable parochial offices, and the noble building which 
has been erected is a credit to all concerned the vestry hall committee, the archi- 
tect, and the builder. 

The main front is constructed entirely of Bath stone ; the side front of white 
Suffolk bricks, with cornices, strings, &c. The style of architecture adopted is that 
known as Eenaissance. The principal front is divided into two stories, each division 
being well marked by an order, with cornice, &c., complete. The ground storey has 
considerable dignity given to it by reason of its being raised some 4 feet above the 
street level. The general arrangement of the design is a centre with two wings. On 
the ground storey the centre has rusticated piers with Doric granite columns and a 
recessed portico, leading up to which is a flight of Portland stone steps, with orna- 
mental cast-iron pillar lamps on each side. The upper storey consists of coupled 
Ionic pilasters, with a central composition comprising a circular-headed window 
flanked by two quasi-recessed openings and an elliptical projecting balcony ; the 
whole surmounted by an attic having a pedimented clock storey, on either side of 
which are Portland stone figures, representing "Law" and "Prudence," while a 
figure of "Justice" crowns the summit of the pediment. On the pedestals of the 
balustrades, over each group of coupled pilasters, are also emblematical figures 
representing " Science" and " Industry." The clock is an illuminated one, supplied 
by Mr. Dalgety, of Peckham.* The roof over this portion is of ornamental design 
with a balustrade. Each of the wings of the main front are divided into three 



* The turret clock, made by Mr. Dalgety, of 
Peckham, is of novel construction, having an 
apparatus attached which dispenses with the 
usual necessary attendance for lighting and ex- 
tinguishing the gas, as it performs this work every 
night for itself. The movement has a double pin 
escape wheel, and almost frictionless dead beat 



escapement, the invention of the maker, a compen- 
sation pendulum, hardened steel lantern pinions, 
<fcc. , and is made entirely of highly finished gun 
metal and steel, the whole being enclosed in a 
mahogany and glass case, which protects it from 
dust, and at the same time allows every part to 
be easily seen. 



PAROCHIAL HISTORY. 167 

openings on each storey. The fore-court in front of the vestry hall is enclosed with 
an ornamental cast-iron railing of appropriate design, with Portland stone moulded 
plinth and Bath stone rusticated piers. 

On either side of the vestibule of the main entrance are, situated on the left, the 
surveyor's private office, and on the right the vestry clerk's private office, each about 
14 ft. 9 in. by 24 ft. long, and 13 ft. high. Communicating with these, and also entering 
from the corridor, are the surveyor's clerk's office, 16 ft. wide by 25 ft. 6 in. long, and 
the vestry clerk's public office, 16ft. wide by 24 ft. 4 in. long. On the north side of 
the entrance hall is placed the foundation memorial stone, and on the right is a mes- 
senger's room* and the stairs to the _ two strong rooms which are placed on the 
basement. On the left is the principal staircase, constructed of Portland stone steps, 
and ha\ 7 ing a highly ornamental cast-iron railing, under the first landing of which is 
the Havil Street entrance ; the principal staircase and hall is 34ft. 6 in. long by 20 ft. 9 in. 
wide, and 31 ft. high, and is lighted by an ornamental flat skylight, with a sunbumer. 
From the principal staircase to the end of the building are the various officers' 
rooms, with a central corridor. On the left are the accountant's office, the burial 
board office, and the medical officer's office, each 23 ft. long by 16 ft. 10 in. wide, 
lighted from Havil Street ; on the right the assistant overseer's office, 30 ft. 1 in. 
long by 25 ft. 6 in. wide, well lighted by a skylight and two windows at the back, 
the waiting-room, 18 ft. 10 in. long by 16 ft. 10 in. wide, the housekeeper's 
staircase, leading to the housekeeper's rooms on the basement, the hat and 
cloak room, 19 ft. 6 in. long by 9 ft. 6 in. wide, lavatory, urinals, &c. At the end 
of the corridor is a glazed screen with swing doors, which leads to the yard and 
pay office in the rear, with a gateway from Havil Street. Off the principal staircase 
are the stairs leading to the public gallery over the vestry hall ; this gallery is 
lighted by a skylight, and is capable of affording accommodation for at least 
100 persons. Cfn the first floor are a hat and cloak room, and lavatory, &c., and 
a committee room, 19 ft. 6 in. long by 16 ft. 10 in. wide, and in the rear of the 
building is placed the vestry hall, a spacious room, affording ample accommodation 
for 100 members ; it is 47 ft. long by 43 ft. wide, and is 24 ft. in height. The 
room is amply lighted by windows on one side and a large horizontal ornamental 
skylight. The ceiling and walls are decorated with great taste, the enrichments 
being of carton-pierre ; a Keen's cement moulded dado runs round the room, and is 
surmounted by a composite order with pilasters and enriched caps ; the ceiling is 
composed of a handsome cove with enriched and moulded constructive beams. The 
whole of the decorations have been executed by Mr. J. M. Boekbinder. The furni- 
ture has been carefully executed by Messrs. Atkinson, of Westminster Bridge Road, 
(whose name, at all times, is a guarantee of good workmanship,) from designs supplied 
by the architect. On this floor are two large committee rooms, each 26 ft. wide by 
31 ft. 10 in. long, and 14 ft. 9 in. high, and a spare room with balcony in front and ladder 
to clock- room over ; together with a waiting-room 9ft. 10 in. wide by 20ft. 9 in. long. 

On the basement are two strong rooms, with iron doors, &c., and three other 
rooms for papers, &c. ; the housekeeper's rooms, laboratory, heating chamber, and 
coal cellar. These last are entirely separated from the strong rooms, and approached 
by separate staircases. 

The whole of the building is warmed with hot water, the apparatus for which, 
and also the sunburners, gas brackets, &c., and speaking tubes, have been supplied 
by Messrs. Z. D. Berry and Sons. 

* The vestry hall is in charge of the messenger, mittees, and much other responsible work. It 

Mr. Edwards, who was formerly inspector of the would be difficult perhaps to find a worthy suc- 

Camberwell and Peckharn New Lighting Trust. cessor to this old and faithful servant of the 

On Mr. Edwards devolves the summoning of com- parish. 



168 Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL 

INFIRMARY NAZARETH HOUSE CATERHAM ASYLUM. 
THE INFIRMARY. 

This splendid building lias recently been erected at a cost of nearly .20,000. It is 
situate in Havil Street, within a short distance of the new vestry hall, at the corner 
of that street and Peckham Road. The internal arrangements of the building are 
carried out upon the most ample scale, the large space within the interior ad- 
mitting of this being effected. The basement contains the dispensary rooms, 
and apartments, including the medical men's consulting-rooms, patients' waiting- 
room, and drug-room in the front portion, which is divided from the rear of the 
basement by a spacious corridor, 7 ft. in width. The basement rear beyond the 
corridor contains the domestic offices, which consist of laundry, kitchens, beer and 
wine cellars, wash-house, and engine-house and boiler. The structure itself forms a 
large square block, covering an area of 1,900 square yards, and an area enclosed by 
the main frontage and wings of the building give to it within, the character of a 
quadrangle. The main frontage in Havil Street is 150 feet in length, consisting of a 
prominent centre and two wings, the latter at the side elevations extending 
backwards 110 feet. The central portion of the Havil Street elevation is 80 feet 
high to the top of the cornice, the wings being 70 feet in height. In addition to the 
basement and ground-floor, there are four lofty stories in the central elevation, and 
three stories in the sides or wings. The elevation is comparatively plain. The pre- 
vailing materials used are white bricks, with a free admixture of red brick, and stone 
dressings. The windows have stone springers and keystones. Between the window- 
heads and sills of each storey there are bands in red bricks, filled in with encaustic 
tiles, carried across the entire elevation ; the cornice at the extreme height of the 
elevation is of red brick. In the central portion of the elevation is a stone balcony, 
projecting from the top of the first storey, above which a lofty window, in Bath stone, 
with red brick arched headings, and stone springers and keystones, is carried up to the 
top of the third storey. The windows in the upper part of the central elevation form 
also a prominent feature. They are carried much higher than the two side portions 
of the frontage, and contain nine clustered windows, the whole being surmounted by 
a gable. The whole of the windows in the elevation, with the exception of those just 
named, are in three bays. The principal entrance, which is immediately under the 
large central window, has on each side carved stone piers, surmounted by a stone- 
carved archway. The ground-floor of the central portion of the elevation contains 
the house-surgeon's sitting-room, and also the matron's sitting-room, both in front of 
the building, the one on the right and the other on the left of the principal entrance. 
A wide corridor divides this portion of the ground-floor from the rear, and this 
corridor leads to the house-surgeon's bedroom, lavatories, stores, and other offices. The 
first floor contains the matron's bedroom, the nurses' day-room, nurses' kitchen, stores, 
and nurses' dormitories. The second and third floors are reserved as special wards, 
whilst the fourth storey in the centre of the building beneath the gable is exclusively set 
apart as servants' dormitories. The whole of both wings, inclusive of both the ground- 
floor, and first, second, and third stories, are being fitted up exclusively as patients' 
wards, the female wards being in the south wing, whilst the male wards are in the north 
wing ; these several wards having accommodation for 168 patients, and with the special 
wards in the central portion of the building, there will be accommodation for 300 
patients. The. arrangements for conveying patients to any part of the building are on a 
scale of unusual completeness. In the corridor opposite the principal entrance there 
are two lifts connected from the ground-floor with the top of the building, by one of 






PAEOCHIAL HISTORY. 169 

which patients can be conveyed to and from any of the wards in the several parts of 
the building, and the other is a dinner-lift. In addition to the space occupied by the 
building itself, there are extensive recreation grounds for the patients attached, 
upwards of 1,000 square yards in extent, the entire area of the infirmary and grounds 
being upwards of half an acre. Mr. W. S. Cross is the architect, and the contractor 
Mr. Hart, of Southwark. Dr. Paterson is the resident medical officer (appointed in 
1873), Miss Thompson, matron, and Mr. Bourne, steward. 

NAZARETH HOUSE, PECKHAM. 

Close to the London, Chatham, and Dover Railway, just beyond the Peckham Rye 
Station, is a very substantial building known as Nazareth House.* It is situate in 
the Gordon Road, Peckham. It was formerly a convent,f but when the railway 
destroyed the privacy of the grounds it was no longer adapted for its original purposes, 
and the nuns removed to a more suitable locality. Some half-a-dozen years ago it 
fell into the hands of the Camber well guardians, and is now used by them as a 
supplementary establishment. J There are now within its walls 110 aged and infirm 
male paupers. The place is well adapted to the purpose, and the inmates, many of 
whom have been tradesmen in the parish, are engaged, so far as their health permits, 
in various industrial pursuits. The grounds are about four acres in extent, and are 
kept in a high state of cultivation. The poor old men find work, involving no severe 
physical toil, but profitable in its results. Pigs and poultry, potatoes, parsnips, 
onions, carrots, rhubarb, lettuces, and other produce, make very respectable items in 
the " farm and garden " account. This source of profit is steadily increasing. No 
doubt the old men do the work, and make and mend, so as to reduce the expenditure 
as far as possible ; still it is gratifying to find that, five years ago, the farm and garden 
account showed a profit of .101 ; the next year it was 116, then 130, then 153, 
and last year in spite of the loss of six tons of potatoes by disease, valued at 30 
the profit was 188. 

The painting and graining are done by the inmates. In fact, a very substantial 
little pony-cart is amongst the more useful of their late productions. The Venetian 
blinds produced by some of them were very creditable specimens of their skill, and 
of course these and other articles produced effect a saving in the outlay which would 
otherwise have been incurred. 

Nazareth House is the very picture of cleanliness, from the top floor to the basement. 
The common day room is light and warm, and in every respect comfortable. The 
sleeping apartments are lofty and well ventilated ; and, in fact, everything appears to 
have been done that could reasonably be expected to make this retreat for the declining 
years of the aged and infirm poor as cheerful and as pleasant as it is possible for such a 
place to be, compatible with a due regard to the pockets of the ratepayers. All 
endeavour to make themselves useful : some act as blacksmiths, others do the 
washing, some the gardening, some are good carpenters, and others feed the pigs. 
In fact, pigs seem to be a leading feature. Over 80 worth of pork was produced last 
year, of which one-half was consumed in Nazareth House, and the other half in 
Camberwell Workhouse, and at the date of the last balance-sheet there was 80 
worth of pigs in stock, and growing crops worth 60. 

* The above is extracted from an able and in- t The sisters of the Christian retreat came to 

teresting article on " Nazareth House," written by England in December, 1848, and after residing at 

Mr. Sharman, of Harder's Road, Peckham, whose Peckham for about two years, removed to the 

articles on Poor Law Institutions in the Metro- Manor House, Kennington. They returned to 

pnlitan deservedly attracted attention. The Peckham in 1857, but were obliged to leave the 

guardians are about making some radical altera- latter residence on account of the railway, 

tions in the internal economy of the above estab- J February, 1873. Mr. Castloman, the master, 

lishment, the bare mention of which has quite was appointed in 1867. 
alarmed the neighbourhood. 



170 



Y PAKISH OF CAMERWELL. 



CATERHAM ASYLUM. 

We find from the last report of the board of guardians that there were 264 
lunatics and imbeciles of this parish at asylums. In September, 1873, this parish 
had 113 patients at Caterham ; in 1872, 114 ; and in 1871, 110. 

The following tables are taken from the report for the year ending September, 
1873 : 

TABLE I. THE FORM OF MENTAL DISEASE IN THE PATIENTS ADMITTED FROM 
IST OCTOBER, 1872, TO 30ra SEPTEMBER, 1873. 



Form of Disease. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Mania .......... 





1 


1 


Chronic 


3 


2 


5 


Melancholia ......... 


1 


4 


5 


Dementia 


43 


29 


72 


Senile ........ 


25 


12 


37 


and General Paresis 




1 


9 


and Epilepsy . . . 


13 


11 


24 


Idiocy 


5 


1 


6 


Imbecility (including cases recorded as mental weakness) 


38 


28 


66 




8 


6 


14 


and Chorea 


1 




1 


Total number admitted .... 


145 


95 


240 



TABLE II. SHOWING THE TOTAL NUMBER OF ADMISSIONS, DISCHARGES, AND 
DEATHS FROM IST OCTOBER, 1872, TO THE 30TH SEPTEMBER, 1873. 



In the asylum on the 1st October, 1872 
Admitted from 1st October, 1872, to 30th September, 
1873 
He-admitted 

Total under care 

M. F. T. 

Discharged Not fit cases . . . 37 1 21 58 
Died 113 1 74 187 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


726 

139 
6 


940 

93 

2 


1,666 

232 

8 


871 
150 


1,035 
95 


1,906 
245 


Eemaining in asylum, 30th September, 1873 
Average number resident 


721 


940 


1,661 






1,667 



Dr. J. T. Griffith, Talfourd House, Peckham Eoad, is the representative of this 
parish on the committee of management, of which body Dr. Cortis, of Kennington 
Park Koad, is chairman. 



PAROCHIAL HISTORY. 171 

THE CHURCH REGISTER. 

The Camberwell register* goes back as far as the year 1558. The following 
history of it is written in a bold style 011 the title-page : 

"Cfjis Register Cfjurcfj laoofee of parcfjinent teas otgrossctr antr toritten out of tfivee 
olfce Kegtster paper fcoofces, anti mafeett) menrgon, or of all margages, christenings, 
antr iurgeals totttun tfje parrisfje of Camiertoell, in tfje Countge of J^urreg, from 
ge grare of our lortr gotr 1558, untill tf)ts present gere of our lortJ gotr 1602 ; anft 
in tf) fgbe antr fortitfj gere of ge raigne of o r most gracious sboberaigne Oueene 



The register appears to have been well kept. During the reign of the second 
Charles the registrar would seem, in some mysterious way, to have caught the spirit 
of the times, for he has introduced fancy sketches, certainly not suggestive of " graves 
and worms and epitaphs." In the early part of the year 1603 the register is defective ; 
from the month of August to the ensuing April there were 113 burials, which number, 
compared with the average of that period, shows the plague to have been very fatal. 
The plague was also prevalent in Camberwell in 1625 and 1665, more than 100 
persons being carried oif by it in both those years. 

In the year 1684 are recorded, says Lysons,f the names of such persons as were 
touched for the king's evil. They occur promiscuously amongst the baptisms and 
burials. It does not transpire where they were touched, but it is not improbable that 
the ceremony took place at Sir Thomas Bond's residence at Peckham, as Charles II. 
was traditionally a frequent visitor there. 

The entries are as follows : 

NOVEMBER, 1684. 

21. Ann, dau. of George King, touched, aged 18 years. 

26. Barnabas Scudainore, touched, aged 9 years. 

26. Joh. Davis, touched, aged 1 year. 

After the Restoration great multitudes of people flocked to receive the benefits of 
the royal touch, and restrictions had to be placed upon the number of patients and the 
times of healing. Persons who applied for cure were required to bring a certificate 
from the minister and churchwardens of their parish that they had never been 
touched before. They had then to goto the king's cliirurgeon, whose business it was to 
examine whether or no they were proper objects ; and if he founcHhem so, to give 
them tickets.J 

The earliest register concludes with the following memorandum, under date of 
30 April, 1749': 

" Here ends this Register Book. ROBERT AYLMER, Vic. of Camberwell." 

* The origin of Parish registers is attributed to curius Politicus of June 21, 1600, that many came 

Thomas Cromwell, Vice-regent to the king, who twice or thrice for the sake of the gold, Feb. 21st, 

issued an injunction dated Sept. 8th, 1538,30th 16(51. "Saturday being appointed by his Majesty to 

Henry VIII., commanding every minister to keep touch such as were troubled with the evil, a great 

a register for every church, &c. Cromwell's in- company of poor afflicted creatures were gathered 

junction was but partially complied witb, and in together, and being appointed by his Majesty to 

1547, the first year of King Edward VI. , another repair to the banqueting house, his Majesty sat in 

order was issued, which was almost a literal copy a chair of state, where he stroked all that were 

of the previous one. Queen Elizabeth, in the first brought to him, and then put about each of their 

year of her reign, issued an injunction to the samo necks a white ribon with an angel of gold in it. In 

effect as that of Edward VI. An order was subse- this manner his Majesty stroked about six hundred; 

quently made by Convocation of the Province of and such was his princely patience and tenderness 

Canterbury on the 25th Oct. 1597, which directed to the poor afflicted creatures, that, though it took 

that registers should be of parchment. up a very long time, his Majesty, who is never 

812 registers commence in 1538 ; 1,822 from weary of well-doing, was pleased to make inquiry 

1538 to 1558; 2,448 from 1558 to 1603; 969 from whether there were any more that had not yet 

1603 to 1650; 2,757 from 1650 to 1700 ; 1,476 from been touched. After prayers were ended, the Duke 

1700 to 1750, and 600 or 700 since that time. See of Buckingham brought a towel, and the Earl of 

Census Returns, 1831. Pembroke a bason and ewer, who, alter they had 

t Ed. 1811, p. 61. made obeisance to his Majesty, kneeled down till 

% It appears, from an advertisement in the Her- his Majesty had washed." 



172 Y c PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

.EXTRACTS FROM REGISTER, 
BAPTIZED. 

1568-9. Feb. 20. Bartholomew Fromonds, son of John Fromon. 
1583-4. Feb. 2. One Lord Barrin, whose mother was brought to bedd in the place. 
The godfathers to the childe were John Bowyer, gent., and one 
Mr. Marsh, seruant to Mr. Andrew Rogers, gent., and M ris 
Elizabeth Rogers, godmother to the saide childe. 
1586. June 12. Edward Beachum, sonne of Lord Edward Beachum.* 
1599. Nov. 18. Susan, daughter of Gallard Cesar, t 

1605. May 9. George Donne, son to 

1607. Ap. 3. John Primero, a negro. Witnesses S r Thomas Hunt, Mr. Cox, and 

Mrs. Mary Grymes [1614-15, Feb. 13, "buryed Jhon Primero fo r 

S r Thomas Hunt."] 

1610-11. Jan. 11. John, sonne of S r geant Frend, Esq. 
1621. Jan. 4. Eliza, daughter of John Bynde, Knight.t 
1627. Jan. 18. Mrs. Letitia Cage, daughter of Sir Toby Cage, Knt. 
1630. Sept. 6. George, the sonn of Mr. Thomas Daybridgcourt. 
1637-8. March 22. Margaret, daughter of Mr. George Donne. 

1653. Ap. 7. Susannah, daughter of Mr. Thomas Vincent. 

1654. Feb. 22. Debora, daughter of the Right Worshipful Tho. Vincent, Esq., 

Alderman of London, was borne the 21st day of Feb. betwixt 11 
and 12 at night, and bapt. the 22nd day of the same month. 
March 22. Vincent Blanie, sonne to Rich. Blanie, Esq., was borne the 17th 
of March, about 1 of the clocke at night, and bapt. the 22nd day 
of the same month ; buried 30th March, 1655. 

1655. Jan. 9. Anna Maria, the daughter of Col. George Walters. She was borne 

in Madrid, the Court of Spaine, the first of March, 1653-4 stilo 
novo. 

1656. June 15. Fleetwood, son of Coloiiell George Walters ; buried Sept. 7th, 1656. 

1657. April 29. Penelope, daughter to Sir Jno. Scudamore. || 

1670. Dec. 19. Wm. Hildrop, aged 23 years, makeing his profession of repentance 
and faith, and earnestly desireing baptism, which to that day 
from his birth, had not been administered to him. There were 
present 4 ministers in the parish church of Camerwell. 

1686. Sept. 20. John, son of S r Wm. CouM 

1695. Oct. 25. Thomas, son of Ichabod Tipping, Vicar of Gamer well, born Oct. 8. 

1697. July 21. Letitia, daughter of Sir Thomas Trevor.** 

1711. Sep. 23. Mary, dau. of Richard Wesson. 

Nov. 11. Elizabeth, dau. of Thomas Wesson. 

1712. June 29. Ruth, dau. of James Griffith. 

1713. Feb. 5. Elizabeth, dau. of Mr. Adam Langley, the master of y e Free Grammar 

School. 

* Supposed to be Edward Seymour, son of Died the 29th of the same month. See the 

Edward Lord Beauchamp, who was made a K. B. marriage of his father hereafter, 

at the creation of Charles Prince of Wales in 1616. . || Sir John Scudamore, of Ballingham, Co. 

He died in 1618, before his father and grandfather. Hereford, created a baronet July 23rd, 1646. 

t Musician to Queen Elizabeth and James I. If Sir Wm. Dutton Colt, knijjhted November 26th, 

Progresses, vol. iii. pp. 24, 25, 457, 465, and the 16S4. Died when envoy at Hanover, 1693. 

Progresse of King James, vol. i. p. 598. * * Afterwards wife of Peter Cock, Esq. , of Camber- 

J Sir John Byne, son of John Byne, Esq., and well. She died April 25, 1769, aged 71, and wa 

Elizabeth Bowyer, was knighted at Whitehall, July buried in Camber well churchyard. 
23rd, 1603. 






PAROCHIAL HISTORY. 173 

*1716. Oct. 2. Ann, dau. of John Tanner. 

f!721. May 17. Jane, dan. of Henry Cornelisen, Esq. 

1725. Nov. 22. Henry, son of Henry Cornelisen, Esq. 

1726. Nov. 13. Mary, dau. of George Constable, Esq. ; and buried May 24, 1727. 
Aug. 4. Martha, dau. of Henry Cornelisen, Esq. 

1732. Jan. 24. Henrietta Julianna Aylmer, dau. of the Rev. Mr. Robert Ay]mer and 

Catherine his wife, born Jan. 14. 

1733. Nov. 12. Robert, son of the Rev d . Mr. Robert Aylmer and Catherine his 

wife, bap. privately and received into ye church the 12th ; born 
21 Feb. 

1734. May 21. Sarah, dau. of y e Reverend Mr. Robert Alymer and Catherine his 

wife ; bom Ap. 28. 

1735. Dec. 29. Born y e 24th, Thomas, son of the Reverend Mr. Robert Aylmer and 

Catherine his wife ; bap. privately and received into y e church 
y e 29th Dec. 

1736. June 6. and bur. June 9, Mary, dau. of John and Judith Vincent. 
1739. Jan. 28. Mary, dau. of John and Sarah Coombs ; buried Ap. 2, 1740. 
1749. Sep. 14. Peter, son of Robert and Elizabeth Tagg. 

1752. Jan. 20. Richard Cherry. 

March 24. John, son of Sarah Ely, widow. 
1762. Jan. 16. Thomas, son of Gabriel and Mary Deacon. 

Feb. 11. James, son of James and Elizabeth Salmon. 

1764. Jan. 2. Richard, son of Mr. Quarles Harris and Dorothea his wife, privately 
baptized in y c city of York years agoe, and admitted into the church 
by his parents' desire per me, R. Aylmer. 

1767. Jan 22. Mary, dau. of Oswald || and Ann Strong. 

May 8. Richard, son of Thomas and Catherine Flint. 

1768. Jan. 31. Elizabeth Ann, dau. of John and Mary Spurling. 
Feb. 16. James, son of Thomas and Rebecca Havil.lF 

Aug. 14. Walter, son of Gabriel and Mary Deacon ; and bur. Sep. 9, 1768. 

17. Ann, daughter of Oswald and Ann Strong. 

21. Lucy Green, daughter of Thomas and Catherine Flint. 

Oct. 31. Diana, dau. of Samuel and Martha Lilley ; bur. 23 Aug. 1769. 

1769. Apl. 14. Alexander, son of Alexander and Ann Innis. 
Nov. 5. John, son of Hugh and Elizabeth Stringer. 

1770. Jan. 14. Diana, daughter of Samuel and Martha Lilley ; bur. 31 Jan. 1771. 
Mar. 11. William, son of John and Mary Spurling. 

June 13. John, son of William and Sarah Stringer. 

1771. Jan. 1. Joseph Sallows, son of Joseph and Mary Ely. 
24. Edward, son of Oswald and Ann Strong. 

1772. Aug. 30. Elizabeth, dau. of Gabriel and Mary Deacon. 

1773. Mch. 2. Oswald and Elizabeth (twins), son and dau. of Oswald and Ann 

Strong. 

* This is the first entry of the Tanner family. remains in the occupation of the family. 

The Tanners were at one time the principal job- First mention of the Taggs in Church register, 

masters of Camberwell, and one of the family was || First appearance of the Strongs of Peckham in 

for many years surveyor of the highways. " the Church register. This family has been iden- 

t Henry Cornelisen built the Green Coat Schools tified with the parish as contractors or parish 

in 1721, " to the glory of God and the honor of the officers for more than a century. A son of the 

Church of England." above Mr. Oswald Strong, now living, was collector 

t The Constables must have been living in the of rates in this parish for many years, and has now 

district of Camberwell at this time, as several of retired on a well-earned pension, 

the children attended the Green Coat School. ^[ It was after this family that Havil House and 

They afterwards migrated to Dulwich, where they Havil Street were named. The new vestry hall 

eventually occupied the Court Farm, which still now occupies the site of the old Havil House. 



174 Y c PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

1773. May 14. John, son of John and Mary Ely. 

1775. Jan. 23. Thomas, son of Oswald and Ann Strong. 

Ap. 9. Samuel Isaac, son of Samuel and Martha Lilley. 

Sep. 4. Elizabeth, dau. of Nathaniel and Elizabeth Silverthorne. 

1776. Mar. 17. William, son of James and Mary Ray. 
June 2. Stephen, son of James and Mary Stringer. 
Aug. 8. Valentine, son of Oswald and Ann Strong. 
Aug. 23. John, son of Jacob and Ann Emmett. 

1777. May 11. Richard, son of William and Mary Roffey. 

14. William, son of Alexander and Phillis Ray. 
June 4. William, son of William and Elizabeth Reade. 

1778. Mch. 8. Richard, son of Richard and Mary Creed. 

9. Elizabeth, daughter of William and Elizabeth Hussey. 

1779. Mch. 14. John, son of James and Mary Stringer. 

1780. June 25. Richard, son of William and Mary Creed. 

1781. June 24. Thomas, son of Thomas and Phillis Ray. 

1782. Feb. 10. John Fisher, son of John and Ann Green. 
Ap. 29. James, son of James and Mary Lines. 

1784. Mar. 10. John Dudley, son of James and Mary Lines. 
Ap. 11. Sarah, dau. of Samuel and Lydia Cocking. 

Ap. 16. Thomas, son of Ono* and Sarah Titchener. 

1785. Feb. 28. Catherine, dau. of Charles t Lewis and Ann Spitta. 
3 , June 19. Joseph, son of James and Mary Lines. 

Nov. 30. Joseph, son of Wm. and Grace Shepherd. 
Dec. 18. Samuel, son of Samuel and Lydia Cocking. 

1786. Feb. 15. Thomas, son of Ono and Sarah Titchener. 

1787. Ap. 15. John, son of Thomas and Ann Barton. 

1788. Feb. 6. Wm. Nuller, son of Charles and Elizabeth Goad. 

May 7. Elizabeth, dau. of Benjamin and Ann Jowett ; born 9 April. 
,, Dec. 14. Benjamin, son of Richard and Mary Creed. 

1789. Henry, son of Samuel and Lydia Cocking. 
Ap. 10. Thomas, son of Edward and Dinah Tanner. 
Sep. 20. James, son of Edward and Ann Prince. 

. 1790. Jan. 31. George, son of Richard and Elizabeth Drew. 
July 25. Charles, son of Charles and Elizabeth Goad. 

1791. May 16. Maria, dau. of Benjamin and Ann Jowett. 
,, June 26. Joseph, son of Edward and Ann Prince. 

Nov. 29. Thomas, son of James and Sarah Havil. 

1792. Oct. 11. Josiah, son of Benjamin and Ann Jowett. 

1793. March 10. Oswald, son of Edward and Penelope Strong. J 
May 26. Benjamin, son of Benjamin and Mary Murphy. 

1794. June 22. Thomas, son of Charles and Elizabeth Goad. 
Aug. 31. Edward, son of Richard and Elizabeth Early. 

1795. March 9. Isabella, dau. of Stephen and Ann Isabella Cattley ; born 9 Feb. 
March 29. Luke, son of Theophilus and Susannah Lightfoot. 

Elizabeth, dau. of Wm. and Alice Cray. 

* Mr. Ono Titchener came by his Christian name name of the Father," &c. 

in rather a peculiar way. When taken to be f This family had a fine mansion in the Peckham 

christened, the clergyman was about to make a mis- Road, since converted into Dr. Armstrong's 

take in his name, and his sponsor s were proceed- Lunatic Asylum (now Dr. Stocker's). 

ing to put the Rev. gentleman right, by remark- + Still living. He was for many years collector of 

ing, leisurely, " Oh, no."" Ono," remarked the rates of this parish, 
too impetuous parson, "I baptize thee in the 



PAROCHIAL HISTORY. 175 

1795. June 15. James Thomas, son of the Hon. Richard Molesworth and Catherine 

his wife. 

July 9. Henry, son of Benjamin and Ann Jowett. 
12. Edward, son of Edward and Penelope Strong.* 

1796. Ap. 10. William, son of William and Isabella Law. 

May 18. Maria, dau. of Stephen and Ann Isabella Cattley. 

June 26. Thomas, son of John and Amy Boxall. 

Dec. 14. John, son of Charles and Elizabeth Goad. 

1797. Ap. 23. William, son of Theophilus and Susannah Lightfoot. 

May 12. James Joseph, son of Thomas and Martha Charlotte Brett. 
Oct. 18. Henry, son of Stephen and Ann Isabella Cattley. 
Nov. 19. George,. son of Richard and Deborah Street. 
24. Harriett, dau. of Thomas and Peggy Lewin. 

1798. Feb. 18. Ann, dau. of Edward and Penelope Strong. 

Aug. 12. George Henry, son of George and Elizabeth Ody. 

Nov. 25. Mary Ann, dau. of Daniel and Mary Tibbies. 

Dec. 9. Mary Ann, dau. of George and Mary Athearn. 

1799. Jan. 10. George Henry, son of the Reverend George Henry Storie and 

Elizabeth Jekyll f his wife ; born Dec. 9. 

June 19. Francis, son of Stephen and Ann Isabella Cattley ; born 20 May. 
Dec. 11. Francis Acres, son of the Rev. George J Sandby, Vicar, and Maria 

his wife. 

1800. Feb. 12. John, son of John and Avis Wade. 

21. Carolina, dau. of Thomas and Peggy Lewin. 

Sep. 22. John Newton, son of Benjamin and Sarah Nind. 

1801. Feb. 1. Thomas Henry, son of Edward and Penelope Strong. 
April 13. Emma, dau. of Stephen and Isabella Cattley. 

Nov. 11. John Samuel, son of Samuel and Catherine Glover. 
Dec. 6. James, son of James and Louisa Ann Bartlett. 

1802. March 13. Alfred, son of Stephen and Ann Cattley. 

Ap. 22. Thomas Chalmers, son of the Revd. George Henry Storie and Elizabeth 

Jekyll his wife. 

23. Irene, dau. of Benjamin and Sarah Ann Jowitt. 
25. Louisa, dau. of Thomas and Peggy Lewin. 

MARRIED. 

1572. Sept. 9. M ris Elizabeth Bowyer and Mr. Wm. Foster. 

1573. Maye 25. Mr. Edmond Bowyer and Misstress Katherine Bynd. 
25. Mr. John Bynd and M ris Elizabeth Bowier. 

1589-90. Feb. 21. Mr. James Bynd and Sence fformons. || 

1592. May 8. Mr. Symon Pallmer and Mrs. Elizabeth Fromonds.lT 

1619. Nov. 7. Sir Thomas Bond to M ris Frances Gardner. 

* Buried at St. Ann's, Limehouse. Benjamin built a house in the Queen's Road 

t This lady, who died 5th March, 1S25, and her Peckham, and died in 1867, aged 94. 

father and mother, by a singular coincidence, were || Mr. James Byne was brother to John and 

ach buried on the several anniversaries of their Katherine (Lady Bowyer). His wife was one of 

birth. the sisters and coheiress of John Fromond, Esq , 

t The Rev. George Sandby, A.M., was the son of of Carshalton. Their daughter Emma was baptized 

Dr. Sandby, Chancellor of Norwich, who, at the at Camberwell 21st January, 1595. The rectory 

advanced age of 99, preached in his son's pulpit and estate at Carshalton descended in the family 

May, 1805. of Byne to Henry Byne, Esq., who was sheriff of 

Benjamin Nind, grandfather of Charles Kind, Surrey in 1791, and his pedigree will be found in 

a surgeon, now practising in the Queen's Road, Hist, of Surrey, ii. 513. 

Peckham, settled in this parish in 1792, and re- ^] Sister to the lady in the preceding entry, 

sided here for twenty-one years. His wife was a Catherine Palmer, her daughter, was married to 

sister of the Rev. John Newton, of Olney, and Wm. Foster, Esq., of Stockwell. Hist, of Surrey, 

is buried in Camberwell church, and their son ii. 473. 



176 



Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 



1621. Feb. 7. Peter Dawson,* clerk, to Mrs. Dorith Martin. 

19. Marmacluke Darrell,f Knight, to Mrs. Ann Clappham. 

1622. May 24. Mr. James Bynde to Eliz. Temple, gentle woma. 

1623. Dec. 3. Edward Allen, Esq., and M rs Constance Donn.^ 
1627. March 27. John Donne and Mary Staples. 

1630. June 24. Samuel Harvey and Constance Allen.|| 

1653. Mar. 21. Be it remembered that Richard Blayny, Esq.,11 and Elizabeth 
Vincent, daughter of Thomas Vincent, Alderman of y e Citty of 
London, spinster, were on the one and twentieth day of March, 
one thousand six hundred and fifty three, marride before me, 
Samuell Moyer, in the public meeting place of y e pish of 
Camberwell, in y e county of Surry, commonly called y e church 
of y e said pish, according to y e forme of y e late act of pliam*. 

And in y e psence of Thomas Andrewes, Alderman of y e Citty 
of London, John Punching by Peter Smyth and Randall Moore, 
Esquire, and others then witnesses of solemnizacon. of the said 
marriage. In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand. 
[Name erased.] ** 

1660. Dec. 26. Mr. John Bradford and Mrs. Jane Parr. ft 

1662. Jan. 6. Roger Bysshe, Esq., and Mrs. Ellen Parr.ff 

1669. Sept. 2. Jt Edward Deering, Esq., and the Lady Dorcas de Lavvne, widdow, 

1673-4. Feb. 5. Robert Parker, of Willingdon, in the county of Sussex, Esq. r 
and Mrs. Sarah Chute, daughter to George Chute, of the county 
of Surrey, Esq.|| H 

1675. Jan. 13. S r Ja. Russell, Knt, and Mrs. Penelope Tyrrell, daughter to S r Tim. 
Tyrrell. 

1687. June 2. King and Queen of the Jepsies, Robt. Hern and Elizabeth Bozwell, 
marid.iriT 



* Instituted vicar 12th February, 1618 ; dis- 
possessed August, 1643. He was also rector of 
Carshalton. 

t Sir Marmaduke Darell, of Buckinghamshire, 
was knighted at Whitehall July 24, 1603. He was, 
about 1617, Surveyor of Marine Victualls for the 
King's Navy, jointly with Sir Thomas Bludder, at 
the fee " for themselves 50 per annum, and for a 
dark under them 8 A per diem." Also, to Sr. 
Marmaduke "Darell, for keeping Maison Dieu 
place at Dover, 6 d by the day. 

J The founder of Dulwich College. Constance 
Donne was a daughter of the celebrated dean of 
St. Paul's. See Lyson's Environs, i. 89, and Gentle- 
man's Magazine, N. S., vol. i. p. 512 ; vol. iii. 
p. 610. 

Eldest son of the dean of St. Paul's. 

|| Constance Allen was the widow of Edward 
Alleyn, founder of Dulwich College, and Samuel 
Harvey, was of Aldborough Hatch, in Essex, 
grandson of Alderman Sir James and nephew to 
Alderman Sir Sebastian Harvey. Constance had 
issue by this second marriage three sons John, 
Thomas, and James. 

TJ Second son of Henry, Lord Blaney of Ireland. 
He succeeded his brother in the title in 1869, and 
died November 5th, 1670. 

** There are thirteen other entries made in the 
like form, of which nine are subscribed by Alder- 
man Vincent. 

tt Daughters of Richard Parr, D.D., vicar of 
Camberwell. 

Jt Second son of Sir Edward Dering, Bart. He 
was knighted at Whitehall 6th January, 1670-80. 
The Lady Dorcas was the daughter of Sir Robert 
Barkham, of Tottenham, Knt. , and widow of Sir 
William de la Laune, Knight, of Sharsted, in Dod- 



dington, Kent. See Hasted, Hist, of Kent, vol. ii. 
pp. 85, 693. 

Created a baronet in May following, being then 
styled of Ratton, Sussex. 

|| || George Chute, Esq. , of Brixton Causeway, in 
the parish of Lambeth, was the son of Sir George 
Chute, of Stockwell. 

HH In the early part of the present century Henry 
Boswell, well known as the "father and king of 
the gipsies" in Lincolnshire, died in affluent 
circumstances, and was buried at Wittering, in 
that county. When this singular race first ap- 
peared in Europe, they declared that they were 
driven from Egypt by the Turks. In Munster's 
Geography, lib. iii. c. 5, and Murray's Abridgment 
of the History of France, they are said to have first 
appeared in Germany about the year 1417, and to- 
have been called Tartars and Zegins, living like a 
race of vagabonds without laws and religion, their 
faces darkened, speaking a gibberish of their own, 
and practising theft and fortune-telling. Having- 
gained many proselytes, and become troublesome 
to most of the states of Europe, they were expelled 
France in the year 1560, Spain in 1591, and 
from England much earlier. By statute 1st and 
2nd Philip and Mary, cap. 4, and 5th Elizabeth, cap. 
20, whoever brought any Egyptians into the king- 
dom was to forfeit \ 00 ; and for the Egyptians 
themselves, or any one being fourteen years old, 
who was seen in their company, to remain one 
month in the kingdom was made felony without 
benefit of clergy ; and we are informed by Sir 
Matthew Hale that at one of the Suffolk assizes, a 
few years before the Restoration, no less than 
thirteen gipsies were executed upon these 
statutes. 



PAROCHIAL HISTORY. 



177 



1732. Feb. 11. Martha Constable and John Bingley. 

1749. Sep. 9. Edward Ernmett, of Barking, in Essex, and Mrs. Agnes Sarah 

Benson, by licence. 

1750. Oct. 31. William. Martin and Hester Bickerton. 

BURIED. 
1558. Dec. 15. Lord Robert Howman. 

1570. Jan. , Joane, the wyf of Randulph Beckett, minister, vie. of Cam, was buryed 

the last daye. 

1571. May 22. Randall Beckett. 

1585. May 17. M ris Baker, wife of Mr. Richard Baker. * 
1596. Jan. 4. Mr. Edward Byne. 

1604. Nov. 13. Dame Hunt, wife to Sir Thomas Hunt.f 

1605. May 7. Emma Calton, daughter to S r Francis Calton.J 

1610. March. The xiij was buried Henry Harden, sonne to Mr. Henry Harden, gent. , 
in the chancell, and geuen to the poore of the towne of Cam'well by 
his grandmother Emme Bowyar, wife to John Bowyare, Esq., 20s. 

1610. Oct. 17. Jane, from Mr. Alleyn's, at Dulwich. 

1611. Nov. 4. Margaret, wife to Edward Wilson. 

Feb. , Thomas Reyment, from Mr. Collins, of Dulwich Court. 
1614. March 18. Nicholas, sonne of Sir Thomas Hunt. 

31. Jhon Alleyn, from Mr. Edward Alleyn, his house at Dulw'ch. 
1618. Dec. 3. Mr. Edw. Wilson, Clarck and Vicar of Cam'well. 
1620. Ap. 27. . . . , daughter to Sir Samuell Tweets. 

June 5. Y e Lady Palmer. 
1622. Maye 11. William Milberry.|| 

1626. Jan. 9. Mrs. Lewes Donn, the daughter of Doctor Donn. 

1627. Feb. 24. Lady Anne Varnname, wife of Sir Robert Varnam [Vernon], Knyght. 
1638. Feb. 24. Elizabeth, wife of S r Robert Vernon. 

July 7. Elizabeth, Lady Dalter. 
1653. May 15. Sir Henry Manwaring.^f 
Sept. 21. Hanna, wife of George Moore, Esq.** 
Nov. 27. Mr. Jonathan Driden, Vicar of Cam.ff 



* Lord of the manor of Basing, in Peckham 
{afterwards the property of Sir Thomas Gardyner, 
Knt., who purchased it of Baker). Bray erroneously 
supposed his sister married Sir Thomas. 

t Jane, co-heiress and daughter of Thomas Mus- 
champ, of Peckham, Esq., and widow of Thomas 
Grymes. She was married, secondly, to Sir Thomas 
Hunt, who was sheriff of Surrey and Sussex in 
1610, and who died at Camberwell. 

J The manor of Dulwich and the advowson of 
the vicarage of Camberwell were granted to Thomas 
and Margaret Calton llth October, 36 Hen. VIII. 
1545. The former was sold to Alleyne the player 
by Sir Francis Calton in 1606. Sir Francis was 
knighted at Greenwich 9th April, 1605. Alleyne 
also purchased four messuages of Thomas Calton, 
gent., brother of Sir Francis Calton (Hist, of 
Surrey, iii. 438). Anne, daughter of Mr. Thomas 
Caltoif, was baptized at Camberwell 8th Sep- 
tember ; buried 10th September, 1596. Nicholas, 
his son, baptized 20th November, 1597. 

Instituted 21st March, 1577-78 ; founder of the 
Free Grammar School. 

|| It was at the house of the widow of this Milberry 
that the Jesuits found a hiding-place. They after- 
wards removed to Clerkenwell, at which place they 
were discovered and tried. (Cam. Soc. Pub.) 

If Sir Henry Manwaring was knighted at Oking, 
in Surrey, 20th March, 1617. He was some time 
lieutenant of Dover Castle, and was captain of the 
Prince Royal, the admiral's ship in the fleet sent 



to bring Charles, Prince of Wales, back from Spain 
in 1623, and vice-admiral under the Earl of 
Northumberland in the expedition of 1640. 

** George Moore, Esq. , of St. Olave's, Southwark, 
was a justice of the peace for Surrey, and married 
Hannah, daughter and co-heiress of John Wain- 
wright, Esq. (Visitation, 1662). They had the 
following children baptized at Camberwell: 
Charles, llth May, 1637 ; Susanna, 27th October 
1638 ; Henrie, 24th October, 1639 ; Elizabeth, 15th 
October, 1640 ; another Elizabeth, 9th November 
1641; James, llth November, 1642; William, 
16th August, 1647. 

ft The son of the Rev. Jonathan Dryden, Fellow 
of Trinity College, Cambridge ; was author of some 
verses in the Cambridge Collections in 1661, on the 
death of the Duke of Gloucester, and the marriage 
of the Prince of Orange, and. in 1662 on the mar- 
riage of Charles II. (See Sir Walter Scott's Life of 
Dryden.) Mr. Dryden is not mentioned in Bray's 
List of the Vicars of Camberwell. The Rev. 
Jonathan Dryden was the eldest son of Nicholas 
Dryden, of Morton Pinkeney, County Northamp- 
ton (brother to Sir Erasmus Dryden, first baronet), 
and second cousin to the poet. His sister Elizabeth 
married the Rev. Thomas Swift, vicar of Good- 
rich, County Hereford, and so became grand- 
mother to the Rev. Jonathan Swift, D.D., Dean of 
St. Patrick's. On the 5th July, 1646, he was ap- 
pointed to the vicarage of Goodrich, to hold th^ 
same until the Christmas following. 

X 



178 



Y* PAEISH OF CAMERWELL. 



1654. Feb. 22. Joanna, wife of Tho. Vincent, Esq., Alderman of London.* 
Mar. 30. Vincent Blanie, son to Richard Blanie, Esq. 

1655. Jan. 9. S r Robert Vernon.f 

J1658. May 5. Rose, wife of Wm. Hathaway. 
1659. May 27. Elinor, wife to Dr. Page. 

1661. Oct. 3. Wm. Hathaway, buried. Another hand has added "Aged 103-5." 

1662. Jan. 9. Mr. Jo. Treadcroft, S.T.B. 
1666. Aug. 26. Colonell Thomas Lytcott. 

1666-67. Jan. 2. Nathaniel, son of Mr. Alderman Warner. || 

Feb. 20. Mary, wife of Francis Paire, murdered in her house near Dulwich, 
as was supposed, by one Henry alias Hamshire, w ch sayd Henry 
was by the diligence of Jo. Scott of Camberwell, Esq., one of his 
Ma ties Justices of the Peace, app'hended two years after the fact 
done, and arraigned at Kingston and condemned and accordingly 
was executed for that murder Martij 13, 1669. 

1671 72. Feb. 28. Mrs. Ann Ingolsby, daughter of Francis Ingolsby,^ Esq. : Mary 
his daughter 12 April, 1672 ; and Martha his dau. 23 April, 1672. 

1673. Feb. 21. The Lady Hope Staplton. 

Mar. 4. Henry, son of Mr. Sergeant Parker.** 

1674. Nov. 14. The Lady Ayers. 

Dec. 9. Elizabeth, dau. of S r Christopher Ayers, K l . 
1676. Sept. 13. S r Christopher Ayers, K l . 

1678. Aug. 2. Here commences the Act for burying in woolen. Affedavits received 
according to the Act. ft 

1681. Jan. 12. A poore man found dead in a barn on Peckham Rye, on whom y e 

coroner sat. 

1682. July 9. George Druce. 

1685. June 8. Sir Thomas Bond, K*. and Papist. 

His grandson Wm., son of Wm. Caig.f 

1688. Nov. 13. Mrs. Elizabeth Parr, wife of Ri. Parr, D.D., pastor of Camberwell. 
She lyes buryed in the vault under the tombe erected by Dr. Parr 
on the south side of the church in the churchyard of Cam'well. 



* One of the daughters of Tho. Burges, of Horley, 
Surrey. " Her monument in Camberwell Church 
w as erected by her most sorrowful husband, 
Thomas Vincent, Esq., one of the justices of the 
peace of this county, and Alderman of the Citie of 
London, to whom she was wife twenty years, and 
by whom she had yssue five sons and nine 
daughters." Of these, three were baptized at 
Camberwell Judah, Susanna, and Deborah. 

t Knighted March 30, 1615.1 

j Between this and the following entry, a later 
band has interlined this curious note : 

" Aged 103, who boare a sonn at the age of 63." 
This circumstance has been commented upon as 
"unprecedented since the patriarchal ages," but 
Lysons gives some parallel instances. 

Colonel Lytcott, of Dulwich, was the son and 
heir of Sir John Lytcott, Gentleman of the Privy 
Chamber to James I., by Mary, daughter of 
Nicholas Overbury, Esq., and sister to the un- 
fortunate Sir Thomas Overbury. Sir John was 
imprisoned for questioning Weston, the poisoner 
of Overbury, when at the gallows (see Nichol's 
Progresses of James I., vol. iii. p. 106). Colonel 
Lytcott commanded a regiment under General 
Poyntz, in the engagement which took place 
between that general and King Charles on the 
march of the latter to the relief of Chester, 1645. 
He died of the plague, as did these members of his 
family and household all hi the short space of 
two months : - 



BURIED. 

1665. Sept. 11. Susanna, wife of Coll. Lydcott. 

12. Thomas, son of Coll. Lydcott. 
Oct. 2. Benjamine Lydcott, son of Coll. 

Lydcott. 

8. A servant of Coll. Lytcott. 
23. Leonard, a son of Collonel 

Lytcott. 

Nov. 2. Temple, son of Collonel Lytcott. 
,, 9. A servant man of Col. Lytcott. 
II Sheriff of London and Middlesex, 1659. 
*[ This Francis Ingoldsby was cousin-german to 
the Protector Oliver, being the eldest son of Sir 
Kichard Ingoldsby, by Elizabeth, daughter of Sir 
Oliver Cromwell, K.B., and brother to the regicide 
Colonel, afterwards Sir Richard, Ingoldsby, K.B. 
He was M.P. for Buckingham throughout the 
Protectorate ; but having, says Willis, " runout his 
estate, retired to London about 1673, and was in 
1679 admitted a pensioner of the Charter House, 
where he died, Oct. 1, 1681." (See Willis, Bucking- 
ham, p. 36. ) 

** Called to the coif 4th July, 1660. 
tt See Church wardens' Accounts. 
tt Mary Charlotte, only daughter of Sir Thomas 
Bond, was married to Sir Wm. Gage, the second 
baronet of Hengrave, Suffolk ; but the son Wm. 
here mentioned has not hitherto appeared in the 
pedigree of the family. (See Gage, Hist, of Hengrave. ) 
Daughter of Sir Roger James, Knt., of Reygate, 
by Margaret, daughter of Anthony Aucher, Esq., 



PAROCHIAL HISTORY. 179 

1689. Jan. 14. Thomas Swetman, killed by the fall of a chimney in the great 

wind y e ij at night. 
1691. Nov. 6. Ri. Parr, D.D. and Vicar of Camberwell, buried in his vault in y c 

church-yard. 

1699. Mar. 30. Mr. Nehemiah Lambert, Clerke Master of y e Free School of 

Cam'well. 

1700. June 5. M rs Mary Tipping, wife of Dr. Ichabod Tipping, vicar 'of Gamer- 

well, burryed in y e church yard opposite to y e middle chancell 
great window. 
June 5. Suzanna, daughter of Jo. Bartlett.* 

1702. May 6. Petronella dementia, dau. of Dr. Bernard Mandavill. 

1703. Dec. 10. Mrs. Elizabeth Tipping, late wife of Dr. William Tipping, deceased, 

and mother of Dr. Ichabod Tipping, Vicar of Camberwell. 

1704. Oct. 13. Mary, wife of John Coombs, found dead on Dulwich Common. 

1709. May 27. Mrs. Ann Bisshe. 

1710. Feb. 5. Mr. Michael Arnold. 

March 8. Mrs. Elizabeth Arnold, carry'd away and buried. 

,;* 28. George, son of Ichabod Tipping, Vicar of Camberwell. 

April 10. Mrs. Elizabeth Tipping, late wife of Dr. William Tipping, Vicar 

of Camberwell. 
1713. Oct. 10. Mrs. Mary Perkins. 

1715. Oct. 15. Sarah, daughter of Mr. Adam Langley. 

1716. April 20. Mary, daughter of John Perkins. 

1717. June 5. Lady Catherine Arke. 

1718. Mar. 13. Mr. John Lambert. 

1719. Oct. 2. Wm., a foundling from Dowdall's Common. 

1723. June 8. Marriott, son of Mr. John Whormby, of Lambeth. f 

1727. Mar. 21. The Rev d Dr. Tipping, vie. of Cam bl .J 

1728. June 7. Peter, son of Peter Spurling. 
Nov. 10. George Constable. 

1729. Jan. 27. Elizabeth Spurling. 

1730. June 26. Mrs. Anna Maria Dodd. 

1731. Sep. 28. Mrs. Anthony Aylmer. 

1732. Oct. 29. John Bartlett, of Lambeth Parish. 

1733. June 1. Elizabeth, dau. of George and Hester Kelham. 

July 31. Kerrick, dau. of Mr. John and Susannah Warner. 

1734. William, son of William and Rebecca Constable. 
May 15. Thomas Lewin. 

1736. May 31. Catherine, y e dau. of y e Reverend Mr. Robert Aylmer and Catherine- 

his wife. 

1737. July 15. John, son of Mr. John and Susannah Warner. 

1739. Jan. 2. S r Isaac Shard, Kt. 

May 9. Mr. Richard Hodson, Clerk of Camberwell Parish. 

1740. Sept. 8. A child found dead in y e " Greyhound." 

1741. March 2. Mrs. Elizabeth Heaton. 

of Bishopsbourn, Kent, and widow of Henry Moyse, { Instituted 9th November, 1691. 

of Banstead. Anthony Wood calls her " a widdow This family inherited the manor of Peckhatn- 

of plentiful fortune." from the Hills, of Denham, Bucks, to whom it was- 

* The Bartlett family are still residents of the sold by the Trevorsin 1739 (Hist, of Surrey, vol. iii. ) 

hamlet of Dulwich. The present representative, Sir Isaac Shard was sheriff of Surrey in 1707, 

Mr. Gregory Bartlett, has been overseer of the poor beinsr then styled "of Horsley Down," and was 

for about ten years. knighted March 18th, 1707-8 ; he was sheriff of 

t Mr. Whormby is noticed elsewhere as a member London and Middlesex 1730, and died at Ken- 

of the " Camberwell Club." He was also a warm nington, 22nd December, 1739, set. 86. 
supporter of the Green Coat Schools. 

N 2 



180 



Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 



1741. March 5. Mrs. Jane Tipping, relict of y e late Dr. Tipping. 

1742. Jany. 17. John, son of John and Sarah Coombs. 

May 21. A man unknown, found hanged in a meadow near y e " Rosemary 

Branch," buried by order of y c coroner. 
Nov. 28. Isaac Dodd. 

1743. Nov. 24. Rebecca Dodd. 

1744. Sept. 15. A child unknown, found dead near the " Artichoak," buried by 

order of y c coroner. 

1747. Ap. 27. A man unknown that died at Mr. Hill's, at the " Greyhound," at 
Peckham. 

1750. Ap. 8. Wm. Ricketts, who hanged himself, being disordered in his senses. 
Sep. 7. Daniel, son of Mr. Daniel Drewitt. 

1751. March 31. Christopher Mills, died 6 May, 1742, but kept so long unburied 

by his own order. 
July 1. Mr. Alderman Arnold.* 

1754. Feb. 9. Wm. Hester, Esquire. 
Feb. 1. Mr. John Purkis. 

July 2. Wm. Cherry. 

1755. Sept. 18. George Constable, S enr . 

1756. Feb. 18. A vagrant man from y e workhouse, died at y e " Redcap." 

1757. June 29. The Rev. John Milner,f D.D 
July 26. Sarah Crowhurst. 

Nov. 16. Mrs. Sarah Milner. 

1758. Jan. 21. Mrs. Mary Milner. 

1759. July 12. John Bellamy. 

1763. May 2. Mrs. Catherine Aylmer, wife of the Rev. Wm. Robert Aylmer, Vicar 
of this Parish, died Ap. 23, 1763 ; buried May 2 in a vault built in 
y e church yard by Mr. Aylmer for a burial-place for his family. 
July 13. Mr. John Hodson, Clerk of this Parish and Master of the Charity 
School. 



* George Arnold, " Citizen and Haberdasher," a 
merchant of London, was chosen a member of the 
Common Council for the ward of Cheap in 1723, 
and, upon the death of Sir Joseph Eyles, was 
elected Alderman of the same ward February 19, 
1740. He never reached the office of sheriff or lord 
mayor, and died on 23rd June, 1751. His monu- 
ment in Camberwell churchyard bore the follow- 
ing inscription : 

"G. Arnold, Esq., Alderman of London, who 
obtained an independent fortune with unsuspected 
integrity, and enjoyed it with hospitality, bene- 
ficence, modesty, and ease. Beside the solid 
worthiness of his character, he had the happiness 
to possess such a serene simplicitj* of manner as 
would have made even a bad man agreeable. Party 
itself, from his honest steadiness to his own, and 
the native candour and moderation of his mind, 
forbore its rancour with regard to him. 

" After a long en j oyment of uninterrupted health, 
cheerfulness, and tranquillity, in the midst of 
business, he died as easily as he had lived, for almost 
without any previous indisposition, on the 23rd June, 
in the year 1751, the 60th year of his age, after 
having, with his visual domestic ease, entertained 
a society of his old friends, he retired familiarly 
from the feast of life, and passed gently from this 
world to a better. 

" To his dear memory this tomb was erected by 
his affectionate relation John Sargeant, as a small 
testimony of the gratitude, esteem, and tenderness 
with which he regards him." 

t Principal of the school at which Oliver Gold- 
.smith was usher. 



t The f ollowing inscription is still legible on the 
Aylmer vault : 

"Here lies the body of Mrs. Catherine Aylmer, 
late wife of y Rev. Robert Aylmer, A.M., vicar of 
this parish. She lived in connubial felicity near 
35 years, and died y< 23 April, 1763. She left 
behind her two daughters and one son. She was 
daughter and co-heir of Thomas Ogle, Esq., of 
Pinchbeck, in y e county of Lincoln, by y Right 
Hon. Lady Henrietta Bruce, the youngest daughter 
of the Right Hon. Thomas, Earl of Aylesbury ; 
but her amiable qualities and mental endowments 
ennobled her much more than her extraction. 
She was an affectionate wife and parent, a sincere 
fi-iend, and a good Christian. She was cheerful 
without levity, prudent without meanness, generous 
without extravagance, and charitable without 
vanity, which made her life y e delight and comfort 
of her family ; her loss irreparable and ever to be 
lamented but for the certain hope that she now 
rests from her labours in peace and happiness. 

' ' Also of Robert Aylmer, A. M. , who, having been 
vicar of this parish, and lived above 41 years in 
peace and harmony with |all his parishioners, 
departed this life y e 14th day of August, 1769, 
aged 69. 

"Also the remains of Ann, second daughter of 
Henry Brougham, Esq., of Brougham Hall, in 
Westmoreland, and wife of Thomas Aylmer, Esq., 
who departed this life 22 Ap. 1797, aged 48. 

" In this vault are also interred the remains of 
Thomas Aylmer, Esq., only surviving sou of the 
Rev. Robert Aylmer, and Catherine his wife." 



PAKOCHIAL HISTORY. . 181 

1763. Sep. 6. A man unknown, found dead on y e Oak of Honour Wood. 
Nov. 15. Anna, dau. of Sir Richard Temple and his wife. 

1764. June 21. Mr. Thomas Stevens. 

1765. Ap. 6. Francess, dau. of the Rev d Richard Dodd, and Adelgunda Margaretta 

his wife. 

July 22. Mary Bellamy. 
Aug. 23. Catherine, dau. of Thomas and Sarah Tatlock. 

1766. Nov. 7. Mrs. Ann Bainbridge, Mistress of y e Charity School. 

1767. May 10. Elizabeth Cherry. 
Sept. 18. Mary Cash. 

1768. Feb. 21. A woman found drowned in a field belonging to Farmer 

Bailey.* 

Aug. 5. Thomas Browne, Esq. 
Dec. 1. Mrs. A. M. Dodd, late wife of Rev. Rich. Dodd. 

1769. Mar. 16. A man unknown, found drowned in Dowlas Common. 

Aug. 23. Rev d Eobt. Aylmer, M.A., Vicar of Camberwell, who died 14 Aug. 
inst., buried in his vault in y e churchy d . 

1771. Sep. 27. Elizabeth, dau. of Samuel and Martha Lilley. 
Oct. 7. Clark's daughter, of Peckham Rye. 

1772. Jan. 11. William Hester, Esq. 

Nov. 24. Samuel, son of Samuel and Martha Lilley. 

1773. Feb. 27. Conyers, son of the Rev. Mr. Roger Bentley, Vicar of Camberwell, 

and Ellen his wife, aged 7 years. 
Aug. 21. Robert Roffey. 
Dec. 17. Laurence Reade, Esq. 

1774. Feb. 6. Rebecca Fletcher. 

May 9. Mary, dau. of John and Mary Spurling. 
May 28. Mark, son of Mark and Susannah Daws. 
Nov. 5. George Constable. 
Nov. 8 Isaac Purkiss. 

1775. Nov. 22. Elizabeth Jones, aged 125.f 

1776. Jan, 23. Harriett, dau. of Henry Voguel, Esq. 
Mar. 24. WiUiam Ray. 

Dec. 19. John, son of John and Sarah Hooke. 

1777. Feb. 6. Ann Strong.|| 

Valentine Strong. 

1778. May 28. Thomas, son of Thomas and Mary Tatlock. 

1779. June 5. George, son of George and Mary Puckle. 

1780. Mar. 1. William Wells. 

1781. Mar. 8. Martha Lilley. 

* Fanner Bailey was a large freeholder at East in Camberwell Workhouse was 101 years of age. 

Dulwich. He built the old Goose Green Chapel, J Treasurer of Green Coat School, 

and it was mainly through his action in indicting The Hookes have been connected with Camber- 

the parish for the dangerous condition of Lordship well for a considerable time. One of the family, 

Lane that that thoroughfare was ultimately Mr. E. B. Hooke, was vestry clerk. In the south 

materially improved, which of course had the aisle of the old church was a memorial of this 

effect of vastly improving his property in that family to the following effect : 

neighbourhood. One of his sons married the " Underneath the pews in this aisle are two 

grand-daughter of Mr. Perkins, who resided at the burial-places of the family of Mr. Thomas Hooke, 

mansion afterwards known as the Denmark Hill of this parish. He died Feb. 26, 1699. Also 

Grammar School. For some account of Mr. Per- interred here his wife and two sons, Thomas and 

kins, see Boswell's Life of Johnson. John, and their wives and several children, and 

t A few months prior to her death an ac- great-grandchildren, one of which died March 15, 

count of this woman appeared in the St. James's 1798, in the 25th year of his age." 

Chronicle (May, 1775), in which it was said that she || Wife of Oswald Strong, and grandmother of 

remembered being at service when King Charles II. Oswald Strong, for many years collector of rates of 

was crowned, and that the nurse who attended her this parish. 



182 



Y c PAKISH OF CAMERWELL. 



1781. 
1783. 
1784. 
1786. 



1787. 



1789. 
1790. 

j> 

1791. 
1792. 
1793. 

1794. 
1795. 



1796. 

5) 

1798. 
1799. 



Oct. 13. Mary Wesley.* 

July 8. Robert Roffey. 

Dec. 16. Win., son of Robert and Margaret Browning. 

Jan. 8. Sophia, dau. of Joseph and Elizabeth Chabot. 

Feb. 24. John Gordon, Esq., in the church vault. 

Ap. 19. John Joseph Jasper Pinta, many years a French teacher at Mr. Jephson's. 

Jan. 21. Edward Fisher. 

Ap. 22. Peter Edmonds. 

Ap. 21. Margaret Browning. 

July 23. Maria Rowley. 

Nov. 2. Mary Ann, dau. of John and Eleanor Hyde. 

Sep. 29. John Browning, Master of the Charity School 28 years. 

July 1. Capt. John Smijth. 

Feb. 22. John Nind. 

Oct. 12. George Shattoch. 

Ap. 17. Thomas Storie, Esq., in the church vault. 

Feb. 2. Jane Cattley. 

Aug. 6. John Margetson, Esq., in the church vault. 

Sep. 20. John, son of John and Benjamin Murphy. 

Nov. 3. fThe Reverend Roger Bentley, Vicar of this Parish 26 years, in a 

new vault in the chancel. 

Ap. 27. William, son of William and Mary Edmonds. 
May 8. Thomas Strong. 
July 18. Elizabeth Russell Mansell. 
Ap. 28. Ono. Titchener. 
July 3. Robert Lilley. 

Aug. 19. Henry Voguell, Esq., in the family vault. 
Sept. 4. Samuel Cocking. 



* This was the wife of the celebrated John 
Wesley, who alludes to his wife's death in his 
journal under date October 12th, 1781: "I was 
informed my wife died on Monday, Oct. 8th." 

This marriage of Wesley's was a most un- 
fortunate one, and dearly did be pay for his rash 
act by thirty years of matrimonial misery. The 
Gentleman's Magazine of 18th Feb. 1751 has the fol- 
lowing in its list of marriages : " Rev. Mr. John 
Wesley, preacher, to a merchant's widow in 
Threadneedle Street, with a jointure of 300 per 
annum ; " and the entry in the London Magazine of 
Feb. 19th, 1751, is as follows : " The Rev. 1 Mr. John 
Wesley, to Mrs. Vazel (Vazeille), of Threadneedle 
Street, a widow lady of large fortune." The large 
fortune consisted of 10,000 invested in 3 per Cent. 
Consols, and was wholly secured to herself and 
four children. In his life of Wesley, Mr. Jackson 
describes Mrs. Wesley as being neither in under- 
standing nor education worthy of the eminent man 
to whom she was united ; and from the letters of 
Wesley himself, she appears to have been an ex- 
tremely jealous and selfish woman, with an in- 
tolerably bad temper. During the lifetime qf her 
first husband she appears to have enjoyed every 
indulgence, and, judging from the tenor of his 
letters to her, he paid an entire deference to her 
will. Her habits and ways were ill-adapted to 
the privations and inconveniences which were 
incident to the life of an itinerant preacher. 
"There never was a more preposterous union," 
says Hampson, in his life of Wesley. " It is pretty 
certain that no loves lighted their torches on this 
occasion, and it is as much to be presumed that 
neither did Plutus preside at the solemnity. Mrs. 
Wesley's fortune was too inconsiderable to wan-ant 
the supposition that it was a match of interest. 
Besides, had she been ever so rich, it was nothing 
to him, for every shilling of her fortune remained 
at her own disposal, and neither the years nor the 



temper of the parties could give any reason to 
suppose them violently enamoured. That this 
lady accepted his proposals seems much less 
surprising than that he should have made them. 
It is probable his situation at the head of a sect, 
and the authority it conferred, was not without its 
charm in the eyes of an ambitious female, but we 
much wonder that Mr. Wesley should have ap- 
peared so little acquainted with himself and 
human nature. He certainly did not possess the 
conjugal virtues ; he had no taste for the tranquillity 
of domestic retirement, while his situation as an 
itinerant left him little leisure for those attentions 
which are absolutely necessary for the comfort of 
married life." Dr. Whitehead, Southey, Moore, and 
other biographers of Wesley, also refer to his un- 
fortunate marriage. It appears that more than one 
separation took place between Wesley and his wife. 
On different occasions she laid violent hands on his 
person and tore his hair. When in the north of 
Ireland, a friend of Wesley's caught her in the act 
of trailing him on the floor by the hair of his head, 
and she herself was still holding in her hands vener- 
able locks which she had pulled out by the roots. 
" I felt," continues Hampson, in his account of the 
incident, "that I could have knocked the very 
soul out of her." Mary Wesley died on the 8th 
October, 1781, aged 71, and was buried in the 
chui-chyard of St. Giles's Church, Camberwell. 
The epitaph on her tombstone described her as "a 
woman of exemplary piety, a tender parent, and a 
sincere friend," but is wisely silent concerning her 
conduct as a wife. 

t His epitaph gives him this character: "He 
preached Jesus Christ crucified; and by grace 
derived from his Lord, exemplified the effects of his 
doctrine by his uniform practice in all the relations 
of life. He finished his honourable and useful 
course with joy 27 Oct. 1795, aged 61 years." 



PAKOCHIAL HISTOKY. 183 

OUR LOCAL PARLIAMENT AND PUBLIC OFFICERS, 1874-75. 

CHURCHWARDENS. 

Edward Pinder, Esq., Wilby Lodge, Grove Lane. 
Frederick Fermor, Esq., 255, Southampton Street. 
Robert Arthur Puckle, Esq., 37, De Crespigny Park, Camberwell. 

OVERSEERS OF THE POOR. 

Mr. Walter Charles Mulley, 38, Grove Lane. 
Mr. David Colegrave, 54, Peckham Grove. 
Mr. John Cox, 74, Trafalgar Road. 
Mr. Gregory Bartlett, Dulwich. 

ASSISTANT OVERSEER. William Harnett Blanch, 11, Denman Road, Camberwell. 
VESTRYMEN. WARD No. 1. 

Best, George, 47, Albany Road. Hayward, Arthur Thomas, 39, Peckham 

Colegrave, David, 54, Peckham Grove. Grove. 

Fermor, Frederick, 255, Southampton Honywill, Albert, 14, Hill Street, Peck- 
Street, ham. 

Grummant, John, 1, Lawn Houses, Peck- Sears, James, 26, Addington Square, 

ham Road. Sugden, John, 27, Peckham Grove. 

Hague, Samuel, 65, Peckham Grove. Thornhill, James Alfred, Bushey Hill 

Harding, George, 151, Commercial Road. Road, Peckham Road. 

Whitby, Edwin, 3, Grove Place, Southampton Street. 

WARD No. 2. 

Coley, William, 3, Glengall Road, Old Machin, Thomas, 370, Old Kent Road. 

Kent Road. Norman, Alfred, 551, Old Kent Road. 

Cook, Charles, 1, Hill Street, Peckham. Peters, William, 120, Trafalgar Road, 
Cox, John, 74, Trafalgar Road. Old Kent Road. 

Garnar, Martin, 18, Glengall Grove, Old Scipio, John Francis, 595, Old Kent 

Kent Road. Road. 

Goddard, Thomas, 384, Old Kent Road. Sims, Henry Charles, 9, Trafalgar Road, 
Hyde, George, 342, Old Kent Road. Old Kent Road. 

Walden, Charles, 61, Trafalgar Road, Old Kent Road. 

WARD No. 3. 

Gloss, John James, 41, Camberwell Megson, Christopher, 178, Camberwell 
Green. Road. 

Goad, Charles, 241, Camberwell Road. Mott, Charles, 279, Camberwell New 

Green, John William, 219, Camberwell Road. 

Road. Murphy, William Adams, 47, Church 

Hill, Thomas, 148, Southampton Street, Street, Camberwell. 

Camberwell. Norris, James, 229, Camberwell Road. 

Innes, John, Denmark Street, Camber- Thornhill, James, Camden House, Tal- 
well. fourd Road. 

Linnell, Henry, 258, Camberwell Wesson, Joseph Nicholas, 212, Camber- 
Road, well Road. 



184 



Y e PARISH OF CAftlERWELL. 



WARD No. 4. 

Barsdorf, George, 34, Maismore Square. Lyon, Washington, 85, Asylum Road, 
Bates, John James, 83, Asylum Road, Old Kent Road. 

Old Kent Road. Ring, James Charles, 89, High Street, 

Carter, Robert William, Park House, Peckham. 

Peckham Park. 

Chittick, Samuel, 751, Old Kent Road. 
Dawnay, Archibald D., 78, Peckham 

Park Road. 

Day, Thomas, 593, Old Kent Road. 
Herring, Francis, 537, Old Kent Road. 



Smith, James John, 726, Old Kent Road- 
Stark, William, 121, Queen's Road, 

Peckham. 

Stedman, Alfred, Hatcham Road. 
Stevens, Charles William, Goldsmith 



House, Old Park Road, Peckham. 
Lyon, John Andrew, St. Mary-le-Strand Wilson, John Osborn, 141, Queen's 



House, Old Kent Road. 



Road, Peckham. 
WARD No. 5. 



Borland, John, 184, High Street, Peck- Kemp, William Robert, 225, Southamp- 

ham. ton Street. 

Denny, Frederick William, 3, Hanover Lewin, Frederick George, 4, Lombardian 

Park, Rye Lane. Villas, St. Mary's Road, Peckham. 

Drake, Thomas, Park Lodge, Peckham Robinson, Henry George, 18, St. Mary's 

Rye. Road, Peckham. 

Gill, George Henry, 26, St. Mary's Road, Rogers, Edward Dresser, 1, Hanover 



Peckham. 



Park, Rye Lane. 



Gudgeon, Edward Barnaby, 96, Queen's Savage, Alfred, Blenheim Villa, Blen- 

Road, Peckham. heim Grove, Peckham. 

Harding, Thomas, 23, High Street, Sharman, Henry Risborough, Laurel 



Peckham. 



Cottage, Harder's Road. 



Howard, Charles, Prospect Villa, Chad- Shields, William Andrew, 44, Hill Street, 
wick Road, Peckham. Peckham. 

Stevens, Alfred, Homestall Farm, Peckham Rye. 

WARD No. 6. 

Bartlett, Gregory, Dulwich. Middlemass, Andrew, 40, Wilson Road. 

Constable, William, Crystal Palace Road, Mulley, Walter Charles, 38, Grove Lane- 
East Dulwich. Puckle, Robert Arthur, 37, De Cres- 

Coombs, William, 50, Lyndhurst Road. pig n y Park. 

Dawson, Edward Ebenezer, Lordship Roberts, William, 104, Grove Lane. 

Lane, Dulwich. Strong, Richard, J. P., 163, Camberwell 

Drayner, Bayley Edward, 89, Camber- Grove. 



well Grove. 



Turney, George Leonard, 198, Camber- 



Emberson, Thomas, 16, Lyndhurst Road. well Grove. 

Gull, Joseph Winney, Clevedon Villa, Weller, John, Crystal Palace Road, East 

Peckham Rye. Dulwich. 

Hendriks, Philip Edward, 63, Camber- Webster, George, M.D., J.P., Dulwich. 



well Grove. 

Laidler, John, 43, Wilson Road, Camber- 
well. 



Williams, George Thomas, 109, Cam- 
berwell Grove. 



TREASURER. 
London Joint Stock Bank, Borough. 



PAROCHIAL HISTORY. 185 

VESTRY CLERK. 
George William Marsden, 113, Camberwell Grove. 

SURVEYOR. 
J. C. Reynolds, 43, Vicarage Road. 

MEDICAL OFFICER. 
Dr. Bristowe, 11, Old Burlington Street, W. 

SURVEYOR OF TAXES. 
George Fawcett, Camberwell Green. 

ACCOUNTANT. 
William H. Berry, 117, Commercial Road. 

COLLECTORS OF RATES. 

No. 1 Ward John B. Maltby, 9, Camden Grove North. 
No. 2 Ward J. C. Bradley, 66, Trafalgar Road, Old Kent Road. 
No. 3 Ward James P. White, 7, Champion Terrace, Brunswick Square, Camberwell. 
No. 4 Ward Bainbridge Lyon, Grove Park, Camberwell. 
No. 5 Ward R. H. Thompson, 14, Hanover Park, Rye Lane. 
No. 6. Ward George Thomas Bickerton, 547, Old Kent Road. 
Dulwich District William Andrews, 31, Camberwell Green. 

4A and SA Collecting District Frederick Beaumont, 20, Palmerston Terrace, Lord- 
ship Lane. 

INSPECTORS OF NUISANCES. 

Donald Fraser, Lenny Villa, Blenheim Grove. 
Donald Mackay, 8, Blenheim Grove. 
Samuel Powell Fisher, 115, Rye Lane. 
James Comfort, 31, East Surrey Grove. 

AUDITORS. 

George Thomas Clarke, 14, St. George's Harry Stubbings, 22, Queen's Road, 

Road. Peckham. 

Robert Vincent, 239, Camberwell Road. Charles James Sadler, 41, Wilson Road, 
Jacob Gregory, 116, Asylum Road, Camberwell. 

Peckham. 

GUARDIANS OF THE POOR. 

George Webster, M.D., J.P., Dulwich. Richard Strong, J.P., Deputy Chairman, 

Frederick William Denny, Hanover 163, Camberwell Grove. 

Park, Rye Lane. Edward Dresser Rogers, Hanover Park, 

John Thomas Griffith, M.D., Peckham Rye Lane. 

Road. James Thornhill, Camden House, Tal- 

William Dicker, 97, Camberwell Grove. fourd Road. 

Thomas Drake, Park Lodge, Peckham Thomas Cash, Lordship Lane, East 

Rye. Dulwich. 

Francis Herring, Chairman, 537, Old Edward Barnaby Gudgeon, 96, Queen's 

Kent Road. Road, Peckham. 

Benjamin Colls, 246, Camberwell Road. Charles Burls, Red House, Peckham Rye. 

James Southern, Sydenham Rise, Forest George Leonard Turney, 198, Camber- 
Hill, well Grove. 

John Andrew Lyon, St. Mary-le-Strand Albert John Crocker, Court Lane 

House, Old Kent Road. Dulwich. 



186 Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

CLERK TO THE BOARD OP GUARDIANS. Charles S. Stevens, Talfourd Road. 
MASTER AND MATRON OF WORKHOUSE. Mr. and Mrs. Smithers. 

RELIEVING OFFICERS. 

Charles John Nicolles, 1, Camden Grove, Peckham. 
James Sedgley, Claude Villa, Bushey Hill. 
Joseph Samuel Sweet, 54, Commercial Road, S.E. 
Caleb Titcombe, King's Road, Peckham. 
Edward Nicholas Rolfe (Assistant Relieving Officer), Havil Street. 

BURIAL BOARD. 

Robert Alexander Gray, J.P. (Chairman). William Andrew Shields, 44, Hill Street, 

Thomas Drake, Park Lodge, Peckham Peckham. 

Rye. Richard Strong, J.P., 163, Camberwell 

John Grummant, 1, Lawn Houses, Peck- Grove. 

ham Road. Joseph Nicholas Wesson, 212, Camber- 
Edward Barnaby Gudgeon, 96, Queen's well Road. 

Road, Peckham. George Leonard Turney, 198, Camber- 
John Andrew Lyon, St. Mary-le-Strand well Grove. 

House, Old Kent Road. 

REGISTRARS OF BIRTHS AND DEATHS. 

CamberwelL C. W. Gregory, 100, Cam- Dulwich. C. Tijou. 

berwell Grove. St. George. W. J. Macartney, 27, Com- 
Peckham. C. J. Nicolles, 1, Camden mercial Road, Peckham. 

Grove. 



JAMES PEW. 

James Pew, who for nearly half a century was intimately connected with Camber- 
well, was born at Leith, N.B., in 1793, and at the age of 14 he appears to have 
been seized with a complaint common to his countrymen, called the " south fever," 
for he not only came south, but " South of London." His grandfather, Mr. Lees, 
had long been resident at Camberwell, and as the youth, when 14 years of age, 
received an appointment as clerk in the Stores Department of the Tower, nothing 
was more natural than that he should take up his residence with his grandfather at 
Camberwell a place in which he was, before long, destined to become a ruling 
power. 

When Mr. Pew's connection with Camberwell first commenced, the place was a 
little village as far removed from the City, as regards time, as the Brighton of our 
own day. The parish had but one church, and no vestry hall; but it had two 
beadles, over whose election furious fights, of two days' duration, had been fought. 
The stocks were an institution. " Cages" for the "entertainment" of either man or 
beast abounded throughout the parish ; and the fire brigade was represented by three 
small " parish squirts " and about twelve buckets ! 

Patrols crossed from Peckham to the Old Kent Road, and from the " Fox-under- 
the-Hill" to Dulwich, for the protection of pedestrians. Omnibuses had not yet been 
" invented ;" gas had not even commenced to twinkle ; roads were narrow and ruts 
deep and lasting; open sewers abounded, and our local powers quarrelled, and 
did their business in the body of the church, and sometimes in a public-house. Mr. 







tf 






PAKOCHIAL HISTORY. 187 

Sandby was vicar ; Joseph Irons was about to preach in Camden, and Dr. Collyer at 
Hanover Chapel, at which place a royal duke was shortly to tell him that he 
" preached a very fine sermon, but gave d bad music with it." 

Such was Camberwell in 1807, and it reads like a romance when we recall how 
great have been the changes within the brief space of one life. 

Bearing in mind that the vestrymen have lately been forming themselves into a 
new vestry hall committee, it is rather an interesting fact to note that the first com- 
mittee on which Mr. Pew was appointed was a new vestry hall committee ! And a 
new vestry hall a sort of cross between a toll-gate keeper's hut and a police-station 
was built, which said magnificent hall has since been converted into a vaccination 
station ! 

In 1827 Mr. Pew was appointed auditor, a position then of small labour, it is 
true, but one of considerable parochial importance. In 1829 he was promoted to be 
overseer of the poor, and from the warm vote of thanks, it is natural to suppose 
that he acquitted himself in an exceptionally able manner. In 1830 he became a 
fixture on what was called the workhouse committee an 'organization which had 
existed in the parish for about 200 years, in which was vested great parochial 
responsibility. 

About this time Mr. Pew took a leading part in procuring the Camberwell Local 
Act, which received the royal sanction in 1833 ; and in 1839 lie was appointed, by the 
Rev. J. G. Storie, vicar's warden, a position which he held for about thirty years. 

At the visitation of cholera in 1832, Mr. Pew was appointed hon. sec. of the local 
committee formed " to use every exertion both to check the spread of the disease and 
to mitigate the sufferings of the afflicted." 

On this committee with Mr. Pew were many " good men and true," now no more 
Henry Melville, Joseph Irons, Thomas Dale, Dr. Collyer, John Burnett, John Vane, 
Robert Puckle, Dr. Arnauld, and others ; whilst there are still amongst us Robert 
Alexander Gray, Dr. Webster, Rev. H. W. C. Hyde, and Dr. Steane. 

Mr. Pew's activity, zeal, and devotion at this terrible time were beyond all praise ; 
and it has been our privilege to listen to incidents of enduring and loving devotion, 
and a sacrifice of self, sufficient to start half a dozen modern philanthropists in 
business. For his services on this occasion Mr. Pew was presented with a silver 
salver, bearing the following inscription : 

"Presented to James Pew, Esq., by the subscribers of the Cholera Fund, raised by the parish of St. 
Giles, Camberwell, and its neighbourhood, in testimony of their gratitude and respect for his efficient, 
gratuitous, and most laborious services as one of the joint secretaries of the Cholera Committee and Board 
of Health, November, 1833." 

Mr. Pew was one of the first guardians of the poor elected under the Poor Law 
Amendment Act, in addition to which he took an active part in promoting and 
sustaining a society for the relief of the deserving poor. He was for many years 
treasurer of the Camberwell Green Coat School, one of the early promoters of the 
Camberwell Savings' Bank, member of the Burial Board, governor of Dulwich 
College, member of the Metropolitan Board of Works, and chairman of the Camber- 
well Vestry. In April, 1860, a portrait of Mr. Pew was placed in the Camberwell 
Vestry Hall, with the following inscription : 

"This portrait of James Pew, Esq., for many years senior churchwarden, is presented by members of 
the vestry and other inhabitants of the parish, as a sincere mark of their esteem." 

Three years later Mr. Pew resigned all official duties, and retired into private 
life at the age of 75, with his physical powers somewhat impaired,^ but with an 
intellect as clear and vigorous as ever. As evincing both his natural and never- 
ceasing industry, as well as his intellectual power, it may be mentioned that whilst 



188 Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

spending the last few winters in Italy, he studied and mastered the German and 
Italian languages. 

The following extract from his diary, written in the Coliseum at Rome, in May 
last, speaks so eloquently of the faith that was in him, that we make no apology for 
placing it before our readers : " As the time draws nigh for leaving Rome, my 
spirits fall and I sink below zero. I sometimes think I enjoy life too much, and my 
thoughts are too much of this earth ; and yet I only indulge in the affection and 
feeling implanted in my heart by a good and benevolent Creator. The delights I 
enjoy are not those of passion, but of the soul, which elevate in their character, and 
form, in my humble judgment, the longing after immortality for the full fruition of 
those feelings." 

Four months after penning these lines James Pew died at Asiago, in the Italian 
Tyrol, and was buried at Padua, at the age of 81 ; and the memory of his name 
was committed to those who knew him best, and therefore loved him most. 

He will, perhaps, best be remembered as a public man in connection with the 
chairmanship of the Camberwell vestry. His word was always iaw, and his ruling 
never questioned. He quieted turbulent gatherings by a look or a wave of the 
hand. As he advanced in years, it is stated that he renounced argument and despised 
logic. Over and over again did he annihilate doughty antagonists by his inimitable 
" Pooh, pooh, pooh ! " Behind those three words was utter discomfiture for his 
opponent a treasure-house of knowledge, a keen logician's knife, a torrent of warm 
and telling speech, considerable tact in short, an armoury so ready to the speaker's 
hand, or rather lips, that it was universally recognized and respected, but seldom 
used. 

Now that the busy and eventful career of James Pew has run its course, all who 
knew him must be ready to acknowledge that he was a man of high character and 
commanding ability, and a devoted slave in any cause which had for its object the 
happiness and welfare of even the meanest resident of his adopted parish. 



MR. GEORGE LEONARD TURNEY. 

Mr. G. L. Turney, who, in the absence of the vicar, has acted as chairman of the 
vestry for several years past, was born in London in 1815. He resided for fifteen 
years in the neighbouring parish of Newington, and in 1858 removed to Camberwell, 
where he has since been closely identified with our local institutions. He was first 
elected a member of the vestry in 1862, overseer of the poor in 1866, which office he 
filled for two years, being then elected churchwarden of St. Giles's Church in 1868. 
On his retirement from the churchwardenship a handsome testimonial on vellum 
was presented to him by the members of the vestry, and in the same year he was 
elected guardian. In 1871 he was chosen a governor of Dulwich College, and a 
member of the burial board in 1874. He is a liberal supporter of all local charities, 
and takes an active part in the management of the Charity Organization Society. 
Throughout his whole public career, Mr. Turney has been known to take a fair and 
impartial view of all public questions ; and though a man of strong opinions himself, 
he has never allowed his private feelings to influence him in the administration of 
public affairs. He is entirely a self-made man, and his extensive works in Tooley 
Street are results of energy and perseverance of which any man may be proud. 
The establishment is unique of its kind, being the only pin and needle factory in 



PAEOCHIAL HISTORY. 189 

London. At first sight it appears remarkable that a private individual can compete 
successfully with the immense wealth and organization of Birmingham and Sheffield, 
but a visit to the factory will at once remove all feelings of surprise. 

Mr. Turney has evidently made his mark by an appreciation of detail, and his 
practical and mechanical knowledge has been devoted not only to the general 
scope of his business, but the minutest details have received his closest study and 
attention. 

Mr. Turney's portrait is taken from a photograph by Mr. Alfred Harman, of High 
Street, Peckham. 



MR. EDWARD DRESSER ROGERS. 

Mr. Dresser Rogers has been connected with the parochial affairs of this parish for 
many years, and at the present time is the representative of Camberwell at the 
Metropolitan Board of Works. He is also chairman of the General Purposes 
Committee, a guardian, and until very recently was captain in the 1st Surrey Rifle 
Volunteers. He was for two years chairman of the Finance Committee of the Metro- 
politan Board of Works (1872-73), and whilst in that capacity his talent and ability 
as a financier obtained for him universal approval. About two years since, a sub- 
stantial testimonial was presented to him by many of the leading residents in 
Camberwell, in recognition of his services in connection with the gas question. Mr. 
Dresser Rogers has always taken a prominent and active part in all questions affecting 
local self-government, and in order more effectually to carry out his strong opinions on 
this subject, he undertook the management of the Metropolitan newspaper, which is 
now recognized as an authority on all parochial questions. To instance his inde- 
fatigable industry and versatile talents, an amusing sketch was published in the South 
London Courier (June, 1869), from which we extract the following : 

" Mr. Dresser Rogers is a very extraordinary fellow ; no one can dispute that fact. 
He is not only hie et ubigue, but he is everywhere at once ; has a finger in every- 
thing, and if he doesn't know everybody, he 'can safely assert that everybody knows 
him. No one will ever persuade us that Nature did not make a mistake when he 
was produced. He was intended for twins, but somehow or other Nature was caught 
napping, and so he got rolled into one. The work he gets through is prodigious ; a 
mere enumeration of the offices he holds is a sufficient proof. He is an active member 
of the Court of Common Council ; a member of the Camberwell Vestry, which he 
represents at the Metropolitan Board of Works ; chairman of the General Purposes 
Committee at Camberwell ; captain of the 1st Surrey Rifles ; is connected with several 
literary institutions and building societies ; a member of the Executive Committee 
and Social Science Association ; a member of the St. Saviour's Board of Works and 
Vestry ; member of the National Finance Reform Union ; and other less important 
societies too numerous to mention." 



MR. GEORGE WILLIAM MARSDEN. 

Mr. G. W. Marsden, who was elected vestry clerk of Camberwell in 1852, was 
born on 1st Ocftober, 1812, at Kennington, Surrey. He was articled to Messrs. 
Russell and Son, of Southwark, the senior partner of which firm was vestry clerk of 



190 Y e PAKISH OF CAMERWELL. 

St. George the Martyr. On the death of Mr. Kussell he served the remainder of his 
time with Mr. Pearson, of the Temple. Mr. Marsden was admitted solicitor in 1835, 
and in 1837 he received the appointment of ward clerk from the Aldermen and 
Common Councilmen of the ward of Vintry. In 1851 he was solicited to allow 
himself to be put in nomination for the vestry clerkship of Camberwell, at that 
time the highest official appointment in the gift of the parishioners. The contest was 
conducted on quite a political basis ; committees were formed and the candidates 
were invited to give their sentiments on parochial matters. Mr. Marsden was 
ultimately successful by a large majority. On the passing of the Local Management 
Act in 1855, he, in common with all other officers connected with vestries in the 
Metropolis, had the option of retiring on a pension, or seeking re-appointment under 
the Act. It is, perhaps, needless to add that he chose the latter alternative, and was 
re-elected, his opponent only obtaining one vote. It will not be necessary in these 
pages to enumerate the public services of Mr. Marsden during an official career of 
twenty- three years, but we should be doing him an injustice were we not to record 
the services rendered by him to this parish in connection with Dulwich College. 
During the inquiry by the Charity Commissioners, which preceded the passing of the 
Dulwich College Act in 1857, Mr. Marsden took a very active part before the 
Commission in protecting the interests of Camberwell. The other parishes interested 
in Dulwich College were represented on the Board by their churchwardens ; but 
Camberwell had no representative whatever, and through great exertions Mr. 
Marsden succeeded in getting a clause inserted in the Act, giving Camberwell two 
representatives at the Board of Governors, and his services on this occasion were 
recognized by the vestry in a handsome and gratifying manner. Mr. Marsden's name 
is also identified with the parochial cemetery at Forest Hill. It was mainly, if not 
solely, through his efforts that such an eligible site was secured. 

A late chairman of Quarter Sessions once expressed his opinion that Mr. Marsden 
was one of the best parochial lawyers in the Metropolis ; and it will be acknowledged 
by all, that he has saved this parish a large sum of money by his eminently safe and 
sound legal advice, whilst the respect with which he is regarded is a fitting and 
deserved tribute to his many genial qualities. 



COUNTY MAGISTRATES. 

The following Justices of the Peace for the County of Surrey are what may be 
termed " local magistrates," as they sit at the petty sessions of this parish, and attend 
more particularly to duties relating to Camberwell. 



NAMES. 



Robert Alexander Gray, Esq., Deputy Lieutenant of the 
County, Camberwell Terrace, S.E. ..... 

William Henry Stone, Esq., Dulwich Hill . . . . 

John Knowles, Esq., Herne Hill, S.E 



Charles William Cookworthy Hutton, Esq., Belair, Dulwich 

George Webster, Esq., M.D., Dulwich 

Richard Strong, Esq., 163, The Grove, Camberwell . 



WHEN APPOINTED. 



Feb., 1850. 

January, 1861. 

March, 1868. 

January, 1872. 

April, 1872. 

May, 1872. 




CHURCHES AND CHAPELS. 

ST. GILES'S CHURCH. 
THE ADVOWSON. 

the year 1154 this benefice was given by William de Mellent, Earl of 
Gloucester, "to God and the Monks of St. Saviour, Bermondseye/' and 
the grant was confirmed by Henry II. in 1159. According to a state- 
ment by a well-known writer on the subject,* the advowson was ori- 
ginally held by Norman in the time of Edward the Confessor, and subse- 
quently by Haimo the sheriff. That there was a church at Calbrewell at the 
time of William the Conqueror is settled from the fact that it is mentioned 
in the Domesday Book ; and mention is there made also of sixty-three acres of 
meadow land attached to the church. Notwithstanding the grant of the advow- 
son, and its confirmation by Henry II., the descendants of the earl contested the 
patronage until the 32nd Henry III., when Richard de Clare, great-grandson of the 
above William de Mellent, levied a fine and released all further claim to Ymberton, 
the then prior, and the convent of Bermondsey. The patronage continued in the 
priors and abbots of Bermondsey, with the exception of two presentations, until the 
dissolution of the abbey. In 1346, as appears from the register of Bishop Edindon, 
a commission was issued for reconciling the church of Camberwell, the same having 
" been polluted by bloodshed ; " but in what manner is not statecl.t After the dis- 
solution of the monastery, the advowson was granted by the Crown, in Oct. 1545, to 
Thomas and Margaret Calton ; but they do not seem to have availed themselves of 
the right. In order possibly to evade its surrender, the prior and convent had granted 
it to Richard Parsey, whose right appears to have been recognized J under the Popish 
rule of Mary, for he nominated in 1556, and in 1577 Queen Elizabeth presented the 
Rev. Edward Wilson, founder of the Free Grammar School at Camberwell. The 
advowson afterwards belonged to Sir Edmond Bowyer, who, in 1618, pursuant to a 
deed of covenant entered into between Sir Edmond and the Rev. Edward Wilson, pre- 

* Hist, and Top. of St. Giles's Church, p. 3. somewhat different from consecration, which was 

t When a church had been polluted by any termed reconciliation, 

accident of this nature, it was formerly held J Allport, Collections, 
necessary that it should undergo a ceremony 



192 Y PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

sented Peter Dawson, a nephew of the latter, and the vicar of Carshalton. It passed 
from the Bowyer family to the Rev. John George Storie. The present patron is the 
Rev. F. Kelly. 

VICARS. 

1290. GEOFFREY DE WYTEBYRI. 
1301. ROGER DE HERTFORD, OR HARFIELD. 
1318. JOHN DE BOTELESFORD. 
1322. PHILIP DE LONGLEIGH. 
1338. RALPH NORTHERN, DE BRADFORD. 
1342. RICHARD ATTE MERSH. 
1344. WALTER DE IRTON. 

EDMUND DE BARNABY. JOHN FAULCONER, Chaplain. 
RICHARD HOARE. 
1393. THOMAS BODENEY. 
1398. JOHN SANDWICH. 
THOMAS OWGAM. 
1483. WALTER WYLLIS. 
1505. THOMAS STACY. 
WILLIAM BENSON, SIR MATTHEW THOMPSON, Chaplains. 

1526. JOHN FAYRWALL. 

. 
1556. RICHARD GILE. 

RAND. BECKETT. 

1577. EDWARD WILSON, founder of the Free Grammar School. 

1618. PETER DAWSON. 

1643. ALEXANDER GREGORY. 

1646. JOHN MAYWARD. 

1650. JONATHAN DRYDEN. 

1653. RICHARD PARR. 

1691. ICHABOD TIPPING. 

1727. ROBERT AYLMER. 

1769. ROGER BEXTLEY. 

1795. GEORGE SANDBY. 

1811. SIR ED. BOWYER SMIJTH. 

1823. JOHN GEORGE STORIE.* 

1846. JAMES WILLIAMS. 

The advowson was submitted to public auction on the 21st day of October, 1857, 
at Garraway's, by Messrs. Farebrother, Clark, and Lye, and the gross income of the 

* There is a capital portrait of Mr. Storie to be well. It was formerly in the Board room of the 
seen at Mr. Cole's, 53, Church Street, Camber- Collegiate School, Camberwell Grove. 




cq 




u 



o 



-3 

3 

EH" 

CQ 

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33 



CHURCHES AND CHAPELS. 193 

vicarage was, according to an auctioneer's estimate, put down at ,2,337 Os. 8d., as 
under : s . d. 

Vicarage liouse and premises, garden, &c., of the annual value of . 150 
*R,ent-charge in lieu of tithes, liable to vary with the average price of 
corn and with the quantity of market-garden ground in the parish, 
per annum ............ 1,100 

Ground-rent arising from glebe land, upon which are capital 
residences, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 to 14 inclusive, North Terrace, 

leased at per annum 210 

Ground-rent, No. 5, North Terrace, leased at per annum . . . 1226 

Ground-rent, No. 6, North Terrace 22 10 

Ground-rent issuing out of six capital houses in front of the road, 

called Stirling Place 120 

Ground-rent for land at the back of North Terrace, and forming part of 

Brunswick Square 117 

Annual payment by Surrey Canal Company 20 

Estimated annual amount of surplice fees, including interment fees 

from the Camberwell Burial Board 400 

Interest on stock standing in the name of the Accountant-General of 

the Court of Chancery 482 

Easter offerings, estimated at per annum ' . 100 

A ,900 Exchequer bill (and also ,126 Os. Id. cash) standing to the 
credit of the purchaser or purchasers of the glebe land, in the hands 
of the Accountant-General of the Court of Chancery, for the purpose 
of purchasing freehold land and hereditaments in the parish of 
Camberwell, producing the annual income of about . . . . 3100 
The Nunhead Cemetery pays to the Vicar Is. 6d. per head for common 
interments and 5s. for family vaults, and the Norwood Cemetery 
pays 12s. for family vaults and 5s. per head for common interments, 
which average annually about 50 



.2,337 8 



THE CHUECH. 

The church of St. Giles, Camberwell, is one of the few of which we have early 
authentic mention in Domesday Book ; and it is very probable that, shortly after the 
advent of St. Augustine in 597, during the reigns of Ethelbert, king of Kent, and 
his nephew Sebert, king of the East Saxons, the first structure was completed. 

Ethelbert built St. Paul's Cathedral in 604, and Sebert founded Westminster Abbey 
in 611. At this period the district subject to the authority of a bishop was called 
his parish, and contained but one church, " and from thence," says Dr. Lingard, " he 
despatched itinerant preachers into the surrounding country." About fifty years 
later, during the primacy of Archbishop Theodore, the great bishoprics were divided 
into several dioceses, and the dioceses subdivided into parishes. The date usually 
assigned to this important event in our Church history is about 664, and as the seat 
of the archbishop himself was in the neighbouring kingdom of Kent, which had, 
first of all the Anglo-Saxon nations, conformed to the Christian faith, we may pro- 

* Under the Tithe Commutation Act the annual meadows, 2,199. 0. 28 ; woodland, 198. 1. 26; corn- 
rent-charge for the rectorial tithes was fixed at inons, 55 ; market gardens, 420. 0. 36 ; gardens, 
83, and that for the vicarial tithes at 1,100. 887. 0. 30 ; roads, 159. 0. 20 ; glebe, 20. 3. 20 the 
The number of titheable acres within the parish whole amounting to 4,342 acres and 39 poles, 
was thus estimated : Arable land, 402. 0. 39; 



194 Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

bably place the erection of the first church at Camberwell within sixty years of the 
first landing of St. Augustine. 

In the reign of King Stephen, A.D. 1152, the original structure was either greatly 
altered or entirely rebuilt, and became subject to the abbey of St. Saviour, Ber- 
mondsey, two years afterwards, by gift of William de Mellent. 

It has been conjectured by an eminent authority* that a portion of this building 
existed till the destruction of the church by fire in 1841 ; and another local antiquary 
has not hesitated to consider the walls of that structure as having stood for nearly 
seven centuries. With more truth, probably, the date of the old building is placed by 
Mr. Lysons towards the beginning of the reign of Henry VIII., at which period the 
entire edifice was either so completely altered as to lose its original character, or 
rebuilt on the site of the former church, which had been granted to the monks of 
Bermondsey in 1154 ; and in confirmation of this we may state that, in preparing 
the foundation of the new church, the foundations of two former structures were 
distinctly visible. 

In the valor of 20th Edward I., the vicarage appears rated at 10 marks, and the 
rectory at 24 marks. The former in the king's books is valued at 20 per annum, 
paying 2s. Id. for synodals. 

The following is a return [of the church goods in Camberwell in the reign of 
Edward VI. : 

(Miscellaneous Book, No. 512, page 16). 

Cam r well. 

John Monk *\ Delyuered to the churchwardens there the xix day of May Anno 

Thorns Udall > R. Edwardi vj Septimo by Sir Tho'ms Cawarden Sir Tho'ms 

Henry Hunt J Saunder Knights & John Scott Nichas legh & Willm Saunder 

Comission r s of o r soueraigne Lorde the King among others for the 

sales of church goodds w l in the Countie of Surr these pcells of 

church goodds hereafter ensuyng. 

In primis a challyce of syluer p oz xvij oz d 

It. a herce cloth & a cannapy cloth for the comunyon table 

Also Rem'in there charge to the Kings use thre grete bells & a saunce bell 

John monck. 
Eecepts 

R a crosse of sylu r & gilt p oz lij oz 
It. a challyce w*out a cou r p oz xij oz iij qr. 
Sales 

iiij Vestments & a cope sold for xlij 8 iiij d 

ij copes & ij Decons & all the rest of thornaments ) u ... ..j. d 

there solde for J J J 

Lattinf and brasse p'oz cviij lb xviij 8 

Sm of the sales viij" xiij s viij d 

CHURCH GOODS, TEMP. 6 EDW. V!TH. 

No. . 

Hund de Brixton in com Surr. 
Hemb. Cambwell. 

12. This inventori taken by the said iuri the xiij th of Decemb in the year aboue 
written of all and eu r y suche goods as . . . th oron . . . . t ta 

the said pishe in t war .... 

us herafter a 

* Allport. t A kind of metal. 



CHURCHES AND CHAPELS. 195 

In primis iij chalices of silu r . 

Itm iij copes. 

Itm iiij vestments. 

Itm ij tunakles ij aulter cloth a canapie. 

Itm a herst cloth of black veluet. 

Itm a crosse of siluer & gilt. 

Itm a strem or ij clothes of old silk. 

Itm a veluet coote for o r ladye. 

Itm ix boules & one for the paxall. 

Itm ij lutten candlesticks & a holywater stok. 

Itm ij braunches & a pair of censers. 

Itm a crismatori of pewter. 

Itm iij bells in the Steple. 

M d thes war churchwdens in the first year of the Kings ) ?^ T 

Ma-reignethatnowis f 

> Thorn edall. 

M d ther was stolen out of the said church a cope of baudk 

vestments ij aulter clothes ij auilter clothes of bridg & sattin ij other 
aulter clothes of the same vj aulter clothes of lynnen vj surpleses all the 
pipis of ij pair of organs and a pewter disshe. 
Robt olyuer . 
Willm Godard 
John monk . \ 

Henri Hunt . > W a dens charged w l the goods. 
. Thomas Edoll . ) 

M d ther is dew unto the said wnlens by the said churche } ~. u 
for monei by them laid out . . . . . . C 

The first entry in the vestry minutes concerning St. Giles's Church occurs on the 
14th day of September, 1675,* when at a " meeting in vestry of the minister, church- 
wardens, and overseers of the poor, with other the inhabitants of the parish of 
Camerwell, it was ordered : Upon examination of the charges for the repaireing 
Ihe parish church, it was consented to and ordered, that the sum of Fifty pounds be 
jcaysed forthwith by way of tax for that purpose, and the payment of some arreares 
due for former reparations which was allowed, and to be included in this tax of 
.50, and to be paid accordingly, and to be brought on account in the church- 
wardens' accounts, as also that the present churchwardens shall give an account how 
Jfche sum of 50 hath been expended." 

Although this is the first entry which we have been able to trace concerning the 
repairs done to the church, it is needless perhaps to note that from this time to the 
jear 1841, when it was destroyed by fire, the state of the church was the principal 
iheme discussed by the parishioners in vestry assembled. 

It would be difficult to estimate the amount spent in altering, enlarging, beautifying, 
and repairing St. Giles's Church from 1675 to 1841, but it may safely be stated that the 
jamount so spent during these 165 years would have been sufficient to build at least half- 
a-dozen substantial churches in various parts of the parish. It appears from the vestry 
minutes that the 50 authorized to be raised in 1675 was found insufficient to complete 

* There is mention also in 1675 of an agree- "goeing and in good order" for the sum of 

dent entered into between Ant. Bowyer, Esq., twenty shillings yearly ; but Richard Kettletherpe 

.and Richard Kettlethorpe, whereby the latter found it a more difficult undertaking than he had 

undertook (bold man) to keep St. Giles's clock imagined, and a new clock was ordered in 167J). 

o 2 



196 Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

the repairs, and so in 1679 an order was made for an additional ,40 for mending the 
seats, bells, and windows, and for buying prayer-books and a surplice, and soon after 
another sum of .40 was voted for a new church clock and other expenses. 

In 1691 Mr. John Byne presented " two large silver flaggons for the communion 
table," and it was ordered by the vestry " that Mr. Ichabod Tipping, the vicar, 
together with the churchwardens, are desired to return the thanks of the inhabitants- 
of this p'ish for the same. " 

The earliest recorded alteration in the church is to be found in the minute-book 
of the governors of the Free Grammar School, as follows : 

" Memorandum, 1688. 

"The north gallery in the church, where the scholeboys now sit, was built by 
Mr, Walker, tenant to the schole, on purpose for the use of the schole (as his widdow 
testifieth), yet the boys kept their sitting about the communion table many years, 
which not being so convenient, this year, by consent of the parish, I took possession^ 
of the gallery, and at my own charge fitted it up as it now is, leaving the back seats' 
for strangers, while the scholeboys are not so numerous as to want them. 

" NEHEMIAH LAMBERT." 

In September, 1675, 50 was ordered to be raised " by way of tax," for repairing 
the church, and in February, 1703, a rate of Id. in the was levied upon the 
inhabitants for the purpose of " beautifying " the church ; indeed the sums of money 
which were from time to time expended upon beautifying the church could hardly 
have had the effect contemplated, or old St. Giles' Church must have been beautified 
altogether out of existence. In 1708 the church was new pewed, paved, and glazed, 
three new galleries were erected, and a vault was sunk at the expense of the parish. 
The following is a statement of the expenses as entered in the churchwardens' book of 
accounts : 

" By disbursements for new pewing, new paveing, sinking a vault, and several 
other things done, as by several bills of particulars done unto ye church by John? 
Hester, Robert Fford, and John Bowden, churchwardens, for the year 1708 : 

s. d, 

Paid Wm. Abbott, joyner 329 00 

Stephen Picton, bricklayer 53 00 0' 

Henry Turner, painter 20 00 

Thomas Green, carver 37 10 

Benjamin Turton, for locks, keys, and hinges 14 00 0- 

George Bunker Smith, for 4 iron pillars 11 09 ft 

Henry King, ye smith 02 07 

Thomas Lansdown, for hoods for ye doctor and Mr. Gibson . .. . 04 10 

George Strahan, for a bible and common prayer book . . . . 06 00 

Thomas Rouse, proctor 07 05 0- 



485 01 0- 
Paid at Picktons, a dinner for ye committee 3 02 1 1 



488 03 11 

in 
upon the inhabitants, and partly by public subscription, as under : 



The expenses of this alteration were met partly by a rate of lid. in the , levied 



CHURCHES AND CHAPELS. 197 

s. d. 

Received by severall subscriptions . . . ,,-,/ V ;' . . 198 19 

Received for elevenpenny rate * Camber well liberty . , ,, -... . . 118 14 3 

Eec d for Peckham liberty . . . ' . . " . . . . 123 14 6 

Rec d for Dullwich liberty . . 44 05 

Rec d from Dullwich College 03 00 

Rec d for keys 04 15 



493 07 09 

In the year following the alteration, a committee was formed consisting of six 
parishioners of the " Liberty of Camerwell," six from the " Liberty of Peckham," 
and three from the "Liberty of Dulwich," for the purpose of seating the inhabitants 
.of the parish, and accommodation was provided for about 350 inhabitants as follows, 
viz. : 50 in the galleries and 300 in the body of the church. 

Amongst the pews set apart was one called " the colledge pew," for the use of the 
master of Dulwich College ; another for " Mr. Alexander Jephson's scholars ; " 
whilst three pews were put down as " claimed by Anthony Bowyer, Esq.," and one 
was claimed by Mr. Walter Cock " by a faculty." A pew in the south gallery was 
.set apart for the use of " Mr. Charles Cox, his family and his assigns, during the 
^present lease of his house, which determines about 60 yeares hence, or during his con- 
tinuance or any of his family in the parish, which shall longest happen," for which 
privilege Mr. Cox paid the churchwardens the sum of 15 Is. ; and at a meeting of 
the churchwardens and church committee, held on the 3rd of June, 1708, " to dispose 
of and place the inhabitants of the parish in the pews in the galleries of the parish 
church of Camerwell lately erected," it was ordered that, in consideration of a 
specified sum of money, ranging from 5 to .20 in amount, certain pews should be 
jset apart, for the term of 21 years, for the respective donors, " for themselves, their 
families, and their assigns, and after the expiration of the aforesaid terme of years, 
-during the time they or any of their families shall respectively live in the said parish." 

At a vestry meeting held on the 14th September, 1710, the churchwardens agreed 
to let Walter Cock, Esq. " a piece of ground on the south side of the churchyard for 
himself and his posterity," in consideration of the sum of 12 18.9., and an advance of 
10s. on the former rate was ordered to be made on such of the inhabitants as wished 
" to bury their deceased in the vault f of the said church, for making good the brick 
.and other work, which was found necessary to be made at the entrance of the said 
vault, to prevent the ill scent which proceeded from the same, to the great nuisance 
of the congregation." At this meeting it was also agreed " that the churchwardens 
do take down the porch entrance of the churchyard and to sett up in lieu thereof two 
swing gates." 

In the churchwardens' accounts of this time there are some curious* entries. In 
1809 Mr. Churchwarden Baker paid "John Wilkins, for a vagabond, 3/10 ;" "for 
carrying a vagabond to church, 3/j" "paid for a coffin and shroud for him, 6/6." 
The Dulwich churchwarden for this year, Mr. Davis, appears to have entertained the 
Lord Bishop with wonderful profusion. The Bishop was usually regaled with 
" biscuits and wine " when he came to preach at Camberwell, but in 1809 Mr. 
Churchwarden Davis makes the following entry : " Paid for meat and drink for the 
bishop, 2s. Qd" 

* According to this statement Id. in the of the parish church were fixed as follows : For 

produced 20 ; it now realizes 2,000. inhabitants, 1 5s. ; non-residents, 2 10., m ad- 

t At a subsequent vestry, held on the 28th day dition to the 10s. for repairing brickwork, 
-of August, 1711, the fees for burying in the vault 



198 Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

On the 3rd of May, 1711, it was "unanimously agreed upon that the church- 
wardens then in being should build a new gallery against the belfry of the said 
church, for the only use of the charity school, the whole charge thereof to be defrayed 
by the said churchwardens out of such money as shall come into their hands upon the 
parish account not exceeding ,8 ;" and in the churchwardens' accounts for that year 
is this entry : " Paid the bricklayer's bill, .5 14s. 6d" 

In 1714 it was resolved to erect a new altar-piece, and the churchwardens were 
empowered " to raise a sum not exceeding .20, by a pound rate, for compleating the 
s d work in case the money to be raised by subscription shall not be sufficient." 

In 1715 a new altar-piece was presented to the church by Mrs. "Katherin" Bowyer, 
which was ordered to be " set up in her own chancel," and the thanks of the vestry 
were unanimously accorded to her for her gift ; and in the same year the churchwardens- 
were empowered to levy the sum of ,70 upon the inhabitants, " towards fixing six 
new bells in the steeple, provided the said churchwardens do by subscription raise 
money sufficient to defray the rest of the charge ;" and therejis also an entry on the 
same day of the presentation of a " decent communion table" by Mr. Gabriel Carter.* 
The six bells appear to have been put up in 1717, and " Mr. Phelps, ye bellfounder, 
by his bill," received 155 17s. 6d., and Mr. Bradley, the clockmaker, for a new 
clock, .50. There is also a charge of 1 10s. for " getting up subscriptions for ye 
bells," and a suspicious item of 8s. " spent at ye vestry concerning ye clock and 
bells." 

In 1724 there is a record of the fact that the " charity children being increas'd, the 
galery wherein they shou'd sitt is not large enuff to hold them 'tis ordered that an 
addition be made to the north end of the said gallery, the charge not exceeding four 
pounds ten shillings ;" and at a subsequent vestry it was agreed that " two galleries be 
made at each end of the children's gallery, and that a return be made at each end of 
the gallery from the wall thirteen feet in length and three feet and a half wide, and 
that the frunt be made and beautified like the galerys under it," and Mr. W. Norman 
was employed to carry out the same at a cost of 48. 

In 1731 mention is made of Mr. Halford's election to the lectureship of Camber- 
well, when " notice being given and published whether there are any persons that 
have not given their voat, and none appearing on that occation, the vestry broak up." 
In 1735 the vestry was again called upon to revise the burial fees, and in addition 
to the dues of the parish and minister, there were also dues to be paid to the sexton 
and clerk. In the clerk's dues is this item : " For every pound of candles used at 
a funeral, one shilling," from which we infer that it was not an unusual thing for 
burials to take place after dark ; indeed there is mention of " extraordinary dues," 
amounting to Is. 10d., to be paid for all burials after eight o'clock at night. " For every 
passing-bell, one shilling," reminds us that, even in the middle of the eighteenth 
century, a practice originally derived from Catholic campanology still lingered 
amongst those worshipping at Camberwell. While the sick person lay in extremis 
sometimes in his hearing and to his great perturbation the passing-bell was tolled 
from the moment his attendants pronounced him to be sinking, until he had actually 
yielded up his last breath. Pennant, in his History of "Whiteford and Holywell r 
says, with respect to the practice of ringing the four bells f : 

"That excellent memento to the living, the passing-bell, is punctually sounded. I mention this, 
because idle niceties have, in great towns, often caused the disuse. It originated before the Reformation, 

* These gifts were duly " consecrated " by the t 1, the passing-bell ; 2, the second or soul bell ; 

churchwardens hi their own fashion, as the follow- 3, the burial-bell, to summon mourners to the 

ng item appearstfn then- accounts : interment ; 4, the quick (or joy) peal after inter- 

" Spent when we went to thank Madame ) ment. 



Bowyer & Mr. Carter for their Benefac- 
tion to ye Church 



r 



CHUECHES AND CHAPELS. 199 

to give notice to the priest to do the last duty of extreme unction to the departing person in case he had no 
other admonition. The canon (67) allows one short peal after death, one other before the funeral, and 
one after the funeral. The second is still in use, and is a single bell solemnly tolled. The third is a 
merry peal, rung at the request of the relations, as if, Scythian like, they rejoiced at the escape of the 
departed out of this troublesome world." 

That the passing-bell was rung at the date mentioned in the Table of Dues is con- 
firmed by Nelson, in his Fasts and Festivals, of the Church (1732) : "If his senses 
hold out so long, he can hear even his passing-bell ivithout disturbance." 

In the year 1738 further repairs were done to the church this time to the roof; 
and as the committee appointed to see the repairs carried out were ordered to proceed 
with expedition, it is reasonable to presume that they were urgently required. 

The galleries of the old church appear to have been a perpetual source of discussion 
and expense; but in 1761, it is recorded in the vestry minutes "that Mr. John 
Simpson have Leave to enlarge the Gallary between the Charity Children and the 
Place where Mr. Bainbridge's scoller's sit, at his oun expence, for the use of his 
schollars." 

In 1773, during the ministry of the Kev. Koger Bentley, who was presented to the 
living by the philanthropic John Thornton, of Clapham, the demand for increased 
church accommodation was exceedingly great, and a special vestry was called together 
on the 23rd December in that year to devise some means for meeting the great demand 
for seats ; and the decision arrived at was, to say the least of it, rather peculiar. We 
extract the following from the vestry minutes : 

" Whereas many of the inhabitants of this Parish have long complained that they 
cannot attend upon Divine Service in this church for want of seats in the same ; and 
it not being in the power of the Minister and Churchwardens to accommodate them 
(all the Pews being already occupied), they have called this Vestry to lay the matter 
before the Parishioners and take their judgments upon it, that they may resolve upon 
such measures as shall seem most effectual to remove this grievance." 

The decision arrived at by the vestry to redress the above grievance is certainly a 
curiosity in its way : 

" It was unanimously agreed that new Locks be put upon all the Pews ; that the 
parishioners be first seated by the Churchwardens for the time being, and that notice 
be given in the Church concerning the same." 

Now, considering that the complaint of deficient accommodation proceeded from 
the inhabitants of the parish, it is not clear how putting new locks upon the pews of 
such inhabitants who had been fortunate enough to obtain seats could remedy the 
grievance, unless, indeed, the seatholders were not in the habit of using their sittings, 
which is nokasserted. It does appear from the minutes that the remedy proposed was 
rather costly in practice, for at a subsequent vestry the sum of 5 per year was voted 
to Mr. Thomas Young, sexton and pew opener, for " his very extraordinary trouble in 
opening the pew doors since the new locks have been put on." 

The only enlargement to the church during Mr. Bentley's vicarage took place in 
1786, when the south wall was taken down and a "new south He, about 15 feet wide, 
extending from the chancell to the west end of the Tower, with gallerys to be erected 
over the same, computed to accommodate upwards of 200 people, and estimated at 
750, and not to exceed .800 ; " * and an additional church-rate of Is. in the 
was levied upon the inhabitants towards defraying the expense, part of which 
was raised by public subscription. The alteration was designed to prevent " the 
rising generation from assembling with Dissenting congregations ; " but it was not 
carried out without litigation, for a sum of 35 was subsequently voted to Mr. Serrell 

* Vestry minutes. 



200 Y c PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

"towards reimbursing him his expenses incurred in a law suit concerning the 
additional building to the church." 

A further attempt to enlarge the church was made in 1792, but the inhabitants in 
vestry assembled decided, on the 26th July in that year, that "it is not advisable 
to enlarge the church, as such enlargement would cause a very considerable expense, 
and would not answer the purpose of affording sufficient accommodation to the 
parishioners." 

In 1797 a special committee reported " that the steeple was in a dangerous state, and 
that other parts of the church were in want of reparation ; but Mr. Strong being asked 
his opinion, stated that the steeple might stand in its present condition for several 
years ;" whereupon it was resolved to defer any alteration ; but, as a precautionary 
measure, it was ordered that " on account of the dangerous state of the steeple, the 
bells be not rung." At a subsequent vestry, however, it was thought advisable to do 
something to the steeple, and Mr. Lambert's estimate to do the work for 195 12s. 
was accepted. 

In 1798 the parishioners in vestry assembled were much concerned about the 
expediency of erecting an organ in the church, and a large majority of those present 
being in favour of such a proposition, it was carried in the affirmative ; but a larger 
proposition, to put the church into proper repair, was negatived ; but in the following 
year a considerable amount of money was spent in an endeavour to beautify the old 
building. The upper part of the tower was pulled down and rebuilt with brick, and 
the windows were ordered to be " new done ; " and Mr. Oswald Strong's tender " to 
do the plasterer's work for 94" was accepted. In the same year the thanks 
of the vestry were voted to Dr. Lettsom " for the offer of that part of the chancel 
belonging to him, which that vestry accepts." In all respects, therefore, the last year 
of the last century was signalized by great activity in church affairs ; but it is to be 
feared that the fine old church, after having been sentenced to be made " beautiful 
for ever," still carried upon its front a terrible mixture of old age and modern 
nostrums. 

In 1804 Mr. Churchwarden Monk, without the authority of the vestry, erected an 
awning or porch from the north door of the church, which is shown in our illustra- 
tion, which proceeding on the part of Mr. Monk was declared to be " ill-advised and 
irregular ; " but in consideration of Mr. Monk's five years' career as churchwarden and 
his " diligent conduct, &c.," the vestry undertook to pay expenses of erecting the porch, 
which formed a portion of the church for about thirty years, when it was removed. In 

1806 a vote of thanks was passed to Mr. Shaw for his " obliging offer to permit the 
parish to erect a gallery over the north aisle ; " and the north gallery was accordingly 
removed to the south side of the church and a new one erected in its place ; and in 

1807 permission was given to Miles Stringer, Esq., to erect an " iron skeleton staircase 
on the outside of the south wall of the church." 

In the same year a new system of seating the parishioners was adopted. It was 
decided that " all parties be seated according to their assessment " a novel principle, 
to be sure, and one that would not be found to work very well in these days.* 

In 1814 a committee of parishioners was appointed to act with the churchwardens 
" to take immediate measures for warming the church ;" and in 1816 a new portico 
was built over the western entrance. In the same year, the church having been robbed, 
a committee was formed to ascertain the things stolen and the cost of replacing them, 

* Special jurors are now selected by the over- and in one metropolitan parish the whole of the 
seers on this "principle of assessment," a rating special jurors returned by the parish officers are 
of 84 to the poor-rate being the qualification ; licensed victuallers ! 



CHURCHES AND CHAPELS. 201 

and a reward of ,20 was offered for the apprehension of the robbers, who were 
supposed to have secreted themselves in the church during the performance of a 
funeral, and to have made their escape at one of the windows, having first wrenched 
off the iron bars guarding the same. On the llth September, 1816, the "Church 
Robbery Committee " gave in their report, recommending " that a stone frame with 
an iron door and good strong lock be put up in the robing-room, as a secure place of 
deposit for the different articles of value," and iron bars were ordered to be affixed " to 
the lowest and most unprotected of the windows." In 1816 a new portico was built 
over the western entrance, from the plans of Messrs. Garland and Field wick, and the 
beadles were ordered to inform the stonemasons of the parish that the plans might 
be seen at the workhouse. In 1818 a committee was formed to consider what im- 
provements could be made in the "machine" for warming the church ; and in 1819 
the ever-recurring question of enlarging the church was referred.to a committee of twenty- 
one ten being selected from Camberwell, seven from Peckham, and four from Dulwich. 
Amongst the parishioners nominated were the following : Dr. Glennie and the master 
of the College (Dulwich), and Mr.R. Puckle (Camberwell). This committee prepared a 
most elaborate report, but nothing appears to have been done until 1820, when a 
resolution was carried in the vestry that a church to hold 2,000 persons should be 
built within the district of Camberwell.* It appears from a statement presented to 
the vestry, that in the year 1820 there were 1,394 rated inhabited houses in Camberwell, 
1,020 in Peckham, and 296 in Dulwich, making a total of 2,710 ; and, reckoning five to 
each family, it was calculated that there were 13,550 persons within the parish of 
Camberwell for whom it was desirable to offer the means of attending Divine service 
according to the principles of the Church of England. It was calculated that out of a 
population of 6,970 within the district of Camberwell, 2,000 were Dissenters ; so that, 
assuming the parish church to be capable of accommodating 1,300 persons, there 
remained up wards of 3,600 persons to be provided for. In Peckham it was calculated that 
there were 1,020 families, which, on theaverage above quoted, gave ( 5, 100 persons. Of this 
number it was assumed that there were 2,000 Dissenters, leaving 3,100 to be accommo- 
dated. Of these it was reckoned, that the Proprietary Church in Hill Street was 
capable of seating about 700 persons, leaving 2,400 unprovided with church accom- 
modation. In Dulwich it was stated that there were 296 families, which, on the 
average already quoted, made a total of 1,480 persons, and the only church accommo- 
dation was that provided by the chapel connected with the College, which was stated 
to be capable of seating 550 persons. 

The committee which prepared this report recommended the building of three new 
churches within the parish at an outlay of .30,600 ; but beyond the erection of one 
church in St. George's district, the recommendations were not carried out. 

In 1825 a considerable enlargement was made to the old church by extending 
the east end of the south wing in such a manner as to afford accommodation for 
about 150 persons, the expense being defrayed by voluntary contributions and 
the pews appropriated by lot among the subscribers. Notwithstanding these 
various repairs, this interesting old church retained much of its antiquarian cha- 
racter to the last.f The massive clustered columns and pointed arches separating 
the nave from the side aisles, the venerable " sedilia" in the south wall of the 
chancel, and the fragments of ancient stained glass in its north aisle, were all redolent 
of the olden time. The " sedilia " here mentioned was for many years concealed 
behind the wainscot put up in 1715 by the Bowyers. 

On the night of Sunday, the 7th of February, 1841, the church was destroyed by 

* See Account of St. George's Church. t Allport, Collections. 



202 Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

fire, and the annexed plate (E) will convey a correct idea of the appearance of the 
church after the fire.* 

So promptly were arrangements made for carrying on the duties connected with 
the church, that on the Monday morning, whilst the fire was still smouldering, two- 
weddings were celebrated in the robing-room, which remained untouched ; and 
notices were soon after posted throughout the parish stating that baptisms, marriages, 
and churchings would be performed as usual ; and for a time service was conducted 
in the morning at the Collegiate, and in the afternoon at the Green-Coat School. 

The parishioners bestirred themselves with commendable alacrity to build a new 
church, and at a meeting held on the 19th February a committee was appointed to 
make arrangements for building a new edifice. The result of the labours was re- 
ported to the parishioners on the 26th March, when a resolution was moved by 
Henry Kemble, Esq., M.P., setting aside all that had been done, thanking the com- 
mittee for the trouble they had taken, but intimating that the reference of the former 
vestry did not embrace the whole object contemplated. To this an amendment was 
moved, the main object of which was to place the new church upon the same footing 
as Dissenting places of worship, thus ceding the question of a rate, and bringing it at 
once under the voluntary system, f A poll of the parish was demanded, which 
resulted in a large majority for Mr. Kemble's motion. 

The first stone of the new church was laid on the 23rd September, 1842, and on 
the 21st day of November, 1844, the new building was consecrated by the Bishop of 
Winchester. It was erected from designs supplied by Messrs. George Gilbert Scott 
and W. B. Moffatt at an expense, including furniture, &c., of about .24,000,^ the 
builders being Messrs. R. and G. Webb. 

The style of architecture is the " transition " between the " Early English " and the 
" Decorated," which prevailed about 1270. This style differs from the perfect "Early 
English" in having mullions and tracery to the windows, whilst it retains the 
peculiar boldness of its details and the general character of its ornamental features. 
The tracery differs from that of the " Decorated " style in the severe simplicity of its 
lines and its freedom from minute detail. Of large buildings in this style may be 
enumerated the abbey church of Tintern, and parts of that at Netley, amongst the 
simpler examples ; and the eastern portion of Lincoln Cathedral and the chapter- 
houses of Salisbury and York amongst the more magnificent specimens. 

The church is of a cruciform plan, with a central tower and spire, and consists of a 
nave and five bays, with aisles in the whole about 77 feet by 58 feet internally ; a 
chancel about 42 feet by 23 feet ; transept about 82 feet long by 23 feet wide, with 
north and south porches, and a vestry on the south side of the chancel. The tower 
stands on massive piers of stone ; it is 30 feet square at the intersection, and with its- 
spire rises to the height of about 210 feet. The nave is about 62 feet high to the 

* For a detailed account of the very interesting 1848, will show how the above amount was 

interior, the reader is referred to Mr. Allport's raised : 

Collections, where the subject is treated most DR CR 

ably and minutely. To amount of loans from ' ) . *fc & s.' d. 

t Allport, Collections. Public WorksCommi ssioners j 10 ' 000 

t The following items of expense are extracted By Preliminary expenses 2 127 17 2 

from the committee's report :- Expenses in pre- Amount received from rates 4,000 

paring site for new church, 250 ; erection of Cost of structure 18 50 13 1 

temporary chapel, 37 14. 4d. ; Messrs. Webb, Insurance money, 

16,89 1 7*. 9d. for church, and 1,393 6. Id. for Amount received from 

enclosing churchyard ; Scott & Moffatt, architects, S. E. B. Smyth, 

charges 755; Ward & Nixon, for ornamental Interest on Exchequer bills 

painting and glazing, 92 8*. ; J. C. Bishop, for Drawback on Materials, 6,260 4 10 

organ, 857 13*. ; E. J. Dent, for clock, 247 10*. ; Cost of furniture including 

J. Cox, for font, &c., 82; C. & E. Mears, for organ, bells, clock, &c. . 3,210 9 1 

bells, 660 16*. 3d. ; clerk of the works' salary, Amt. of subs. 3,239 19 6 

4 260*.6rf. Balance paid to Churchwarden 41 5 

The following abstract of the receipts and 

payments, presented to the vestry March 1, 23,900 4 4 23,900 4 4 



(D 




CHURCHES AND CHAPELS. 203 

ridge of the roof, and the chancel and transept about 44 feet high. The nave is 
supported by stone pillars, which are alternately octagonal and circular, and carry a 
clerestory of moderate elevation. The east window of the chancel is of five lights, 
and the north and south windows of the transept of four, and the west window of 
the nave of three lights, each of bold proportions and with simple geometrical 
tracery ; most of the other windows are of two lights each. The principal orna- 
mental feature in the interior is the carved foliage in the capitals of the pillars, and 
other parts, which are admirably executed. In other respects the interior trusts 
chiefly for effect to the proportion and distribution of its parts, resembling in this the 
ancient churches in the same style of architecture. 

The roofs are open throughout, and here again the massive construction does more 
for their appearance than any ornamental character in their design. The walls of 
the church, which are of considerable thickness, are constructed internally of rubble- 
work' of Kentish rag laid in strong concrete, the dressings being of Caen stone and 
the plain surfaces of a rougher description of stone, which produces an agreeable 
relief. The roof is covered with large slabs of slate. The exterior of the nave and 
transepts is fitted with open seats. The galleries in the side aisles of the former are 
so arranged as not to intersect the massive pillars which support the roof. The 
chancel has stalls on each side, with seats and desks for the choristers in front. 

The pavement of the chancel is of encaustic tiles, which were manufactured and 
presented to the church by Thomas Garrett, Esq., of Lincoln's Inn Fields, and Herne 
Hill, Camberwell. The west window is fitted with very fine diapered glass, the 
greater part of which is from an ancient church in Germany. The entire window 
was the gift of the late vicar, the Rev. J. G. Storie, to whose taste, discrimination, 
and untiring zeal the parish of Camberwell is indebted for one of the noblest edifices 
erected to the glory of God in the nineteenth century. 

Messrs. Nixon and Ward were employed by the ladies of the parish, who most 
laudably raised funds amongst themselves to furnish the window of the south 
transept at their expense. The font is placed in the centre passage, a little below 
its intersection with the cross passage between the porches. It is rather richly 
carved in a superior kind of stone, and is protected by a handsome brass railing. 
The organ, by Bishop, which is placed in the north transept, is one of the finest 
instruments in England.* 

In 1863 the church was warmed at an expense of about .300, Mr. R. A. Gray 
acting as treasurer to the fund, and contributing .50 towards the expenses. 

The stained glass windows in the church are worthy of the edifice, and a memorial 
tablet states that those in the north and south sides of the chancel were dedicated 
to the glory of God in the years 1859-60. The following windows are worthy of 
mention : 

On the south side of the chancel is one commemorative of Emma Puckle, who died 
on New Year's Day, 1860 ; next to which is one to the memory of William Barraud, 
who died October 1st, 1850, aged 40 years ; and another on the south side to Janet 
Lofty, who died 13th December, 1859. 

A beautiful window has been erected to the memory of Matthew Robinson, Esq. r 
of Dulwich, whose family are buried in the vault beneath ; and a few attached friends 
of Stephen Spurling, who died December 20th, 1864, have erected a loving and 
appropriate tribute to his worth. 

* The present organist, Mr. James Smith, was received the appointment. He is totally blind, 

appointed in January, 1833. His immediate pre- and has been so for more than ten years. When 

decessor was Mr., now Dr. Sebastian Samuel appointed organist, he was regarded as blind, being 

Wesley, organist of Gloucester Cathedral. Mr. unable then to read music. 
Smith was only sixteen years of age when he 



204 Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

Near the west door is a monument of white marble to Captain A. Nairne, of the 
Hon. E. I. C. Service, and Director of the P. and 0. Steam Navigation Company, 
who died the 24th October, 1866. He was a midshipman on board the Polyphemus, 
and fought under Nelson at Copenhagen in 1801. The monument was erected by his 
colleagues in the above services, and also by his numerous friends. 

Another monument by the west entrance of the church is erected to James Pattle, 
who died 4th September, 1845, and whose body was brought to be buried by the 
side of his mother in Camberwell Church by his particular desire. In the north 
aisle is a memorial tablet to the memories of the Trueman family. 

The opening sermon was preached in the new church by the vicar, the Rev. J. G. 
Storie, in November, 1844, from the text Jeremiah xxxi. 4. The curates appointed 
by the late Bishop Wilberforce are the Rev. Francis Buttanshaw, M.A., appointed in 
April, 1872, and the Rev. R. S. McDowall, appointed Sept., 1872. 



THE CHURCHYARD. 

By indenture of the 4th May, 1717, made between Johanna Cock, therein described, 
of the one part, and Ichabod Tipping, clerk, vicar of the parish of Camberwell, Edmond 
Bowyer and others, parishioners of the said parish, on the other part ; reciting that 
in consideration of the great affection of the said Johanna Cock to the parishioners 
of the said parish and for her love of the church, that for and towards the enlarging 
the churchyard of the said parish, and in consideration of 5s. to the said Johanna 
Cock, the said Johanna Cock did grant, release, and confirm unto the parishioners 
above named all that piece or parcel of ground called the Vineyard, and next 
adjoining to the said churchyard, and containing in length from north to south on 
the west side thereof 222 feet and 7 inches of assize, little more or less, and 
from north to .south on the east side thereof 205 feet of assize, little more or less, and 
in breadth from east to west on the south side thereof 111 feet of assize, little more or 
less, and on the north side thereof 84 feet and 8 inches of assize, little more or less 
(except a small piece or parcel of ground, part of the heretobefore abstracted piece or 
parcel of land, containing 3 yards and a half square measure, which said Johanna 
Cock had conveyed to the said Ichabod Tipping for a burial vault). To have and to 
hold the said premises (except as hereinbefore exceptecl) unto the parishioners first 
hereinbefore mentioned, their heirs and assigns. To the only use and behoof of them, 
the said parishioners, their heirs and assigns for ever, in trust to be laid to, and 
made part of the said churchyard, and therewith used as and for a burying-place for 
the parishioners of the said parish of Camberwell and their posterity for ever. 
Provided that when the number of the said trustees shall be reduced to two, the 
vestry of the parish may, upon the request of the vicar and churchwardens, add ten 
more thereto. Proviso, that the above abstracted indenture shall be read in open 
vestry annually on choosing churchwardens for the purposes therein mentioned. 

In 1731, so rapidly was the burial-ground at Camberwell becoming occupied, that 
a special meeting of the inhabitants in vestry assembled was called to consider the 
subject, when it was resolved " that no more ground be sold to strangers for making 
either a vault or brick grave," and the price per foot of ground to parishioners was 
fixed at 4s. 6d., to be divided equally between the vicar and the parishioners. 

In the year 1793 several vestry meetings were held and much discussion had 
with respect to a wall on the west side of and adjoining the parish churchyard, which 
terminated in an agreement on the part of the parish to rebuild and for ever there- 



c . -,Y- ^'^X^S'llPji ] 



^uMtJi/Ml fy ZMortin, -52. ajjrob. S<; Gontfrwi-M '. 



CHURCHES AND CHAPELS. 205 

after to maintain such wall ; and on the part of Mr. John Halliday and Mr. Simon 
Wellman Halliday, the owners of the soil whereon the wall stood, to convey the 
same to the parish ; and accordingly the slip of ground with the wall standing 
thereon, containing in length, from north to south, 340 feet, or thereabouts, and in 
breadth, from east to west, 19 inches, with the ground whereon the same stood, was 
by indenture of lease and release, dated 14th and 15th October, 1793, conveyed by 
the said Messrs. Halliday to trustees for the parish.* 

In the same year (1793) a similar inquiry was entered into with respect to the 
appropriation of that part of the churchyard which had been given and conveyed to 
the parish by Mrs. Johanna Cock in 1717 ; and it appeared by the report of a com- 
mittee that it had been sometimes used for the burial of non-parishioners, contrary 
to the stipulation of the giver, and that a prohibition had been obtained from the 
Spiritual Court in the year 1735. The vestry thereupon determined that no such 
improper interments should in future be allowed, but resolved not to disturb the 
families of those who had purchased vaults therein.f 

By indenture of lease and release of 9th and 10th June, 1799, the last-mentioned 
piece of ground, described as part of the close, then called the vineyard, and laid 
into and used as part of the churchyard, was conveyed to new trustees. 

In 1802 the churchyard was enlarged by an order of vestry by the purchase of a 
piece of ground, southward of the former burying-ground, from Mr. Rickwood, and 
the sum of ,1,000 was then ordered to be raised by way of annuity for the purpose 
of defraying the cost of the ground and incidental expenses. 

Amongst the trustees appointed by the vestry for this additional piece of ground 
were Claude Champion Crespigny, Esq., William Shard, Esq., the Earl of Effingham, 
Mr. Thomas Harder, and Mr. Oswald Strong. 

A stone placed in the wall bore the following inscription : 

This ground was purchased, inclosed, and consecrated at the expense of the parish. 

Anno 1803. 

Rev. George Sandby, Vicar. 
Josh. Monk . . . . } 
Robert Curtis . . . > Churchwardens. 
Thomas Turk . . ) 



In the Local Act obtained in 1813, sundry provisions were introduced, enabling 
the vicar, churchwardens, and overseers, with the consent of the vestry, to purchase 
ground for the purpose of a cemetery, and to raise a sum not exceeding ,2,000 for 
the purpose upon bond or by way of annuity. 

On the 4th March, 1824, the vestry agreed to purchase a piece "of ground to the 
east of the then burying-ground, theretofore part of the land belonging to the 
governors of the Free Grammar School, containing about an acre and a quarter. 

The purchase was subsequently effected through the intervention of Her Majesty's 
Commissioners for the affairs of Churches, to whom the ground was conveyed under the 
powers and provisions of the New Church Acts : and it was referred to a committee 
to borrow the necessary sum for payment of the purchase-money, the inclosure, and 
consecration thereof, and other incidental expenses. The committee borrowed the 
sum of ,1,750 at interest, on very advantageous terms, the greater part being under 
4 per cent. The piece of ground so purchased has been inclosed and separated 
from the grounds belonging to the Free Grammar School by a high and substantial 
wall. 

* Minutes of Vestry, 17th June, 20th June, t Vestry minutes, August 28th, September 10th 

4th July, and 19th July, 1793. and 24th, October 1st and 2nd, 1794. 



206 Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

The stone bears the following inscription : 

This ground was purchased, inclosed, and consecrated at the expense of the parish. 

A.D. 1825. 
Rev. J. G. Storie, Vicar. 

William Law . . ) 

Richard Billiter . . . > Churchwardens. 

George Guyatt . . . ) 

It would appear from the following advertisement* that even at the commencement 
of the present century the churchyard was a source of trouble to the churchwardens : 
" The Parish of Camberwell, in the County of Surrey, Sept. 30,1809. Whereas there 
are in this churchyard several tombs and head and foot stones to a great number of 
graves which are in a very ruinous and decayed condition, and the officers of this 
Parish being unacquainted with the respective families to which a number of these 
tombs and head and foot stones belong, are desirous that such respective families 
will come forward and repair the same, otherwise such tombs and head and foot 
stones must necessarily be removed, of which all persons concerned are desired to 
take notice. W. Law, D. Newman, W. Jenkins, Churchwardens." 

A tour of inspection, in an old churchyard like that of St. Giles' Church, is a 
perpetual reminder that the record of virtues however exalted, engraved on stone 
however hard, lasts but for a day ! When a thousand years are but as yesterday, 
what must be said of 120 years, which is about the average life of a grave-stone ? 

There are few memorials, therefore, of any interest at the present time, and we are 
indebted to previous writers for many of the following. 

Near the foundation of the tower of the old church, without any memorial to point 
out the spot, are interred the remains of Miss Lucy Wanmer, better known as the 
" Little woman of Peckham." She was born about the middle of the last century, in 
the neighbourhood of Tunbridge Wells, where her early days were spent. Her 
height was exactly 32 inches ! her growth having been stinted at the early age of 
three years. During her residence at Peckham she opened a school, which was well 
patronized, and proved herself an able disciplinarian, and her general appearance and 
deportment were hit off with the graphic power which seems natural to children by 
one of her young pupils " when she walks she kneels." For some years she was a 
constant attendant at Grove Chapel, and after her death at an advanced age, on the 
3rd July, 1821, was honoured with a funeral sermon by the minister of that place. 

Three of the former vicars of Camberwell had memorials in the churchyard the 
Revs. Richard Parr, D.D., Ichabod Tipping, D.D., and Robert Aylmer, M.A. ; the 
substance of their epitaphs is elsewhere given. There are several handsome 
sarcophagi belonging to opulent and influential families in the neighbourhood. The 
handsome tomb of Samuel Brown Tufnel, of Norwood Green, Middlesex, Esquire, 
one of Her Majesty's justices of the peace for the county, forms a conspicuous object 
in the older part of the churchyard. The family of Tufnel is of considerable note 
and antiquity, Richard Tufnel, of Monken Hadley, Middlesex, having been M.P. for 
Southwark in 1640. 

In the newer part of the churchyard a handsome tomb covers the remains of the 
notorious democrat, well known as " Equality Brown," of Peckham : 

IN MEMORY OF TIMOTHY BROWN, ESQ., WHO DIED ON THE 4TH SEPTEMBER, 

1820, AGED SEVENTY-SIX. 

The following epitaph commemorates " JAMES BLAKE," who sailed round the 
world with Captain Cook : 

* Gentleman'* Magazine, February, 1809. 



CHURCHES AND CHAPELS. 207 

"The boisterous main I've traversed o'er, 

New seas and lands explored, 
But now at last am anchored fast 

In peace and silence moored ; 
In hopes t' explore the realms of bliss, 

Unknown to mortals here ; 
And haven in a heavenly port 

Great God ! to praise and fear." 

JOHN GOODALL'S epitaph is a quaint one. He departed this life June 22, 1815, 
75 years : 

" He was but words are wanting to say what ; 
Think of an honest man and he was that ! " 

The following occurs on an elaborate stone tomb, surrounded by iron railings with 
a coat of arms, about the centre of the churchyard : 

SACRED TO THE MEMORY OF BETTY BEZERRA, VISCOUNTESS DE TAGOUHY, 
ELDEST DAUGHTER OF JOSEPH SlLL, OF KlNGSTON-UPON-HuLL, MERCHANT, AND 
BETTY HIS WIFE, AND WIDOW OF HIS EXCELLENCE JOHN PAUL BEZERRA, OF LISBON, 
PRIME MINISTER OF HIS FAITHFUL MAJESTY, JOHN VI., KING OF PORTUGAL. SHE 
DIED MAY 6, 1835, AGED 82, AND HER REMAINS ARE INTERRED IN THIS VAULT. 

IN THIS VAULT IS ALSO INTERR'D THE BODY OF THE ABOVE-NAMED JOSEPH SILL, 
WHO DEPARTED THIS LIFE THE 8TH DAY OF OCT. 1779, AGED 60; ALSO BETTY 
HIS WIFE, DIED DEC. 8, 1771, AGED 54. LIKEWISE THEIR GRAND-DAUGHTER, 

ZENORIA, CHILD OF MAJOR SILL, WHO FELL IN THE AMERICAN WAR. 

On a large elaborate vault of stone, and railed round, at the extreme south end of 
the churchyard : 

TO THE MEMORY OF SUSANNAH, WIFE OP SAMUEL LAW, DIED FEB. 6, 1849, 
AGED 44. 

" Why is the chariot so long in coming ? 

Haste thy chariot wheels, Lord ! " 

Hallelujah. 

SAMUEL LAW, WHO DEPARTED THIS LIFE IN THE HOPE OF A BLESSED IMMOR- 
TALITY, MARCH 8, 1855, AGED 49. 

On a brick vault, with stone top, adjoining the vault belonging to the Hardy s 
of Peckham Road, about the centre of the east side of the churchyard : 

To THE MEMORY OF MARGARET PENWARNE, DAUGHTER OF JAMES RICHARD 
AND MARGARET HARDY, WIFE OF THE REV. JOSEPH SUMNERS BROCKHURST, M.A., 
MASTER OF THE COLLEGIATE SCHOOL, DIED SEP. 8, 1839. 

There is a brick vault with stone top recording the death of the Right Hon. Sir 
Alexander Thompson, Lord Chief Baron of the Court of Exchequer and Privy Coun- 
cillor. He died at Bath, April 15, 1817, aged 72. On the sides : 

DAVID THOMPSON, M.D., LATE OF HANOVER, PARISH OF HANOVER, IN ISLAND 
OF JAMAICA, DIED 29TH AUGUST, 1785, AGED 44. 

MISS MARY THOMPSON, NATIVE OF THIS PLACE, BUT MANY YEARS RESIDENT 
AT PRESTON, LANCASHIRE, SISTER OF BARON AND DR. THOMPSON, DIED 31 ST JAN. 
1816, AGED 77. 

The inscription on MARY PELOW, who died 12th July, 1763, aged 10 years, is 
AS follows : 

" Come, silly mortal, take your stand, Remember tho' my work is done 
Here view the world unknown ; That yours is yet to do. 

Nor would you wish me in your hand Then dry your tears, your duty know, 
Or in my God's alone : Rejoice that this is true 

My innocence to rest is gone, To her you certainly may go 
In preference to you ; Who cannot come to you." 



208 Y c PAKISH OF CAMERWELL. 

Another vault of interest is that of the De Crespignys : 

IN MEMORY OP CLAUDE CHAMPION DE CRESPIGNY, BART., WHO DIED 
JAN. 26TH, 1818, AGED 84. 

IN MEMORY OF DAME MARY CHAMPION DE CRESPIGNY, WIFE OF SIB 
CLAUDE CHAMPION DE CRESPIGNY, DIED 20TH JULY, 1812, AGED 63. 

Another is to the memory of the Cattley family, formerly residents of this parish : 

SUSAN TOWNSEND CATTLEY, BELOVED WIFE OF HENRY CATTLEY, ESQ., 
DIED APRIL 14TH, 1839. 

ISABELLA, DAUGHTER OF STEPHEN CATTLEY AND WIFE OF THE REV. EDWARD 
CRAIG, DIED 21ST FEB. 1836. 

ALFRED CATTLEY, AGED 12. 

JAMES REED CATTLEY, AGED 12. 

ELIZABETH CATTLEY, AGED 17. 

STEPHEN CATTLEY, AGED 70. 

AND ISABELLA CATTLEY, WIDOW OF STEPHEN CATTLEY, AGED 73. 

The Puckles have a family vault in the churchyard, which bears the following 
inscription : 

IN THIS VAULT ARE DEPOSITED THE REMAINS OF ISABELLA MARIA, WIFE OF 

ROBERT PUCKLE, ESQRE., OF THIS PARISH, OBIIT lOrn MARCH, 1825, ^TAT 61. 

ALSO ARE DEPOSITED THE REMAINS OF THE ABOVE ROBERT PUCKLE, ESQRE., 

OBIIT ICTH DECEMBER, 1832, AGED 74. 

On the north side of the vault is inscribed the following : 

IN MEMORY OF CHARLES, SON OF ROBERT AND ISABELLA MARIA PUCKLE, OBIIT 
IOTH SEPT. 1826, AGED 22 YEARS. 

ALSO IN MEMORY OF ROBERT PUCKLE, ESQ., ELDEST SON OF ROBERT AND 
ISABELLA MARIA PUCKLE, OBIIT IST SEPT. 1847, AGED 55. 

CHARLES, OBIIT 7TH JULY, 1830, AGED 2 YEARS. 

ELLEN MARY ANN, OBIIT 6TH APRIL, 1852, AGED 31. 



ALL SAINTS' CHURCH. 

This church has been called into existence by the great and ever-increasing wants 
of the district in which it is placed, and the funds to erect it have been raised 
by the Rev. T. J. Gaster, whose energy and zeal have received their just reward. 
About eight years ago (July, 1866) the members of the little church met at a private 
house in the Choumert Road (No. 6, now No. 66), and the first service was attended 
by five adults and twelve children. In 1866 (Dec. 4th) the foundation of the school- 
church was laid, and the first portion of it opened for public worship in the fol- 
lowing May. In 1870 the foundation-stone of the present church was laid by the 
late Bishop Wilberforce, and the consecration by the same bishop took place on the 
24th July, 1872. The architect was Mr. Coe, and the builders Messrs. Nixon, of 
Lambeth, and the cost of the church and schools reached the large sum of .6,480, in 
addition to which an endowment and repair fund of .1,150 was raised. Besides the 
Sunday schools, there is a mission-room in Victoria Place in connection with the 
church. The church is capable of seating 960 persons. 




/ : 



F.Bedford -Arch 



si GEORGE . CAMBERWELL . 




Ju> ta Litii, 



CAMDEN CHURCH, 



CHURCHES AND CHAPELS. 209 



CAMDEN CHURCH. 

Camden Chapel, on the northern side of Peckham Road, was built in 1797, a short 
time after the decease of the Rev. Roger Bentley, vicar of Camberwell, which took place 
in October, 1795. It appears that the doctrines of Mr. Bentley's successor were not 
altogether palatable to a portion of the congregation worshipping at St. Giles's Church, 
and Camden was intended by the seceders as a branch church, or chapel of ease. 
Through influence, however, at head-quarters, the original design was not carried into 
effect, and the building was ultimately opened as a place of public worship in the 
Countess of Huntingdon's connexion. Afterwards, as Lysons* states, " it was kept 
open as a free conventicle, at which Dissenting ministers of all persuasions occasionally 
officiated." 

The pulpit was subsequently occupied for a short time by the Rev. Henry 
Draper, B.D., but in 1829 the place was duly licensed as an episcopal chapel, and 
uner the ministry of the Rev. Henry Melvill, B.D., " Camden " became a " house- 
hold word" in the Metropolis for pulpit oratory of a high order. So great was 
Mr. MelvilTs popularity, that very soon after his appointment it was found necessary 
to make a considerable enlargement, and transepts were made at the north end, 
thus giving the building the form of the letter T 

A writer, t in a critique on Camden and its pastor in 1839, writes as follows : 
" The Rev. Henry Melvill, J of Camden Chapel, is the most popular preacher in 
London. I am doing no injustice to other ministers, whether in the church or out of 
it, in saying this. The fact is not only susceptible of proof, but is often proved in a 
manner which all must admit to be conclusive. When a sermon is advertised to be 
preached by Mr. Melvill, the number of strangers attracted to the particular place is- 
invariably greater than is ever drawn together in the same church or chapel when 
any of the other popular ministers in London are appointed to preach on a precisely 
similar occasion. He displays as much solicitude about the composition of each suc- 
cessive sermon as if that sermon, instead of being heard by only 2,500, were to be 
preached to the entire population of the kingdom." 

Mr. MelvilFs first sermon at Camden was preached on the evening of Easter Day,. 
1829. His text on that occasion was Psalm Ixxi., 16th verse : " I will go in the 
strength of the Lord God : I will make mention of thy righteousness, even of Thine 
only." Mr. Melvill died in February, 1871, and the funeral took place at St. Paul's. 
Cathedral on February 15, 1871. 

The Rev. James Fleming preached an eloquent and touching sermon on the 
occasion in Camden Church and a more affecting scene than that witnessed at 
the time within the walls of Camden cannot be imagined, when pastor and people 
alike sympathized in a common loss. " It is our sad privilege yours and mine 
to-day," said Mr. Fleming, " to mourn the departure of the first the former the 
beloved pastor of this church. Nor ours only. His death is widely and deeply 
lamented by the church at large, as well as by his own immediate family and by his 
many friends. Unite then with me, a younger pastor following him at infinite 
listance as the son would the father while out of a full heart I attempt to pay a 
*eble tribute to departed worth. 

* Lyson, Supplementary vol. p. 14. -whence he proceeded as a Grecian to St. John's, 

t The Metropolitan Pulpit, 1839. College, Cambridge; graduated B.A. in 1821, and 

t Mr. Melvill was younger son of Philip Melvill, became a Fellow and Tutor of St. Peter's College. 
)sq., Governor of Pendennis Castle, and brother This number is evidently an error l,50a 

of Sir Peter Melvill, K.C.B., and Sir J. C. Melvill, would be nearer the mark. 

" r .C.B. He was educated at Christ's Hospital, 



210 Y PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

" I have said the first pastor of this church, for I need but to remind you that 
forty-one years ago he undertook the first settled Church of England ministry at 
' Camden.' Other men have gone to churches already formed and established, but he 
had to form and establish one here. Some plant, others water but he both planted 
and watered, while none was more ready to own that it was God who gave the 
increase. Some lay the foundation, and others rear the building, but he both laid the 
foundation and added the * lively stones' that grew here into a holy temple of 
the Lord. Of him it could not be said, ' Other men laboured, and ye have entered 
into their labours.' He did not move ( in another man's line, made ready to the 
hand.' His life, as you all know, brethren, was devoted to a holy, learned, laborious 
calling ; and after having achieved the highest honours of his university, he brought 
to it all the qualities that make a great preacher. Never was a mind trained under 
more severe discipline. Laborious industry was one of his most striking character- 
istics, but it was the industry of a mind conscious of its own powers and delighting 
in their exercise. Powerful as a reasoner pathetic as a pleader persuasive as an 
orator faithful as a preacher profound as a theologian you well know how^as 
with magic spell, entranced congregations hung upon his lips in this time-honoured 
sanctuary." 

Mr. Melvill's successful ministry at Camden was brought to a close in 1844, when 
the Rev. Daniel Moore, M. A., became incumbent, and Camden was regularly con- 
stituted into a district church the chapel being duly consecrated on the 22nd 
November in that year by the Bishop of Winchester. The patronage is vested in 
trustees. In 1866 Mr. Moore resigned the incumbency on his appointment to the 
vicarage of Holy Trinity, Paddington, having been appointed some time previously 
to the " Golden Lectureship " at St. Margaret's, Lothbury. During Mr. Moore's stay 
at Camden the schools in Sumner Road were erected (1845) at an expense of nearly 
.5,000, and, mainly through Mr. Moore's energetic advocacy, St. Andrew's Church, 
Hill Street, was erected. 

In 1854 a bold experiment was tried, and Camden was not only altered and 
enlarged, but also beautified. To add a Byzantine chancel to such a nondescript 
building was indeed a bold venture, but now that it is done, it does not appear so 
cutre in effect as many had imagined. By raising the flat roof of the old part and 
carrying a waggon-head the whole length of the building, coincident with the chancel 
arch, offending incongruity has been avoided. It was well known at the time that 
Mr. Ruskin, who then lived on Denmark Hill, took great interest in the new chancel, 
and many suggestions of his were carried out during the progress of the work. 
Sir Gilbert Scott was the architect, and the cost of the alteration amounted to about 
.4,000. There are several handsome stained-glass windows in the chancel, two of 
which the congregation have erected to the memory of the late Canon Melvill, with 
the following inscription : "In affectionate memory of the Rev. Henry Melvill, B.D., 
late Canon of St. Paul's Cathedral, and for fifteen years the faithful minister of this 
church, 1871." Of the remaining windows, one was u the gift of the ladies of the 
congregation ; another was presented by Mrs. Kenible, as a memorial to the original 
trustees and founders of the church, and the remaining four were the gift of the late 
Mr. Earl. We must not omit to mention that, after leaving Camden, Mr. Moore was 
appointed chaplain in ordinary to the Queen, and that his Camden friends presented 
him on leaving with a substantial recognition of his successful labours amongst 
them. 

In 1866 the Rev. James Fleming came to Camden from Bath, where he h 
already established a high reputation, not only as a pulpit orator but as a public 
reader. Indeed, Mr. Fleming's readings at Bath were so successful in every respect 



CHURCHES AND CHAPELS. 211 

that other places soon followed the Bath example, and Mr. Fleming is generally 
regarded as the father of the " Penny-reading movement." 

Mr. Fleming was born in Ireland, July 26th, 1830, was educated at Shrewsbury 
.School, under Dr. Kennedy, and proceeded to Magdalene College, Cambridge, where 
he obtained an open classical exhibition. He graduated in 1852, and was nominated 
.to the much-coveted office of travelling bachelor to the University. This distinction, 
however, he held only for a year ; and in 1853 he was ordained by the Bishop of 
Norwich, and became a hard-working curate at Ipswich. 

In 1855 he removed to Bath as minister of St. Stephen's Church, and soon became 
incumbent of All Saints', where he remained until, in 1866, hu was invited by the 
itrustees to succeed the Rev. D. Moore, the Rev. John Richardson, the present 
.incumbent, who was then offered the pulpit, not being willing to accept the charge. 
In 1874 Mr. Fleming was appointed vicar of St. Michael's, Chester Square, and his 
Camberwell friends presented him with a handsome piece of plate and a purse of 
,500. It will be many years before the clear ring of Mr. Fleming's musical voice 
-will have died away in Camberwell, and his good works amongst the poor, as well as 
his kindly bearing to all who approached him, will not easily be forgotten. 

During his seven years' stay at Camden, Mr. Fleming took an active part in all 
.charities connected with Camden Church, on whose behalf he was mainly instrumental 
in collecting no less a sum than 15,400. 

The Rev. John Richardson, the present incumbent, who was appointed by the 
trustees early in 1874, was born in Appleby, Westmoreland, and was educated in the 
Appleby Grammar School. About the year 1838 he went to Trinity College, 
Dublin, where, after four years' study, he took his B.A. and afterwards his M. A. 
.degrees. He was ordained in 1842, and appointed to the curacy of Haslingden, in 
Lancashire, where he remained two years. He then became incumbent of the new 
parish of Musbury, near Bury, Lancashire, but only remained there for seven months, 
in consequence of being appointed to the incumbency of Milns Bridge, near Hudders- 
field, which he held for two years. From Milns Bridge he went to Manchester, where 
he became vicar of St. Barnabas, continuing his ministrations for five years, and suc- 
ceeded to the rectorship of St. Ann's, Manchester, where he passed another five 
years. At the end of that time he went to Bury St. Edmunds, and became vicar of 
St. Mary's, remaining there for the long period of sixteen years. During this time Mr. 
Richardson took a most active part in everything that tended to elevate and improve 
his flock ; and his name is associated with many good works and charitable deeds. 

The rev. gentleman is the author of several books, including a volume called 
" Gospel Unities ; " also a volume of sermons under the title of " Preachings of the 
ross." 

Mr. Richardson is a very able preacher, and his sermons bear the impress of great 
care and research. He is already exceedingly popular, and fully maintains the high 
position of Camden in the Metropolitan pulpit. 

The curates attached to Camden are the Rev. H. Poole, M.A., and the Rev. 
laud Brown, B.A. 



CHRIST CHURCH, OLD KENT ROAD. 

This church was consecrated on the 1st of July, 1868, by Bishop Ryan, formerly of 
Mauritius, on behalf of the Bishop of Winchester, who was suffering from ill-health 
at the time. The church was built to replace the previous church of the district 

p 2 



212 Y PARISH OF CA&ERWELL. 

which had only been erected in 1838. So rapid, however, had been the growth of 
the South Metropolitan Gas Works, that a removal from the north to the south side- 
of the Old Kent Road became absolutely necessary, and hence the erection of the 
present commodious church in 1868. 

The first incumbent of the old church was the Rev. Robert Clarke Burton, M. A. , 
who was succeeded by the Rev. R. P. Hutchison, M.A., in December, 1850. 

During Mr. Burton's incumbency, the National and Infant schools were erected, 
the site being given by Sir Edward Bowyer Smijth, Bart., whose armorial bearings- 
are sculptured over the entrance. These schools, which occupy a neat building in 
the Tudor style, were chiefly erected by subscription and the proceeds of a fancy 
fair, held at the Grove House by the ladies of Camberwell about the year 1840.- 
During the incumbency of the Rev. R. P. Hutchison, the National schools were 
enlarged ; Ragged, Day, Night, and Sunday schools were established in the Lower Park 
Road, as also a Night and Sunday school in Manor Street. This last, from the decay 
of the building and its transference to the Wesleyans after its restoration, had to be 
given up, at least for a time. The remainder are in excellent working order, even 
the Ragged school having been placed under Government inspection by the present 
incumbent. On August 31, 1874, a school building capable of accommodating 950 
scholars was opened in the district by the London School Board. 

In 1869 Mr. Hutchison resigned the incumbency for the living of St. Thomas,- 
Winchester, and was succeeded by the Rev. R. O. T. Thorpe, M.A., formerly a Fellow 
of Christ's College, Cambridge. The architect of the present church was Mr. Keeling, 
and Messrs. Dove the builders, and the style of architecture Gothic. The church is 
capable of seating 1,260 persons, and there are 442 free seats.* There is an electric 
organ by Bryceson in use in this church. 



EMMANUEL CHURCH. 

This church was erected at a cost of about .5,000, which was defrayed by the 
Commissioners for building new Churches and Chapels ; and the Metropolitan Churches 
Fund, aided by a munificent gift of ,1,900 from Sir Edward Bowyer Smijth, Bart.,, 
who also gave the land on which the church is built, and a house and garden adjoin- 
ing, for the minister. Sir Edward, who laid the first stone on the 29th June, 1840,, 
subsequently gave the organ, by Robson, which was rebuilt in 1861 by Lewis. 
There are galleries on three sides of the church, supported by cast-iron columns. The 
altar at the east end is in a recess under a semicircular arch, beneath which is a row 
of smaller arches supported by slender columns, containing the Lord's Prayer, Com- 
mandments, and Creed. Within a semicircular projection at this end is a small 
rdbing-room. The pulpit is square, and rests on a circular pillar. The font is a 
circular basin of neat design, corresponding with other decorations of the church. 
There are sittings for upwards of 1,000 persons, 511 of which are free and unappro- 
priated. Mr. Thomas Bellamy was the architect, and the Rev. W. Harker is the 
patron. The first minister was the Rev. Robert Fayrer, instituted in 1842, who- 
was succeeded by the Rev. W. Harker, and subsequently (1869) by the Rev. W 
English. 

* Its whole endowment consists of the interest of now being made to raise this permanently to 200- 
1,062 8s. 4ti. Three per Cent. Consols. An effort is a year. 



CHURCHES AND CHAPELS. 



213 



LICENSED VICTUALLERS' CHAPEL. 

In 1850 the board of management of tlie Licensed Victuallers' Asylum erected a 
/chapel in connection with their charity, and the Rev. W. G. Martin, M.A.,was 
.appointed chaplain. For the convenience of the aged inmates, the site selected for 
the chapel was as central as possible, and accommodation provided for about 400 
persons. The outside public are admitted to the services, which are bright, and 
though eminently congregational are partly choral. The excellence of the congrega- 
tional singing is mainly due to the establishment, some years since, of the Licensed 
Victuallers' Choral Association, composed chiefly of the younger members of the 
yarious families who attend the Asylum chapel. The founder of this society, the 
Rev. W. G. Martin, is a most accomplished musician, and on the occasion of the 
marriage of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales at St. George's Chapel, Windsor, he had the 
Jionour of receiving an invitation to assist in the choral services. 

On the walls of the chapel are several costly tablets to the memory of benefactors, 
the most conspicuous being those to H.R.H. the Duke of Sussex and H.R.H. the 
Prince Consort. 

In the gallery over the western door is an organ of considerable power, by Messrs. 
Bevington and Sons, erected by voluntary contributions. 

The whole of the side windows, twelve in number, are "memorial windows," 
representing, with one exception, some of the most interesting events in the life of 
Christ, such as the Sermon on the Mount, the Entry into Jerusalem, the Women 
.at the Empty Sepulchre, &c. ; and (with the exception alluded to), they are all from 
the studio of Messrs. Lavers, Barraud, and Westlake. As works of art, the} r are well 
-deserving of inspection. 

A magnificent altar-window, by Gibbs, the gift of the chairman and board of 
management for the year 1874 (the subject being the Descent from the Cross), 
.completes the series, which may be regarded as the largest and finest specimens of 
stained glass in the parish of Camberwell. 

In 1853 the congregation, as a mark of their affectionate regard, presented the 
Rev. Mr. Martin with a purse of gold ; and on the completion of twenty-one years' 
^ministry, the board of management and the subscribers at large presented to the 
reverend gentleman an exceedingly handsome testimonial, consisting of a purse of one 
.thousand guineas and a beautifully emblazoned address on vellum, the presentation 
being made at a banquet which was held in the large saloon of the Crystal Palace 
on the 21st November, 1871, and the following address : 

" The ministry of the Rev. W. G. Martin, M. A., Chaplain to the Licensed Victuallers' 
Asylum, having been so truly valuable, not only to the inmates of the Institution 
fout to a large number of the inhabitants of the surrounding neighbourhood, the 
members of the congregation have resolved to present him with a testimonial of 
their high esteem, as an acknowledgment of the great earnestness, ability, and truth- 
fulness with which he has discharged the duties of his sacred office. " 



ST. ANDREW'S CHURCH, PECKHAM. 

This church was consecrated by the Bishop of Winchester on the 23rd October, 
1865. It was erected mainly through the efforts of the then incumbent of Camden 
Church, the Rev. Daniel Moore, M.A., supported by R. A. Gray, Esq., J.P., F. C. 
Hills, Esq., Mrs. Kemble, and other well-known and influential local residents. The 
-cost of the building was about 6,000, exclusive of the organ and other appointments 



214 Y PAEISH OF CAMERWELL. 

Messrs. Dove Brothers being the builders and Mr. E. B. Keeling the architect, 
and the 'style of the building is described as " Early French Gothic." The church 
is capable of seating 870 people, half of the seats being free. 

The total internal length of the church is 128 feet. The nave is 90 feet long by 
35 feet wide, and the north aisle is 40 feet long by 15 feet wide, terminating at the 
east end in a transept 27 feet in width by 21 feet 6 inches long. The tower and spire,, 
140 feet high, are at the north-west angle of the church. The church is constructed 
externally of four distinct varieties of stone, which have a very pleasing effect. 

The Rev. J. H. Hazell, M.A.,is the incumbent. Attached to the church is a substantial 
and well-built parsonage house, towards the erection of which the late Bishop Sumner 
gave the munificent donation of 500. The school buildings belonging to this district 
are situated in the Goldsmith Road, and at the present time there are about 20CV 
children on the books. 



ST. AUGUSTINE'S CHURCH, HONOR OAK. 

The foundation-stone of this church was laid in October, 1872, by J. G. Talbot, Esq. y 
M.P., and was opened for public worship on the 4th June, 1873. 

The site on which the church is built was given by Mr. Edwin Clarke, who owns- 
considerable property in the neighbourhood ; and, in addition to the site, Mr. Clarke 
gave 750 towards the erection of the building. 

The church is on the slope of one of the most commanding hills near London ^so- 
commanding, that it was formerly the semaphore station by which the arrival of 
ships was communicated to the Admiralty. 

With regard to the architecture of the church, the Gothic style was selected, as- 
being in harmony with the surrounding residences. Mr. Oakley was the architect ; 
and the cost of the building was about 4,000, the builders being Messrs. Roberts, 
The incumbent is the Rev. J. H. Morgan, LL.D., Ph.D., of Stone House, Forest 
Hill, who contributed 500 towards the erection of the church, which has since had 
a district assigned to it, out of the parishes of St. Mary, Peckham, and Christ Church, 
Forest Hill. Dr. Morgan is not only the vicar but the patron of the living. 



ST. CHRYSOSTOM'S CHURCH, HILL STREET. 

This church was built in 1813-14, and was originally a proprietary, the shaies- 
being fixed at 100, and the number of proprietors limited to 41. It was opened for 
Divine service by the bishop's licence in March, 1814. The Rev. Robert Bree, for- 
merly curate of St. Giles's Church, being first minister, the churchwardens being, 
Mr. William Peacock and Mr. Robert Curtis. On the resignation of the Rev. Robert 
Bree, in 1819, he was succeeded by the Rev. Henry Springett, M.A., of St. Magdalen 
College, Cambridge, who continued minister until December, 1833, when he was- 
succeeded by the Rev. Edmund Lilley, B.D., during whose incumbency considerable 
improvements were made. The present turret was erected, and advantage was taken 
of the alteration to add a clock, with other improvements. Stained glass was inserted 
in the east window, and a piece of land, ten feet wide, running the whole length of 
the church premises on the north side, was enclosed with iron railings. During Mr. 
Lilley 's ministry the proprietary shares were narrowed into the possession of one or 
two individuals, thus paving the way for the formation of St. Chrysostom into a 
district church. A fund is now in course of collection, of which Mr. R. A. Gray is- 



CHURCHES AND CHAPELS. 



215 



treasurer, effectually to carry out the above purpose. In 1859 the Rev. E. Lilley was 
succeeded by the Rev. Edward Marshall, curate of St. Matthew's, Denmark Hill. 
Mr. Lilley then became minister for the second time, and was succeeded, in 1865, by 
the Rev. J. Allen. The present minister, the Rev. Isaac Haycroft, of King's College, 
and formerly curate of Barnet, and domestic chaplain to Lord Strafford, was appointed 
in 1867. The churchwardens are Messrs. Sidney Willes and Frederick George Lewin, 
the former of whom has been churchwarden since 1850, with the exception of three 
years. A portion of the communion plate was presented by the late Mr. Philip 
Hammersley Leathes, " in fulfilment," the inscription states, " of the intentions of 
his late wife, Mary Ann Leathes, deceased." Mr. Leathes has also left the sum of 
Wl 3s. 8d. Three per Cent. Consols, of which the interest, 3 Is. 8d. t is devoted 
annually to the purchase of flannel for poor afflicted persons. Mr. Willes and the 
Rev. E. Lilley are the only surviving trustees, the others, Messrs. I'Anson and Barrett, 
being dead. In connexion with this church must be mentioned the Channel me- 
morial fund, raised in 1856, to commemorate the active Christian usefulness of the late 
Miss Ann Channel. The amount over and above the cost of the memorial tablet in 
the church, .200, is invested in the Three per Cent. Consols, and the interest divided 
for clothing amongst the girls attending the national school and the poor of the 
district. The local trustees of this charity are the Rev. Isaac Haycroft and the Rev. 
J. Hazell, M.A. A district, comprising about 8,000 souls, will be assigned to St. 
Chrysostom's, when it is made into a district church. 



ST. GEORGE'S CHURCH. 

There are few churches in or near London which have witnessed more extraordinary 
changes in their surroundings than that of St. George's, Camberwell. Originally 
built among green fields, with a windmill, the very sign of country life, close to its 
graveyard, it now stands among houses packed in those close rows which almost seem 
to keep out the free air of heaven from their inhabitants ; while the population, which 
then numbered some 8,000 or 9,000, has now risen to upwards of 34,000. 

In July, 1820,* it was stated in vestry that there were 1,394 inhabited houses in 



* The progress made by the Church of England, 
not only in this parish, but throughout the country, 
since this date, has been most marked, as will ba 
seen from the following history of Church progress, 
taken from an article in a recent number of the 
Quarterly Review : 

1. First, as regards church building: Up to 
1872 the total number of churches built in the 
century was 3,204 ; of churches entirely rebuilt, 
925 ; making 4,129 in all. Restorations and en- 
largements were still more numerous, so that over 
9,000 churches have been built, rebuilt, or restored 
during the century. These have cost at least 
18,000,000. All this was accomplished by voluntary 
contributions, with the single exception of the 
parliamentary grant of one million in the outset. 

2. Next, as to subdivision of parishes : In 1831 
the Parliamentary Inquiry Commission returned 
the number of benefices at 10,000. Now there are 
as nearly as possible 13,200. And be it remem- 
bered that every additional parish involved a large 
voluntary outlay for church, schools, and parson- 
age, and other numberless details of parochial ex- 
penditure. But all these new parishes had to be 
endowed, and the Ecclesiastical Commissioners 
acknowledge the receipt of no less than 1,653,446 
from private benefactions for endowment up to 
October 31, 1873, and it is a remarkable fact that 
in this one form alone Churchmen have thus given 
for endowment at the rate of 120,000 a year f or 
the last three years. 



3. Parsonage houses : Forty years ago these 
numbered 5,900, now they are over 11,000, so that, 
saying nothing of rebuilt parsonages, we have a 
clear gain of 5,100 resident clergy. 

4. Clergy: 



In 1801 the number given is . 
In 1841 there were . 



10,307 
14,613 
In 1871 there were 20,694 



An increase of over 6,000 in thirty years. Of these, 
19,043 are engaged in parochial work ; in round 
numbers, 13,000 are incumbents and 6,000 curates, 
and 1,650 are clergy employed in school and collego 
work. In 1841 the number of incumbents was 
5,776,in 1871 no less than 13,043. 

5. Education : The following figures are taken 
from the Privy Council Educational Report for 
1873, and will about show to whom the country is 
indebted for the means of elementary education 
during the last thirty years : 



FROM 1839 TO DECEMBER 31, 1872. 



England and Wales. Subscribed. 
For building Church 

schools . . . 3,585,164 
For British andForeign 

schools 

For Wesleyan schools 
For Roman Catholic 

schools 



220,033 
151,942 



99,650 



Par. Grant- 
1,356,487 

106,120 
81,317 

42,167 



Here we have three and a half millions of voluntary 



216 Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

the district of Camberwell, which, on an average of five to each house, would give 6,970 
residents in that section of the parish. For only 1,300 of these was accommodation pro- 
vided in the parish church ; so that, allowing 2,000 out of the remainder to be Dis- 
senters, upwards of 3,600 individuals were unable to procure seats in a place of 
worship in communion with the Established Church. It was therefore resolved, at a 
vestry on the 17th August following, that a church to hold 2,000 persons, one-third 
to be free sittings, should be built in the district, and the first stone of the building, 
which, like others designed by Mr. Bedford in South London, is in the Grecian style, 
was laid on the festival of St. George, the patron saint of England, April 23rd, 1822. 
The following curious document will give our readers an idea of the eclat which 
attended the proceedings on the occasion : 

NEW CHURCH OF ST. GEORGE, CAMBERWELL. 

Order of Procession 

To be observed on the Occasion of the laying the First Stone of this Church by 
the Lord Bishop of Winchester, on Tuesday, the 23rd Day of April, 1822, being 

St. George's Day. 

Two Men bearing Flags. 

Four Constables. 

Boys of the Dulwich Schools, four abreast. 

Boys of the Peckham Schools, four abreast. 

Boys of the Camberwell Green Coat and National 

Schools, four abreast. 
Girls of the Dulwich Schools, four abreast. 

Girls of the Peckham Schools, four abreast. 
Girls of the Camberwell Green Coat and National 

Schools, four abreast. 
Parish Clerks and Organist. 

Two Men bearing Flags. 
A Full Band in Regimentals. 
The Collectors of the Church Rates. 
Messrs. Sharpe and Day, Contractors for the Mason's 
Work, bearing the Silver Trowel upon a Velvet 
Cushion ; Messrs. Wells and Berryman, 
the Bricklayers ; Mr. May hew, the 
Carpenter ; Mr. Howard, the 
Plumber and Painter ; and 
Mr. Cheshire, the 
Glazier and Copper- 
smith. 
Francis Bedford, Esq., the Architect, with Plans of 

the Church. 
Messrs. Whiffen and Mason, Overseers of the Poor. 

subscriptions sunk in school building alone ; whilst is over 5,800. s. d 

from the same report we learn that the annual Average stipend of a curate in 1843 was 82 2 10 

subscriptions of Churchmen reach the amount of ,, ,, }> 1353 ,, 79 

389,769 against 84,771 subscribed by Dissenters. ,, 1863 97 10 

Add to this that during the last sixty years the ,, 1373 129 5 8 

National Society alone has dispensed 1,000,000 for Taking 125 for the average income at present, this 

educational purposes, involving at least an outlay gives 725,000 on the gross curate income. Of this, 

of 12,000,000 in actual capital from other sources, about 400,000 is paid by Incumbents, and the 

and we have some idea what the Church has been rest, 325, 000, comes from lay sources. So that thus 

doing during the century for the religious educi- we have a genuine supplementary endowment 

tion of the people of England. resulting from the restoration of the parochial 

6. Curates : The number of curates at present system by abolishing pluralities. 



CHURCHES AND CHAPELS. 217 

Mr. Spence, Solicitor and Vestry Clerk, 
and Secretary to the New Church Committee. 
The New Church Committee with White Wands 
three abreast ; the three last of whom bear 
the Vase, Coins, and Inscription- 
Plate, upon Crimson Velvet 

Cushions. 

Robert Small, Esq., and Joseph Fidler, Esq., 

Treasurers of the Church and Parish Funds. 

John Allen, Esq., Jefferys Thomas Allen, Esq., the 

Rev. J. Smith, the Rev. John Lindsay, the Rev. 

John Vane, and the Rev. John Lindiey, the 

Master, Warden, and the Fellows of God's 

Gift College, Dulwich (the Clergy 

in their Robes). 

Thomas Lett, Esq., D. King, Esq., Robert Hedger, 

Esq., Florence Young Esq., Thomas Starling 

Benson, Esq., and William Holmer, Esq., 

Magistrates of the East Hundred 

of Brixton. 
George Holme Sumner and J. W. Dennison, Esqs., 

Members of the County. 

Beadles of the Parish, with Staves. 

Messrs. Henry Gooch, Richard Billiter, and Thomas 

Turk, the Churchwardens, with their 

Wands of Office. 

CLERGY IN THEIR ROBES. 

The Rev. H. W. C. Hyde, Curate. 

The Rev. W. Lambert, Afternoon Lecturer. 

The Rev. Richard Newton Adams, Alternate Morning 

Preacher. 
The Rev. Edward Smedley, Minister of the Third 

or Evening Service. 

The Rev. W. H. Springett, Minister of Peckham 
Chapel. 

The Rev. William Jephson, the Master of the Free Grammar School ; the Rev. Dr. 
D'Oyley, Rector of Lambeth ; the Rev. A. C. Onslow, Rector of Newington ; 
the Rev. William Rose, Vicar of Carshalton ; and the Rev. Dr. Kenny, Rector of 
St. Olave's, Southwark ; the Clerical Governors of the Free Grammar School at 
Camberwell, in their Robes. 

The Right Rev. Father in God 
GEORGE TOMLINE, D.D., LORD BISHOP OF 

WINCHESTER. 

The Parish Committee, three and three. 

Two Men with Flags. 

Four Peace Officers. 

Two years later the churcli was consecrated by the same prelate, and on the follow- 
ing Sunday the incumbent, the Rev. J. Vane, Fellow of Dulwich College, preached 



218 Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

his first sermon in the sacred building on 2 Chron. vi. 18-20. Mr. Vane remained 
in charge for eight years, and was succeeded in 1832 by the Rev. Samuel Smith, M.A., 
the present incumbent. 

The expense of the building, including the architect's and clerk of the works' com- 
mission, was ,13,365 4s. 8d. ; inclosing and making the churchyard, ,3,117 3s. 6d. ; 
organ, bells, clock, chandelier, and other furniture, 2,261 3s. 4d. ; and the secre- 
tary, solicitor, and proctor's charges, laying first stone and consecration, and other 
incidental payments, 1,933 9s. 4d. 

The total cost of this edifice was somewhat more than 20,600, of which 5,000 
was contributed by the Commissioners for building Churches and Chapels, under the 
Act of the 58th Geo. III. cap. 45, and the remainder by a rate and voluntary 
contributions. 

The ground on which the church stands was given by John Rolls, Esq., and is- 
enclosed on three sides by a substantial wall, and towards the west with ornamental 
cast-iron railings, gates, stone piers, &c. 

The edifice is 85 feet in length, or, with the children's galleries, which extend behind 
the organ at the west end, 99 feet ; its width is 60 feet, and the height nearly 34 feet 
from the floor to the ceiling. The walls are decorated with pilasters of the Ionic 
order, having rich capitals and entablature, whereon rest the beams that support the 
ceiling, which is flat, and panelled into twelve large square compartments, each orna- 
mented with a central flower. There are capacious galleries on each side, as well as- 
at the west end, supported by fluted Doric columns. 

The organ is a powerful and finely-toned instrument by Lincoln, and its case is 
highly enriched. 

Some of the monumental tablets are worthy of especial notice, particularly that of 
Alfred Tebbitt, on the east wall over the south gallery, which represents a female 
figure beneath a willow bending over an urn, in pure white marble. Another, 
remarkable for taste and delicacy of execution, commemorates Mary, wife of William 
Rolls, Esq., who died in 1840, in the sixty-sixth year of her age and the "jubilee of 
her union." 

The respected vicar, who is now in his seventy-first year, is universally beloved, 
and his connection with the parish of Camberwell has been fruitful in good works, 
and he is still ever foremost in everything that concerns the welfare of his flock. Mr. 
Smith took his B.A. degree at Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1827, in which year he 
was ordained deacon by the Bishop of London, receiving priest's orders from the 
same prelate in the year following. In 1830 he graduated as M.A., and in 1832 he 
entered upon his duties at St. George's, Camberwell. During five years he was- 
chaplain to the Lord Mayor, an office to which very few, if any, clergymen have 
been so frequently appointed. Eighteen sermons preached by Mr. Smith during 
his chaplaincy have been published. The curates are the Rev. R. J. Waters, 35, 
Peckham Grove, and the Rev. T. H. L. Leary, D.C.L., 19, Peckham Grove. 

Owing to the great increase in the houses and population in this district, its extreme 
portions have within the last few years been formed into two separate convention* 
districts, viz., St. Philip's for the Old Kent Road portion, and St. Luke's for 
Commercial and St. George's Roads, &c. [See St. Philip's and St. Luke's churches 

This church is one of the few erected under the Act of Parliament, 59 Geo. III. 
cap. 154, which vested the management in a select vestry, and constituted the distric 
a separate or " district parish " for ecclesiastical purposes. Very soon after the 
building of the church, the select vestry, by their own authority, made a rate for its, 
maintenance, which was resisted, and on technical grounds declared illegal. A second 
rate experienced a like fate on similar grounds. A third rate was then made by the 






CHURCHES AND CHAPELS. 



219 



select vestry, which was again resisted, and raised the important question, " Whether 
or not the select vestries attached to churches erected under the above-mentioned 
Acts had the power to make rates without the concurrence of the inhabitants ?" The 
case was solemnly argued in the Court of Queen's Bench ; and on the 21st of 
November, 1831, its judgment was pronounced by Lord Tenterden, and decided that 
the Acts in question gave no such power. This decision settled the law upon the 
subject for the entire kingdom. 

A meeting of the inhabitants in vestry was afterwards called to make a rate of 2cL 
in the pound for the repair and maintenance of the church, which, after a poll of the 
district parish, was acceeded to and declared legal. The right to make a church rate 
having been thus established, the inhabitants were called together from time to time 
in open vestry for this purpose, and although the proposition for a rate was generally 
opposed at the meeting, upon the result of the poll which followed a majority decided 
in favour of a rate. In the year 1846 the rate thus carried amounted to 4cZ. in the 
pound. At a poll on April 14, 1860, however, the inhabitants decided by a majority 
of 177 against a rate, and from that time to the year 1874, the authorities assessed a 
Voluntary CJmrch Rate, but the amount raised by this means becoming less every 
year it has since been abolished. 

The abolition of select vestries gave the inhabitants of this district parish the right 
to hold a vestry meeting on Easter Tuesday, to elect churchwardens and other officers- 
of the church, and the records show several sharply-contested elections for church- 
wardens, organist, and others. In the year 1859 Mr. C. S. Stevens, the present clerk 
to the guardians of Camberwell, was appointed vestry clerk, and at Easter, 1861, the 
office of churchwarden appears to have been warmly contested Mr. Sugden being 
returned after a poll by a majority of 309 votes against Mr. Thornhill. 

The opportunity afforded the inhabitants of meeting in public vestry has from 
time to time induced discussion upon matters exra-ecclesiastical. Notably may be 
mentioned the "necessity for a new bridge over the canal" by St. George's Church, 
which, during the wardenship of Mr. Sugden, was frequently under discussion, and 
memorials agreed to, and deputations formed, for moving the authorities of the upper 
district, which agitation ultimated in the construction of the new bridge in 1862. 

Mr. Sugden, after having served aa churchwarden at St. George's, occupied a 
similar position in the Mother Church, and his attachment to the Church of England 
is well known. He has always taken great interest in church extension in St. George's, 
and has had the gratification to see much progress in that direction within this densely 
populated and under-churched district. 



ST. JAMES'S CHURCH, CAMBERWELL. 

This handsome church is situate on the estate commonly known as "Hyatt's 
Fields," and within a short distance of Camberwell New Road Railway Station. Very 
recently the site formed a portion of large nursery grounds occupied by Mr. Myatt, 
whose far-famed strawberries were once highly appreciated in the London market. 
Although the church, when it was built, may be said to have anticipated the neigh- 
bourhood, the latter is fast making headway, and handsome villas are rising up 
around it as if by magic, and within a very short time the whole estate will no 
doubt be covered with houses. 

The site on which the church was built ^(as well as the cost of its erection) was 
given by the landowner, Mr. James L. Minet, and the cost of the same is said to 
have exceeded 8,000. The architect of the building was Mr. G. Lowe, of Basing- 



220 Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

hall Street, and Messrs. Dove Brothers, of Islington, the builders. The style' of 
architecture is that known as the " Early Decorated," with an apsidal chancel, and a 
tower and spire 135 feet high. The rag and Bath stones of which the church is 
constructed give it a neat and finished appearance. There are seats for 800, 160 of 
which are free. The church was consecrated on the 27th June, 1870, by the late 
Bishop Wilberforce. The first and present vicar is the Rev. J. D. Dyke, M.A., 
formerly of Grosvenor Chapel, South Audley Street. 

The church contains some handsome stained-glass windows. Those in the apse, 
five in number, representing scenes from Our Lord's Passion, are by Messrs. Clayton 
and Bell ; those on the west end are by Messrs. Ward and Hughes, and represent the 
Adoration of the magi at the end of the south-west aisle, and Christ Blessing Little 
Children at the end of the north-west aisle ; while two smaller lights, at the side of the 
west door, represent Christ as the Good Shepherd, and Christ as the Light of the 
World. 

The pulpit (of stone) has some exquisitely-carved figures of the Saviour and the 
Evangelists. 



ST. JOHN'S CHURCH, EAST DULWICH. 

The present elegant little church on Goose Green was erected in 1865, in place oi 
the small building known as the East Dulwich Chapel, built at the expense of Mr. 
Bailey, a large landowner in East Dulwich. The new church was consecrated on 
the 16th May, 1865, and the cost of its construction, about .8,000, was principally 
raised by subscriptions amongst the gentry of the neighbourhood. The new building 
was constructed to hold about 900 people ; that is, 600 seats for letting and 300 
free seats. The architect was Mr. C. Bailey, and he has certainly succeeded in 
designing a building at once attractive and convenient. The church reminds us, in 
its style, of some of those antique village churches of which, in these days of rapid 
railway travelling, we catch a brief glimpse on many a picturesque spot in Surrey, 
Sussex, or Kent. Like them, the spire is of pantile, while the whole body, tower, and 
chancel of the church are built with granite, which creates a peculiarity in appear- 
ance rather pleasing, and relieves it from the sameness of the light-coloured stone. 
In the interior the effect is very striking. In the chancel are six stained windows, 
representing St. John in the Wilderness, the saint to whom the church is dedicated, 
and various scenes in which our Saviour took a part during his ministration upon 
arth. Immediately facing the windows in the chancel, at the west end, are three 
memorial windows, each containing three groups. The centre one was erected by 
Thomas Farmer Bailey, Esq., in memory of his grandfather. It represents St. John 
the Evangelist leaning on our Lord's breast at Supper, and the Revelation to St. 
John in Patmos. Immediately below the window is a monumental brass, narrating 
the good work performed in building East Dulwich Chapel by Mr. Bailey. 

The window on the north side is in memory of Robert Hichens, Esq., of East 
Dulwich, who took a most active part in the " Building Committee " of the new 
church. It was erected by the other members of the committee as a mark of their 
esteem and regard for one who had been a most active and zealous participator in a 
work which he was not permitted to see carried out. Another window in this 
portion of the church was erected by Mrs. Scott, the wife of the treasurer of the 
* l Building Committee," in memory of a daughter. 

Mr. John Scott, formerly of Norland House, East Dulwich, who took a most 
active part in the " Building Committee," has since left the neighbourhood ; and his 




ST. JOHN'S EAST DULWICH. 



CHURCHES AND CHAPELS. 221 

friends and neighbours presented him on leaving with a most flattering testimonial of 
their high appreciation of his character. Mr. Scott, during his residence in East 
Dulwich, was a munificent patron of all charitable associations, and in all that he 
did was a striking exemplification of the Christian gentleman. 

Although not consecrated till May, 1865, the church was opened by license on the 
18th September, 1864. 

The organ is by Holditch. The Rev. W. Foster Elliott, M.A., was the first incum- 
bent, and during his incumbency funds were raised for the purpose of erecting new 
schools, which are admirably adapted for the purpose for which they were designed. 

The present incumbent, the Rev. T. D. C. Morse, was appointed in 1872, on the 
resignation of the Rev. W. Foster Elliott, M.A. 



ST. JUDE'S CHURCH, PECKHAM. 

The temporary church of St. Jude's, Asylum Road, Peckham, was opened for 
service in March, 1865, the Venerable the Archdeacon of Surrey officiating on the 
occasion. The cost of the church was about 700, and contains sitting accommoda- 
tion for 650 people. There are about 250 free seats. The Rev. Pitt Cobbett was 
the first minister, and in 1872 he was succeeded by the Rev. C. J. Meade, M.A. 

A site for a permanent church has been secured at a cost of 1,000, and efforts 
are being made to obtain the funds necessary for the new building. 



ST. LUKE'S CHURCH, COMMERCIAL ROAD. 

A temporary brick church, built on the Rosemary Branch Estate, to be used as a 
school when the permanent church is erected. It is capable of seating 250 persons, 
and all the seats are " free and open." The Rev. J. C. Lintott, formerly curate at 
St. George's Church, is the incumbent elect, and considering the denseness of the 
population in the immediate vicinity of the church, and the great need there is for 
such a building, the necessary funds for the permanent church will no doubt be 
freely subscribed. 



ST. MARY MAGDALEN CHURCH. 

The district connected with this edifice forms a large portion of the eastern half of 
this parish, and was formerly an almost uninterrupted succession of market gardens. 
Extensive building operations have been recently carried on since the opening of the 
Queen's Road and Nunhead Railway Stations, so that the district now is an exceed- 
ingly populous one. The church, which is a substantial building of brick, with 
stone dressings, stands upon a plot of ground long known as the " Duck's Nest," 
liberally given for the purpose by William Edmonds, Esq., of New Cross. The 
design is a composition from the Norman and early Pointed styles, and consists of a 
nave and aisles, a chancel, and a western tower, forming a general entrance, sur- 
mounted by a spire. The interior is remarkably neat ; there are deep galleries, 
supported by cast-iron columns on each side, and also at the west end, which is- 



222 Y c PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

partitioned off by a range of three pointed arches. In the centre recess is a small 
organ ; all the windows are of the lancet form ; beneath the church is a spacious 
crypt, used as a schoolroom. The church was consecrated by the Bishop of Win- 
chester on the 7th May, 1841. The first minister was the Rev. John Sidney 
Darvell, who was succeeded by the Rev. J. G. Storie, who presented himself to the 
living by virtue of being the patron of the mother church. He was succeeded by the 
Rev. Michael Biggs, M.A., the present minister, in May, 1850. There is a National 
school in the Albert Road in connection with this church, with accommodation for 
130 boys, 120 girls, and 150 infants. 



ST. MATTHEW'S CHURCH,* DENMARK HILL. 

The present building was erected in 1848, from the designs of A. D. Gough, Esq. , 
architect, of Lancaster Place. The tower and spire have since been completed, and a 
further enlargement effected by the addition of transepts to the original arrange- 
ment of nave and side aisles. The site was given by the ground landlord, Sir Claude 
de Crespigny, and an old chapel was pulled down to make way for the present 
handsome edifice. The Rev. Thomas Dalef was for fourteen years incumbent of 
St. Matthew's, and on his removal to St. Pancras, in 1844, the Rev. Stephen Bridge 
was appointed. The present incumbent, the Rev. G. K. Flindt, M.A., commenced 
his ministry in 1868. 

The schools in the Camberwell New Road, consisting of infant and girls' schools, 
teachers' residences, &c., are built with red brick and Bath stone dressings, from 
Mr. Gough's design. They were commenced in 1849, and finished in the following 
year. 

A boys' school has also recently been erected in Denmark Road, Camberwell. 



ST. MICHAEL'S CHURCH, NUNHEAD. 

There is a temporary iron church at Nunhead, dedicated to St. Michael, of which 
the Rev. A. A. W. Drew, M.A., is incumbent, and which is capable of accommodating 
about 500 persons. The temporary building is shortly to be replaced by a church 1 
dedicated to St. Antholin, to be erected from the proceeds of the sale of the site of 
St. Antholin's, Watling Street. 



ST. PAUL'S CHURCH, HERNE HILL. 



The church of St. Paul's, Herne Hill, was erected by subscription on a piece of 
land held on lease from Dulwich College by the late Mrs. Simpson, the freehold of 
which was given by the college. The architect was Mr. Alexander. It cost ,7,500, 
and was consecrated by the Bishop of Winchester on the 21st December, 1844. The 
first incumbent was the Rev. Matthew Anderson, M.A., of St. John's College, 
Cambridge, who had been for eighteen years previously minister of the chapel of 
ease, East Dulwich, now St. John's Church. As the district assigned was what is 
termed a consolidated chapelry district, taken out of that portion of the parish of 

* This church is in the parish of Lambeth, but pages, 

the congregation being mostly residents of this t The Rev. Thomas Dale, of St. Matthew's, and 

parish, whilst the schools attached to the church the Eev. Henry Melvill, of Camdeu, were both 

are actually situate in Camberwell, it has been educated in Christ's Hospital, 
thought deairable to include the above in these 



CHURCHES AND CHAPELS. 223 

Lambetli belonging to St. Matthew's, Brixton, patron the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
and out of the Dulwich property in the parish of Camberwell, patron the Rev. J. G. 
Storie, vicar, the right of presentation belonged to these jointly or alternatively. 
By private agreement, however, it was vested in the latter, who afterwards disposed 
of it to the late William Stone, Esq., of Casino, Herne Hill, whose son, W. H. Stone, 
Esq., is the present patron. This church was destroyed by fire on the 28th Feb- 
ruary, 1858. 

It had fortunately been insured at the expense of the incumbent for ,3,500 in the 
Church of England Fire Insurance Office, the whole of which sum was immediately 
paid. The church was rebuilt by Messrs. Holland and Hannen, under the direction 
&nd from the designs of E. G. Street, Esq., architect, at a cost of .5,200, not 
including the windows, all of which were presented. 

It was re-opened on the 21st October in the same year, the sermon being preached 
by the late Rev. Henry Melvill, canon of St. Paul's. 

The church was endowed, by the late J. G. Storie, with the vicarial tithes of that 
portion of the district taken out of the parish of Camberwell. 

The subjects on the clerestory windows are the patriarchs and prophets. Those 
in the eleven side windows are taken from the lives of the apostles. 

The east window consists of five compartments ; the centre contains the Cruci- 
fixion, the other four the Agony in the Garden, the Bearing of the Cross, the Descent 
from the Cross, and the Resurrection. 

The two side windows in the chancel are from the history of St. Paul, and that in 
the organ chamber Miriam and David, and the window in the tower the Birth of 
Christ. The font and pulpit are of Mansfield stone and marble. The vicarage 
house was built by the Rev. M. Anderson, Mr. Drew, of the Adelphi, being the 
architect, and Mr. Buck, Norwood, builder; cost, about .2,300, 1,000 of whicli was 
borrowed from Queen Anne's Bounty Fund. The church is capable of seating 700 
persons. The present vicar is the Rev. W. Powell, who was appointed in 1869. 



ST. PETER'S CHURCH, DULWICH. 

This church is in character essentially Gothic, although several deviations have 
been made from what is termed Gothic in the strictest sense. Owing to the condition 
to be fulfilled namely, that the chancel should be towards the east, the church 
forms a somewhat acute angle with the road, and the chancel abuts upon it. This 
situation, which, under ordinary circumstances, would be rather disadvantageous, has 
with great ingenuity been turned to good account by Mr. Barry, the architect. The 
circular form of the chancel, the conical roof, detached somewhat from the nave, the 
slight projection of the east window, resting as it does upon a segment of an arch, the 
carved heads on each side of the springing, and the figures of the three apostles, 
.St. Peter, St. Paul, and St. John, surmounting the pediment, have a rich and original 
effect, and approaching the edifice in either direction a picturesque view is obtained. 
The tower now stops short at about the height of the nave ; it is intended, however, 
to carry it up to the height of 200 feet, including handsome spire. The main entrance 
to the church is through the tower. It consists of a Gothic arch with pediment 
above, and having a carved stone figure of an angel on each side, and has a temporary 
wooden roof. The exterior of the church is of Kentish rag, and the colour forms an 
excellent contrast with the red brick houses adjacent. 

At present a temporary wall at the west end brings the nave to a somewhat abrupt 



224 Y e PAEISH OF CAMERWELL. 

conclusion, but it is contemplated at some future time to extend the church about 
30 feet. The columns will then be increased to six, and a special use will be made 
of this number, as there is to be a medallion of one of the twelve apostles in each of 
the spandrels. The arches which these columns support are composed of two layers of 
red and black brick, with a Bath stone moulding, and the effect is extremely rich. 
The walls of the nave, supported by these pillars, and below the clerestory, are of 
diaper brick that is, brick with a surface pattern upon it. The object is to produce- 
richness and variety, and for this purpose these bricks are extremely valuable ; they 
have been manufactured by Messrs. Pether, of Lambeth. In the clerestory are eight 
arched windows on each side, supported by marble pillars, with handsomely-carved 
capitals, and a carved moulding runs round just below the windows. The aisles 
have three-light windows on each side, the arches being of black and red brick alter- 
nately. The walls are of yellow stock brick, with bands of red. The roof is a very 
handsome one, and, without sacrificing strength, has an air of elegance. It is entirely 
composed of pitch pine, and the shape is what is termed " hammer-beamed" that 
is, the principal timbers form a broad centre arch, springing from a curve on each 
side, and are somewhat in the shape of a trefoil. There are three of these principals, 
and between them are the intermediate principals, simply an arch without the 
curves at the sides. Their ornamentation is coloured in red, white, brown, and 
gold, and that of the intermediate beams blue and white. The roof consists of 
two thicknesses of boards and three inches of " pugging," formed of lime and hair,, 
between the boarding. Over the boarding is a covering of felt, the object of this 
being to deaden the sound of rain and to equalize the temperature in summer and 
winter. 

The chancel is highly decorated, and is very effective in regard to colour. It is of 
considerable size, being 24 feet wide and 38 feet deep, measuring from the steps to the 
reredos. The chancel arch springs from two slender marble columns, the figure of 
an angel being on each side. On the right of the chancel is the organ chamber, and 
on the left the vestry, each approached from the chancel through a Gothic arch. The 
organ chamber is separated from the aisle by a carved screen. The portion of the 
roof immediately over the altar is coloured a blue ground, with gold stars, and the 
rest is highly decorated with colour and gilding. The upper part of the chancel 
walls is composed of the diaper brick previously mentioned, and the lower part of 
diaper tiles, parts of which are to be picked out and coloured. There are five 
windows in the chancel, the centre one being of considerable size, and having three 
lights, with rich tracery in the arch, and filled with stained glass. The effect of the 
various masses of colour in the chancel is extremely fine, and will certainly be a 
marked feature in the new church. The pulpit is of Caen stone. It is of a quiet, 
chaste design, and is perhaps, with the exception of the font, the only piece of pure 
white in the building. The whole of the passage ways, it should be mentioned, are 
paved with Maw's tiles, the seats being open benches of pitch pine. The builders ol 
the church are Messrs. W. Downs & Co., of Union Street, Southwark, and they 
have carried out the work to the entire satisfaction of the architect. 

Among the special objects of interest in the interior may be mentioned the stained- 
glass window in the chancel. It is a beautiful specimen of artistic glass painting, 
and is a memorial erected by Mrs. General Hughes to the memory of her late 
husband, a distinguished Indian general. The stone-carved pulpit, by Messrs. 
Brindley & Co., 6, Westminster Road, is the joint gift oi Mr. A. Croker, of 
Dulwich, and of Mr. Barry, the architect. 

The cost of the building of the present portion of the edifice amounts to ,8,889. 






CHURCHES AND CHAPELS. 225 

The foundation-stone of this church was laid on the 1st of May, 1873, by Mr. 
Richard Thornton, of the "Hoo," Sydenham Hill. The site was given by the 
governors of Dulwich College. 

Before the present church was built, the congregation made use of an iron church, 
which has been described as " overpoweringly hot in summer, piercingly cold in 
winter, and deafening in windy weather." The present incumbent is the Rev. 
Wm. Calvert. 



THE CHURCH OF ST. PHILIP THE EVANGELIST, OLD KENT ROAD. 

On Friday, October 5th, 1866, the temporary iron church was opened for public 
service. The members of this church first opened a mission-room at 581, Old Kent 
Road, and soon afterwards secured for 500 the present iron building, and removed 
it to its present site, at a further cost of 170. It will seat about 530, the space in 
the aisles being partially utilized by means of a falling flap-seat at the end of each 
fixed sitting. 

The ^ first stone of the permanent church was laid by the Bishop of Winchester on 
Tuesday, 28th July last, when Mr. Bassett received the warm congratulations of his 
friends at the success which had so far rewarded his great zeal and undying patience. 
It was remarked by the Bishop, when laying the first stone, that three bishops 
(Simmer, Wilberforce, and himself) and three presbyters (Mason, Wilmot, and 
Bassett) had been intimately concerned with the history of the little church. 

Mr. Coe is the architect, and the style adopted is that of the " Early English 
Decorated." Messrs. Nixon and Son, Lambeth, are the builders. 



ST. STEPHEN'S CHURCH, DULWICH. 

This church was consecrated in November 28th, 1868, by the Bishop of Mauritius, 
in the unavoidable absence, through illness, of the Bishop of Winchester. It was 
built by Messrs. Perry and Co., of Stratford, Essex, from designs supplied by Messrs. 
Banks and Barry, and the style of architecture adopted was that of the thirteenth 
century Gothic style. The site of the church and parsonage-house was given by the 
governors of Dulwich College, who also subscribed 1,500 towards the endowment 
fund. Among the other subscribers were the late Sir Wm. Tite (1,000), the 
incumbent (Rev. J. Meek Clark, M.A., rural dean of Camberwell), and Mr. B. 
Standring, who, in addition to a handsome money gift, presented a stained-glass 
window, communion plate, and other accompaniments. In the church are also two 
frescoes of subjects in the life of St. Stephen, by E. J. Poynter, A.R.A., six stained 
windows by Hardman and one by Powell. The governors of Dulwich College are the 
patrons. From the rapid increase of building in the district, which was legally 
assigned to St. Stephen's, it was resolved, at meetings of parishioners held in the 
spring of the current year, to proceed with the contemplated extension according to 
Mr. Barry's plan ; and a considerable portion of the sum requisite for this purpose 
having been subscribed by the inhabitants and others, the works were commenced in 
the summer by Messrs. Perry and Co., the contractors ; and so skilfully have they 
been managed, under the direction of the architect, that it was not found necessary to 
discontinue the services and close the church for more than a single Sunday ; and 
with much exertion they were sufficiently advanced to allow of the re-opening on 
'Advent Sunday, although many details still remain to be completed. 



Y e PARISH OF CAM!ERWELL. 



ALBANY CHAPEL. 

This chapel was originally built by the followers of William Huntington, the 
coal-heaver, but it was afterwards purchased by a few friends of the Rev. George 
Rogers, who commenced his ministry here in August, 1829. A church was formed 
in June 1835, and here Mr. Rogers continued to labour until 1864, when he resigned 
his charge and was succeeded by the Rev. J. De Kewer Williams. The chapel was 
enlarged and greatly improved soon after it was purchased, and a school-house was 
added, the cost & of the alteration being about 500, raised by voluntary contributions. 
The name of "Albany Chapel " was then given to the building. 

It was subsequently further improved in 1840. It is now capable of accommo- 
dating about 500 people. 

The Rev. J. Bruce succeeded Mr. Williams, and was minister there about three 

years. 

The Rev. R. Wearmouth succeeded Mr. Bruce in February, 1874. The chapel 
is well attended, and everything in connection with it gives signs of progress. 

There is a good Sunday school in connection with the church, which has also been 
very much improved during the last few months. 



ASYLUM ROAD CONGREGATIONAL CHAPEL. 

This building was erected about twelve years ago, at a cost of 2,500. It is capable 
of seating 550 people. In connection with this chapel are several societies for the 
relief of the sick poor, ragged schools, and auxiliary societies for Home and Foreign 
Missions and Bible and Tract Societies. The Sunday schools have about 300 
scholars. 

The Rev. Aaron Buzacott, B. A., author of " Mission Life in the Islands of the 
Pacific," has been pastor for more than six years. 



BAPTIST CHAPEL, RYE LANE. 

About the year 1817 Mr. Spencer, an active and wealthy deacon of the late Mr, 
Upton's chapel, of Church Street, Blackfriars, took up his residence for the benefit of 
his health in the quiet little village of Peckham. There being at that time no 
building specially set apart for those of his way of thinking, Mr. Spencer placed hi& 
own house at the disposal of his fellow religionists. Shortly after a barn was fitted 
up for the use of the brethren, and it is worthy of note that this barn stood upon the 
site where Hill Street church now stands. The late Mr. Upton, Mr. Chinn, of 
Walworth, and Mr. Thomas Powell, sen., of Mitchell Street, St. Luke's (predecessor 
of the late John Andrew Jones, and father of Mr. Powell, the first pastor of the 
Baptist church in Peckham), were among the most acceptable supplies. On the 15th 
December, 1818, a church of seven persons was formed, and on the 27th of the 
following month six other persons were baptized and added to their number. It 
was about this time that Mr. Thomas Powell, jun., was invited to the pastorate. 






CHURCHES AND CHAPELS. 227 

His ordination service was held at Hanover Chapel, May 3rd, 1819, and a chapel for 
the use of the members was shortly after erected at a cost of about 1,400. On 
September 1st, 1819, the chapel was publicly opened, Dr. Collyer preaching in the 
morning, Mr. Powell, sen., in the afternoon, and Mr. Chinn in the evening. The 
collections of the day amounted to 68. 

A pleasing incident may be mentioned here. A letter was sent from the church 
to Dr. Collyer, explaining the failure of all efforts to secure a piece of ground until 
the site in Rye Lane was offered ; assuring him that fixing on so near a locality was 
not a matter of choice, and was influenced by no spirit of opposition, and further, that 
they desired to co-operate with him in any work of the Lord, except where views of 
divine truth caused them to differ. A reply from the Doctor appears on the church 
minutes as follows : " Dr. Collyer presents his affectionate regards to the church of 
Christ at Rye Lane. He is deeply sensible of the delicate mark of respect. He 
considers it another proof of the spirit of love and affection he has uniformly 
experienced from his Baptist brethren, and wishes them great success and prosperity 
in the name of the Lord." 

In January, 1846, the church lost the services of its pastor, after having " faithfully 
fulfilled the pastoral office with varied success, without wavering in word, or doctrine, 
or practice, for a period of nearly twenty-seven years.* 

Mr. George Moyle, the present respected pastor, who had previously laboured for 
sixteen years in Audley Street, London, was then invited to the vacant pulpit, and 
his inauguration service took place on the 9th of May, 1848. 

During his ministry a new chapel has been erected, the removal from the old 
spot being caused by all-powerful railway companies. The present site was then 
determined upon, and a noble building worthy of the church was soon erected. 
Mr. Bland was the architect, and Mr. Thompson, of Camberwell, the builder. It 
was opened November 18th, 1863. Adjoining the chapel is a well-fitted school- 
room, which has lately been enlarged, and through the liberality of the congregation 
the debt of the chapel has been entirely cleared off. A jubilee service was held in 
the new chapel on the llth August, 1869, at which a most interesting resume of the 
fifty years' work was read, by Mr. G. T. Congreve, one of the deacons. The other 
deacons are Messrs. Jackman and Hawkins, who were elected in 1843 in conjunction 
with Mr. Henry Congreve, father of Mr. G. T. Congreve, the present deacon. 



BARRY ROAD WESLEYAN CHAPEL. 

The Wesleyan chapel, Barry Road, near Peckham Rye, was opened for divine 
worship on Tuesday, March 3rd, 1874. 

The chapel stands on freehold ground, and occupies a commanding position at the 
corner of two roads. 

The style of the building is u Early French Gothic." The internal dimensions are 
76 feet long, 48 feet wide, 46 feet to the ceiling of centre roof ; this is exclusive of the 
chancel, which is 18 feet wide and 20 feet deep. The chancel has been elaborately 
decorated. The walls are of a soft salmon colour, with red enrichments ; between 
the windows are tablets bearing the commandments, Lord's prayer, and suitable 
texts. A richly-designed encaustic tile reredos has been placed under the chancel 
windows. To the left of the chancel is the organ chamber, in which a fine organ has 
been erected by Messrs. Bevington, of Soho. 

* The Earthen Vessel, September, 1869. 

Q 2 



228 Y PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

An elegant tower and spire and galleries are embodied in the architect's design, 
and will be added at some future time. There is ground in the rear of the chapel 
for the erection of school premises. 

The chapel at present seats 650 persons, but when complete will accommodate 
1,000. The cost has been about 5,500. The whole scheme, when completed, will 

cost 8,000. 

The architect is Mr. Charles Bell, the builder Mr. Nutt. The memorial-stones 
were laid by Mr. Horace Marshall, Mr. J. F. Bennett, Alderman McArthur, M.P., 
and H. Swaffield, Esq. Resident minister, the Rev. Tom Henry Ingram. 

This chapel supersedes the small building in Lordship Lane, which was built about 
twenty years ago by the liberality of Thomas Gurney, Esq., of Brixton Hill. A 
neat tablet to Mr. Gurney's memory has been placed in the Lordship Lane Chapel. _ 

The books for pulpit and reading desk were the gift of the late Mrs. Straker, an 
old resident on the Rye. 

A costly communion service was presented by Mr. and Mrs. Poole, of Blackwater 
Cottage, Dulwich. 

The chancel has been furnished, and a beautiful cushion worked, by Mrs. Horace 
Marshall, of Brixton. 



CAMBERWELL GREEN CHAPEL. 

We have given the early history of this chapel elsewhere.* It only remains, 
therefore, for us to state the present building was built on the site of the old 
Mansion, formerly occupied by the Puckle family, and so well known to the gene- 
ration now passing away. The first stone of the chapel was laid on the 10th 
December, 1852. Messrs. Wilson and Fuller were the architects, and Mr. John 
Glen, of Islington, the builder. The length inside is 82 feet 6 inches ; the width 
50 feet ; the height to ridge of roof, 50 feet. The height of the turrets to top of the 
pinnacles is 90 feet. It contains on the ground-floor and galleries 950 sittings, in 
addition to the space reserved for Sunday schools. It is built with Kentish rag 
stone, with Bath stone dressings. 



CAMBERWELL GROVE CHAPEL. 

The chapel in the Grove, Camberwell, has had a somewhat remarkable history. 
Its first minister was the Rev. Joseph Irons, who visited what is now Camden 
Church, in 1818, but which at that time was a Dissenting place of worship, and made 
such an impression upon the worshippers there that they were most anxious that he 
should come and be their minister. There was, however, considerable opposition 
on the part of some of the trustees, and the negotiations fell through. The people 
generally, however, liked his ministry so much that they were determined if 
possible to have him in London, even if they had to provide a place for him in 

* See Mansion House Chapel. 



CHURCHES AND CHAPELS. 229 

which to preach. As a chapel could not be at once provided, a little room, known 
as the Carpenter's Shop, at Verandah Place, Church Street, Camberwell, was 
secured, and in that place was established the church now worshipping in Camber- 
well Grove Chapel. The popularity of Mr. Irons increased rapidly, and by dint of 
great zeal and energy on the part of his congregation and friends, means were found 
to secure the site of the Camberwell Grove Chapel. The negotiations respecting 
the securing of this place, however, were beset with the greatest opposition, if not 
with almost positive persecution, and the lord of the manor was induced to put a 
barrier across the grove with a view to stopping the builders' carts from bringing the 
materials to the site, and there was a threat that if they did persist, an action for 
trespass would be brought against them. However, in the face of all these difficulties 
the chapel was built, and built, too, in the short space of five months. As a striking 
contrast to the reception afforded the present minister, it may be mentioned that 
when the foundation-stone was laid, Mr. Irons was left unsupported by the presence 
of other Dissenting ministers, with the exception, we are told, of one brother. The 
chapel was opened with 100 members, and so rapidly did the congregation increase, 
that it was found necessary to enlarge it in 1839 by the addition of two wings. 
For more than thirty years Mr. Irons continued to labour in connection with 
this chapel, and at the same time he conducted lectures, &c., at Jewin Crescent, 
Aldersgate Street. It is said that the " Home Mission " first originated in connec- 
tion with Camberwell Grove Chapel. During Mr. Irons' ministry, the chapel was 
attended by some 300 to 400 members, and the congregation was so large that there 
was not accommodation for all who wished to hear him. Mr. Irons, who died in 
1852, was succeeded by the Rev. James Jay, although there was a short interregnum, 
during which another minister was, to a certain extent, on his trial. Mr. Jay came 
from Hackney, and is a staunch exponent of the particular theological views for 
which Mr. Irons was known. Mr. Jay has been the respected pastor ever since, or, 
in other words, for a period of twenty years or so. Recently, however, his advancing 
infirmities made his friends and himself anxious that some one should be found to 
take his place as the pastor of Camberwell Grove Chapel. At the age of 74 it 
may readily be conceived that Mr. Jay is entitled to rest from his ministerial cares 
and responsibilities ; and by his own request, as also that of his friends, an invitation 
was sent to the Rev. Thomas Bradbury (of Barrow Hill, Chesterfield) to become the 
pastor, and that gentleman, after repeated solicitations from many of his ministerial 
brethren, besides the church, signified his acceptance of the " call." To the credit of 
those connected with Camberwell Grove Chapel, although Mr. Jay ceases to be its 
pastor, he will receive the sum of 150 per annum for the remainder of his life, 
which, considering their obligations to their new minister, and other expenses, speaks 
well for the practical Christianity of the members of this chapel. 

The recognition services to inaugurate the entry into the pastoral office of the 
Rev. Thomas Bradbury took place at the chapel 011 Thursday, September 10th, 1874, 
and the proceedings were of a most enthusiastic character. 



CAMBERWELL NEW ROAD CHAPEL. 

The church assembling here was formed September 1st, 1853, and was established 
by certain members of Grove Chapel, shortly after the death of the Rev. Joseph 
Irons. A school-room in Waterloo Street was the first place of meeting ; and in 
April, 1854, Mr.^Tiddy commenced his regular ministry. Mr. Tiddy resided in 



230 Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

Belgium as the agent of the British and Foreign Bible Society from 1835 to 1854. 
The* memorial stone of this chapel was laid by Sir John Key, Bart., Chamberlain of 
the City of London, March 29th, 1856. 



COTTAGE GREEN CHAPEL. 

Cottage Green Chapel, Southampton Street, Camberwell, was opened in 1844, as a 
preaching station, under the auspices of the Rev. John Burnet and the Rev. Edward 
Steane, D.D., and after several unsuccessful attempts to gather a permanent congre- 
gation, the building was purchased by the Rev. Benjamin Lewis (for many years 
pastor of Trinity Street Chapel, Borough) and his friends, and reopened as a Baptist 
chapel (open communion) on Wednesday, April 5th, 1854, the Revs. Dr. Steane and 
Katterns being preachers on the occasion. The ministry of the Rev. B. Lewis, which 
extended through a period of nearly five years, was closed by his lamented death on 
December 31st, 1858. The present pastor,] the Rev. James Sears, commenced his 
stated labours on Lord's Day, April 17th, 1859, and during his ministry the church 
and congregation have largely increased. The chapel has been considerably enlarged 
and improved, and school-rooms erected at a cost of above 1,700; a Sunday 
school of about 500 scholars is successfully conducted by thirty voluntary teachers. 
Dorcas, Help in Trouble, and other societies are in active operation ; two native 
preachers in India are maintained principally by the contributions of Sunday 
scholars, and a large and interesting Band of Hope meets weekly in the school-room. 
The combined influences of these and other agencies are rendering the church and 
congregation at Cottage Green a power for great good in the neighbourhood. 



D'EYNSFORD ROAD CHAPEL. 

This chapel was built as a Sabbath school in 1856, and altered and opened for 
public worship in 1863, as a Nonconformist chapel, under the pastorate care of the 
Rev. Mr. George Gosling. It is capable of seating about 150 persons. At present 
there is no regular minister, the pulpit being furnished " with supplies." 



HANOVER CHAPEL. 

Mr. Marshall, in his interesting Memorials, tells us that the founder of this 
church was the Rev. John Maynard, for some years the vicar of Camberwell. Mr. 
Marshall says " he came to reside at Peckham, in the lane leading to the Old Kent 
Street Road, which was immediately afterwards and is still called Meeting House Lane. 
There is no doubt that he first preached in his own house ; and afterwards, in the 
year 1657, the old meeting-house was built, in which the congregation worshipped 
till their removal to Rye Lane." It certainly appears doubtful, on the face of it, that 
amidst all the persecutions which followed the restoration of Charles II. a meeting- 
house should have been built and regularly used at Peckham, and the more so since 
no trace of a "conventicle" at Peckham is to be found in the returns made to 
Sheldon, and no trace of it is to be found in the licences of 1672. That ejected 



CHURCHES AND CHAPELS. 



231 



ministers did occasionally preach atPeckham is beyond doubt,* but only as opportunity 
offered, and not as regularly appointed ministers of a church. 

For instance, it appears that the Rev. Bartholomew Ashwood, who was ejected 
from the vicarage of Axminster, came to Peckham in 1664. Joseph Osborn, vicar of 
Benenden, another ejected minister, found shelter at Peckham in 1681, and remained 
in Camberwell eight years. John Beaumont was then chosen pastor, and he was 
succeeded by John Ashwood, son of the ejected minister, who continued at Peckham 
till his death in 1706. 

For ten years after the death of Mr. Ashwood a blank occurs in the history of the 
church. 

In 1716 Samuel Chandler was chosen pastor, f and on his removal to the Old 
Jewry, the pulpit was occupied, in 1726, by Thomas Hadfield, M.D.,J who officiated 
as pastor till his death in 1741, when 

John Milner, D.D., was called to the pastoral office. Dr. Milner, we gather, was 
" a solid " but not attractive preacher. Dr. Milner remained for sixteen years, and 
died June, 1757. During his pastorate the meeting-house was enlarged. Chief 
Justice Copelarid, who was an active member of the church, was a contributor to 
the building fund. Dr. Milner, when forgotten as a preacher, will be remembered 
as a schoolmaster, as it was at his establishment that Oliver Goldsmith experienced 
the misery of being an usher. 

The Rev. Samuel Billingsley, of Bradford, Wilts, then held charge for about 
twelve years, and was succeeded by 

Rev. Richard Jones, the immediate predecessor of Dr. Collyer. Mr. Jones entered 
upon his ministry in February, 1770, and continued pastor thirty years. During 
the pastorate of Mr. Jones the freehold of the chapel was purchased by the con- 
tributions of the congregation, and put into trust for their use. But Mr. Jones was 
not by any means successful as a preacher. His doctrine was not considered sound, 
and the congregation is said to have dwindled down to one old woman in the gallery 
and to thirty or forty people downstairs, whilst the building was in a most dila- 
pidated condition, some of the gallery windows being broken and an old shutter put 
up to keep out the wind. 

Under these depressing circumstances, William Bengo Collyer, a youth of eighteen, 
then a student at the Old College, Homerton, was invited to preach, and on the 1st 
December, 1801, he accepted the pastorate. The congregation rapidly increased, and 
in October, 1808, the ineeting-house was closed for repairs and enlargement. Two 
side galleries were made and a piece of ground purchased for future extension on the 
north side, and subsequently it was found necessary to rebuild the chapel entirely, 
which was done in 1816, at a cost of about 3,600, and on the 17th June, 1817, it 
was opened for divine service, their Royal Highnesses the Dukes of Kent and 

were seuerall substantiall Citizens (the whole 
Kennel were so) to Whom a Knave of Oxford (for 
Cambridge breeds noe such Rogues) called D' Wil- 
kinson (made a Master of a Colledge) held forth, and 
does hee not deserue, not only his former pardon, 
but p'sent p'ferment but to leaue these to the 
gallows (wheire I most heartily wish them)." 

t See chapter on Local Worthies. 

J In the charge given to Dr. Hadfield, he is ad- 
dressed in these words, " Though by your learn- 
ing and diligence you have attained to a capacity 
of pursuing greater advantages another way, and 
by which several, once designed for the ministry, 
have very much advanced themselves ; yet not- 
withstanding this, and in such a day as this, when 
the ministry is rendered and become contemptible 
in the eyes of almost all sorts of people, you have 
offered yourself to the service of God's house." 

Allport, Collections. 



* The following is extracted from the State 
Papers, Domestic Series, Car. II. vol. 131, No. 52 : 

T. Rosse, in a letter dated from Salisbury, Aug. 
29th, 16(55, to his " very deare ffreind " Joseph 
Williamson, Esq., writes as follows : 

" The Fanatiques are very buisy and I am as- 
sured from a little Agent that they haue their 
hopes, as high as ever wee had Ours w n wee were 
Rebells to the State, as they now to the King 8* 
W m Armorer last weeke luckily surprized a Wagon 
w th about 20 barrells of powder goeing through 
Redding to Malmsbury and hath imprison'd the 
Carrier, who says hee tooke them up at Maidenhead 
but S r W m being a good old Bloodhound fellow's 
the sent both wayes and its believ'd will un heard 
some Rogues in both places and discover some 
Armes gone to Malmesbury in Hogsheads the 
weeke before. At Camberwell neare Lambeth 
(last week) was a Conventicle broken up, where 



232 Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

Sussex* attending the opening. Dr. Collyer's successful career and justly popular 
pastorate is noticed elsewhere. It only remains for us to state here that on the 9th 
January, 1854, he ended an honourable and useful career, and in commemoration of 
his name and work the Collyer Memorial Schools, in the High Street, Peckham, have 
since been built. In order to assist Dr. Collyer in the pastorate, the Rev. H. J. 
Gamble was chosen co-pastor in November, 1846, and the chapel was then further 
enlarged. In October, 1852, Mr. Gamble removed from Peckham, and was followed 
by the Rev. Robert Wye Betts, of New College, London, who was chosen 
assistant minister, and entered upon his duties May 1st, 1853. 

Mr. Betts, who during his ministry was afflicted with severe and continuous ill- 
health, held charge until December, 1868, on the 1st of which month he entered 
into rest, much beloved by his sorrowing flock. After an interregnum of nearly 
two years, the Rev. G. B. Ryley was appointed in November, 1870, and under 
his able and faithful teaching Hanover Chapel is again happily taking its place 
in the front rank of Nonconformist churches. 



HEATON ROAD CHAPEL. 

This chapel, known as Zion Chapel, belongs to the Independents. The 
members originally met for worship in the Mission House on Peckham Rye. 
This place becoming too small, a fund was raised and the present chapel built to 
seat 300, at a cost of 1,300. The memorial-stone was kid by Mr. E. Vinall, 
minister of Regent Street Chapel, City Road, May 5th, 1873 ; the stone was 
given by D. C. Preston, of Nunhead. The chapel was opened for worship Sep- 
tember 21st, 1873. 



HILL STREET CHAPEL. 

The Free Methodists have erected a substantial building in Hill Street, Peck- 
ham. The Rev. J. Coman is the present minister. 



JAMES'S GROVE BAPTIST CHAPEL. 

Commenced in a small room in South Street ; it was then removed to the Rose- 
mary Branch in 1869 ; the memorial-stone of the present building was laid by the 
Eev. C. H. Spurgeon, on July 19, 1870. The first and present minister is the Rev. 
J. B. Field. It is capable of seating 335 persons, and cost .1860. 



CONGREGATIONAL CHAPEL, LINDEN GROVE, PECKHAM RYE. 

This chapel owes its erection to the efforts of friends living on the Rye and at 

Nunhead, who felt the need of a convenient place of worship. There was a small 

building erected on private ground at Nun Green, where some few worshipped, 

Mr. Austin, a schoolmaster at Nunhead, acting as minister for some time. On his 

removal to Canada, Mr. J. Reid, one of the secretaries of the London Missionary 

lety, w!tl Mr. Grow and others, officiated, and the congregation feeling the need 

* For a farther account of Dr. Collyer, see chapter on Local Worthies. 



CHURCHES AND CHAPELS. 233 

of a larger place of worship, collected money for the purpose of enlarging the 
building there. At this time, Mr. Gamble leaving Hanover Chapel, several of the 
worshippers there left too, and uniting with the friends at Nun Green, they exerted 
themselves and conjointly raised the present handsome and suitable building in 
Linden Grove, then called Cemetery Road. 

The new structure was opened in May, 1857, the Rev. J. Sherman, Henry Gamble, 
Newman Hall, and R. W. Betts taking part in the services. 

The first pastor was the Rev. J. Hiles Kitchens, F.L.S. He was afterwards 
.succeeded by the Rev. L. Herschell, and subsequently by the present pastor, the Rev. 
J. Chetwode Postans. 



LORDSHIP LANE BAPTIST CHAPEL. 

The memorial-stone of this chapel was laid by Dr. Steane, late of Denmark Place, 
Camberwell, on the 5th August, 1872 ; and on the 1st January, 1873, it was opened 
for public worship. The cost of the land and building together was about .2,400. 

The original iron chapel on the same site was erected in 1869. 

Mr. H. J. Tresidder is the present (and first) pastor. 

Mr. R. G. Battley, a member of the church, supplied the designs for the new 
building. 



LOWER PARK ROAD CHAPEL. 

The members of this chapel first met for worship in a room, No. 15, Hill Street, 
Peckham, in the year 1853, but had no regular minister until June, 1856, when a 
place (since used as a pianoforte manufactory) was fitted up to hold eighty persons. 
The Rev. Thomas J. Cole was appointed pastor, and for twelve years continued his 
ministry there . Mr. Cole was subsequently appointed chaplain at Nunhead, which 
position he still holds. The meeting-place in Hill Street soon became too small, and 
in the following year a chapel was built seating about 250 people. In 1859 the land 
for the present chapel was taken, the foundation-stone being laid in July, 1861, by 
Sir Morton Peto, Bart. It is capable of holding about 900 people, and was opened 
for worship in July, 1862. The building is 55 feet long and 75 feet wide, of the 
Grecian order of architecture. The stones forming the basement were originally a 
part of old Westminster Bridge. The present minister is the Rev. T. Tarn, under 
whose ministry the congregation has greatly increased in number, so that a gallery 
was built to meet the increased demand for seats. In connection with the chapel 
are schools attended by more than 1,000 children, and two mission stations, one of 
which, though occupied still by the Sunday school of Park Road Chapel, was leased 
to the Rev. James Fleming, and is still used for the services of the Camden Church 
Mission, being, so far as we know, the only place where Church and Dissent work 
harmoniously under one roof. The place has since become one of the Board schools. 
This Mission Hall was commenced in a tin-worker's shed capable of holding forty 
people ; the present buildings on the same spot have been so enlarged as to accom- 
modate about 450, which number have often been present at Mr. Fleming's readings. 
The bricks which formed the first Mission Hall came from the levelling of the 
tombs in Spitalfields churchyard. The scholar whose name was first on the register 
when the school commenced seventeen years ago is now the superintendent. 



234 Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 



MANSION HOUSE CHAPEL. 

The Mansion House Chapel was built in 1797 by the Rev. William Smith, M.A., 
who then conducted a respectable academy in Bowyer House. He preached here for 
some time, but no church was formed until his removal in 1799. 

The Rev. William Berry, classical tutor at Hoxton Academy, became pastor of the 
first church, and on his resignation from ill-health in the year 1812, the Rev. John 
B. Innes, of Trowbridge, was chosen minister. He removed to Weymouth in 
March, 1824. On the 7th of October following the Rev. William Orme became 
pastor, and during his ministry the church acquired a position of marked distinction 
and usefulness. Mr. Orme was born at Falkirk, February 3rd, 1787. In 1800 he 
was bound apprentice to a trade in which he felt no interest, and which in 1805 he 
abandoned for the ministry. 

In his preparatory studies he is said to have made such an impression that he was 
generally called upon to preach three times a day. As secretary of the London 
Missionary Society he displayed great ability. His writings were also appreciated 
at the time, and the following, amongst others, are from his pen : Life of John 
Owen, D.D. : Life and Times of Richard Baxter ; Bibliotheca Biblica, a small volume 
on the Lord's Supper. He died on the 8th of May, 1830, and was buried in Bunhill 
Fields. 

The Rev. John Burnet succeeded Mr. Orme, entering upon his duties on the 12th 
September, 1830. In early life Mr. Burnet had been a hearer of Mr. Orme when 
minister at Perth, and his judicious training was never forgotten. "In person,"* 
Mr. Burnet is described as a " man of vigorous proportions, firm, massive, yet full of 
vitality; and so radiant in countenance, that his presence seemed to cheer the 
assembly whilst adding to its conscious strength. His eloquence was, like himself, 
fresh, manly, and thoroughly effective." 

In 1852 it was resolved to build a new place of worship on a freehold site at 
Camberwell Green, and the sum of 8,000 was soon raised for the purpose. 

In 1855 his congregation, in commemoration of the twenty-fifth anniversary of his 
pastorate, presented Mr. Burnet with a purse of 500. - 

Mr. Burnet died in his 74th year, on the 10th of June, 1862, and was succeeded by 
the Rev. John Pillans, who for some time previously had acted as co-pastor. 

The old Mansion House Chapel is now used by the Baptists, and the Rev. W. K. 
Rowe is the minister. 



MARLBOROUGH CHAPEL. 

This Congregational chapel dates its origin about 1825. At that time a few of the 
residents made an attempt to meet what they felt to be the religious needs of the 
neighbourhood. They opened a Sunday school in the Old Kent Road, holding it in 
the cooperage of a Mr. Weemys, where also they conducted a preaching service in 
the afternoon. Having obtained on lease a plot of land in Marlborough Place, they 
proceeded to the erection of the present chapel. Thomas Wilson, Esq., laid the 
foundation-stone November 14, 1826, and the building was opened for divine 
worship in August of the following year. Under the presidency of the Rev. Dr. 
Bennett a church was organized on September 12, 1833. The first pastor was the 
Rev. Thomas Hughes, who died after a brief service of ten months. The Rev. 

* Dr. Waddington's Surrey Congregational History. 



MARLBOROUGH CHAPEL, OLD KENT ROAD. 




CHURCHES AND CHAPELS. 235 

[enry Richard was ordained pastor November 11, 1835. By his energy this chapel 
ras emancipated from its heavy debt ; and the flourishing British Schools, Oakley 
'lace, Old Kent Road, owe their existence to his resolute adhesion to the voluntary 
mnciple in education. Mr. Richard resigned his charge May 24, 1850, to devote his 
ill time and abilities to the work before him as secretary of the Peace Society, in 
fhich capacity his name has become universally known through Europe and the 
Inited States. He was elected M.P. for Merthyr, in Wales, at the last general election, 
id ranks as one of the foremost Nonconformists in the House of Commons. His 
successor at Marlborough Chapel was the Rev. T. G. Pigg, B.A., a minister of most 
estimable character, who, after a pastorate of over ten years, died December 6, 1860. 
The Rev. W. A. Essery, of Cheshunt College, the present energetic and successful 
pastor of the church, was ordained May 14, 1861. The interior of the chapel since 
then has been entirely reconstructed, commodious school and class rooms and 
vestries have been built at a cost of nearly 4,000, and a powerful impulse has been 
given to every branch of Christian and philanthropic work. 

From the last Year Book, published in 1873, the following facts are gathered : 
There are four Sunday schools in operation, in as many different localities of the 
neighbourhood, containing upwards of 1,300 scholars. Thirty-two districts are 
visited by visitors who have 721 families under their care. A City Missionary 
labours, under the direction of the church, in a district bounded by Rolls Road, 
Cobourg Road, and Surrey Canal ; his visits are about 5,000 in the year. Three 
Mothers' Societies are worked, by the ladies of the congregation one held at the 
chapel, another at Ann Street, and a third at Ledbury Street Mission. These 
societies have upwards of 150 members, and the money used in their working is 
just 120. There is also an Infants' Friend and Dorcas Society for assisting 
poor lying-in women with the loan of bags of linen and gifts of groceries and 
money. Over thirty cases are recorded for the year. In addition is a Sick 
Relief Fund, distributing nearly 25 amongst seventy poor families, and occa- 
sioning 240 visits to them. Beside these institutions, there are a most flourishing 
Young Men's Association, Young Men's Bible Class, Young Ladies' Improvement 
Association, and a Band of Hope. Whilst labouring thus for the good of those 
immediately around the chapel, the sum of over 130 was raised in the year for 
missions to the heathen and Jews. It will thus be seen that Marlborough. 
Chapel within a"! few years has arisen to be one of the strongest centres of 
benevolent and Christian influence in the parish. 






NEATE STREET CHAPEL. 

This chapel was opened in November, 1855, by certain members of the 
Methodist ' New Connexion, at a cost of about 800, including the building of 
the schools. The little chapel is capable of accommodating about 150 persons, 
and the school-room 100. The members first met in a room in the New Church 
Road, Camberwell, and subsequently in a school-room in the Albany Road. 



ST. GEORGE'S CONGREGATIONAL CHAPEL. 

In the St. George's Road, Camberwell, is an iron building, opened as a Congrega- 



236 Y e PAKISH OF CAMERWELL. 

tional chapel in October, 1871. It is capable of seating about 500 persons. Mr. 
Harris, the present minister, was appointed in February, 1872. About 2CO children 
attend the Sunday school, which meets in the chapel. 



SUMNER ROAD CHAPEL. 

The Primitive Methodists are erecting a chapel in the Sumner Road, Peckham, 
the foundation-stone of which was laid by Horace Marshall, Esq., of Brixton. The 
memorial-stone was laid by John Olney, Esq., of Lewisham. 



UNITARIAN CHAPEL, ALDER STREET. 

This small chapel was opened on Easter Sunday, 1872. It seats about sixty persons, 
and has a Sunday school, attended by about forty scholars. The present minister 
is Mr. G. Carter. A plot of ground has been purchased in the Annendale Road, 
where it is intended to erect an iron chapel to seat 200 persons, in lieu of the 
present building in Alder Street. 



WESLEYAN CHAPEL, OAKLEY PLACE. 

The members of this congregation first met in a temporary iron structure in the 
Albany Road. The foundation-stone of the present building was laid by E. Light- 
foot, Esq., of Accrington, Lancashire. Memorial-stones were subsequently laid by 
Messrs. Tustin, Stephens, May, and Chubb. This chapel is capable of accom- 
modating 1,000 persons, and is 90 feet in length by 45 feet in width. The first 
minister appointed was the Rev. James Branson, who was succeeded by the Rev. 
Josiah Evans. The school, lecture, and class rooms are under the chapel, and are 
well attended. 



WESLEYAN CHAPEL, QUEEN'S ROAD. 

Of the early history of Methodism in Peckham but little is known. Probably it is 
of comparatively modern date. The first public building occupied by the Methodists 
was that in Harder's Road, called Providence Hall, now divided into cottages, and 
immediately adjoining Queen's Road Chapel. This was superseded in 1834 by the 
small but substantial chapel in Stafford Street. This chapel owed its erection chiefly 
to the energy of the Rev. J. P. Haswell, at that time superintendent of the Southwark 
circuit. When Stafford Street Chapel was built it was situated in the midst of fields 
and gardens. It was erected without a gallery, but the congregation increased, and 
rendered necessary the erection of one. At length, in 1862, the want of a larger 
Methodist Chapel to meet the demands of the growing population of Peckham, which 
now numbered over 30,000, was so strongly felt, that a site was secured in Queen's 
Road, at a cost of 1,600, and, mainly through the exertions of the Rev. J. S. 
Workman, the present Queen's Road Chapel was built. The foundation-stone was 










WESLEYAN CHAPEL, QUEEN'S ROAD. 



CHURCHES AND CHAPELS. 



237 



laid on May 5, 1864, by the late Mr. Walter Powell. Upwards of ,1,200 was placed 
upon the stone. The chapel was opened by the late Rev. L. Thornton, M.A., in 1865, 
the last public official act of this distinguished and deeply-lamented minister. After 
the opening of the new chapel the building in Stafford Street was used as a day 
school. The congregation and society grew rapidly at Queen's Road, and soon felt 
the need of increased class-room accommodation, and on the 23rd of October, 1874, 
the foundation-stones of additional class-rooms and lecture hall were laid, the cost of 
of which is estimated to be .1,300. These rooms were publicly opened on the 21st 
January, 1875. 

The chapel is in the Early Decorated Gothic style, and is a parallelogram in shape, 
with a tower and spire, 120 feet in height, at the north-western angle. The materials 
used are Kentish rag with Bath stone dressings. The ^ main front of the chapel 
contains a large five-light traceried window, and the elevation is flanked by a turret 
54 feet high in the south-western angle. The roofs of the chapel and turret are slated, 
in both cases rows of blue and red slates being alternated. The internal dimensions 
are 81 feet in length by 43 feet 8 inches in breadth. An apse at the back of the 
chapel, while adding to the apparent length of the building, provides a space for an 
organ and for the accommodation of the choir. There are galleries both at the sides 
and end of the chapel, and by the side of the apse is a vestry 10 feet by 14 feet 
6 inches. The ceiling is of a slightly arched form, the height in the centre being 
37 feet, and at the sides 24 feet, and is throughout divided into panels by wooden 
ribs. The pulpit is of elegant design, executed in deal, stained slightly and varnished, 
and the pews and all visible woodwork are stained a light colour and varnished. The 
idows are of rolled cathedral glass with narrow borders of light amber colour. 
There is ample provision for ventilation, and the heating is effected by means of 
Haden's patent warm-air apparatus, and the lighting by brass gaseliers suspended 
the ceiling, so as thoroughly to diffuse the light. The general effect of the 
ior conveys an impression of warmth and comfort, and its acoustic properties are 
The total accommodation is for 1,000 persons. 

Mr. R. H. Thompson acted as secretary to the building committee. 

The present minister is the Rev. W. Gibson, B.A. 



WYNDHAM ROAD CHAPEL. 

The Baptists have utilized two railway arches under the London, Chatham, and 
)over Railway in the Wyndham Road as a place of worship, and notwithstanding 
the limited accommodation afforded, the arrangements are most excellent. The arch 
which is used as a chapel is capable of seating about 200 persons ; the other arch is 
used as a school-room. This mission is an offshoot of Mr. Spurgeon's Tabernacle 
the pulpit having been " supplied " from his college. Messrs. Babington, Almy, and 
Jabez J. Harman have successively occupied the pulpit. 



CAMBERWELL PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

The foundation-stone of this church was laid on the 7th of May, 1868, by Earl 
Dalhousie. The building, which is situate a short distance from the Camberwell 



238 Y c PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

Road, was erected from the designs of Mr. John Sivock, Mr. Wells being the 
builder. Attached to the church is a spacious lecture hall. 

The first minister was the Rev. Robert Taylor, of the Greyfriars Church, Edin- 
burgh, who has recently been appointed to another church. 



CAMBERWELL ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH. 
THE CHURCH OF THE SACRED HEART OF JESUS. 

The original members of this church, then consisting of ten persons, first met for 
worship i^ a small room on Denmark Hill, whence they moved to Chepstow Cottage, 
and some stables in the Wyndham Road were subsequently taken and fitted up for 
worship. The present church was soon after commenced. The Prince Imperial had 
consented to lay the foundation-stone, but, through unavoidable circumstances, was 
prevented from attending. The church was erected from designs supplied by Mr. C. 
A. Buckler, architect, and is in the Early English style (twelfth century). It is 104 
feet long and 45 feet wide, and is capable of holding about 600 people ; the altar, 
tesselated pavement of the sanctuary, also the pulpit and side altars of Our Lady 
and St. Joseph, are of Caen stone, with marble and alabaster decorations. The 
church was opened for worship by Archbishop Manning. The cost, with organ and 
church furniture, is estimated at .3,000. 

There are two priests attached to the mission the senior priest, the Rev. J. 
M'Grath ; the junior, the Rev. H. Yandoorne. 

There are flourishing schools for boys, girls, and infants, attended by about 300 
children ; the girls are taught by certified sisters of the Order of Notre Dame. The 
new girls' school is a pretty Gothic building in Pitman Street, consisting of two rooms 
60 feet by 20 feet. There is also a middle-class school for girls, attended by about 
sixty children, under the superintendence of sisters of the Order of Notre Dame. 



GERMAN EVANGELICAL CHURCH, WINDSOR ROAD, 

DENMARK HILL. 

This community first met for worship in Camberwell in Dr. Crofts' school in 
January, 1854, and Mr. Meyer was engaged as pastor. There being no German 
church in Camberwell, the members resolved to build one, and the money was raised 
by private subscription for the present building in the Windsor Road, which was 
first opened December 16th, 1855. It is capable of seating about 300 persons, and is 
supported by voluntary contributions the sittings being all free. Service is only 
held on Sunday morning, and is conducted entirely in German. The clergyman 
must be ordained by the German Protestant Church, and is elected by the community 
for life, every member who has subscribed for one year having a vote. The affairs 
of the church are managed by five elders, who are elected for three years at annual 
meetings of the congregation. The church is specially independent of any kind of 
outside supervision. Mr. Meyer died in June, 1871, and Mr. Kohlreuter was elected 
in January, 1872. There are about eighty families belonging to the community, who 
are principally persons of substantial means. 




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o 



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a 



CHURCHES AND CHAPELS. 239 



HOME MISSION, LEIPSIC EOAD. 

In the Leipsic Road is a quiet little centre of usefulness known as the Home 
Mission, a branch of the London City Mission. The principal room in the building 
seats about 300 ; and in addition to the Sunday and week-day services there are 
other organizations connected with it Bible class, district visiting, Good Templars' 
lodge, &c. 

The place was formerly used in conjunction with a British school. Mr. Norton 
Smith, of Cold Harbour Lane, who has been a generous supporter of the home, 
bought up the lease of the building in 1873, since which time the Home Mission 
alone has been carried on. The present minister, Mr. Harris, has been connected 
with it for fifteen years. 



NEW JERUSALEM CHURCH, FLODDEN ROAD, CAMBERWELL. 

This place of worship belongs to the religious denomination called the New 
Jerusalem Church, but more frequently styled Swedenborgians. 

In 1864 a small society was formed in South London, which met for worship under 
the ministry of Mr. E. Austin at Dunn's Literary Institute, Newington Causeway, 
A building fund was at once commenced, and so well was it supported, that the 
foundation-stone of the present edifice was laid on May 15th, 1868, the church being 
opened on October 31st following. 

Outside is a board announcing that the structure is " dedicated to the worship of 
the Lord Jesus Christ the only true God." 

The church is of a rectangular plan, 57 feet long and 34 feet wide internally, and 
will accommodate about 250 persons. In the rear is a small lecture-room, together 
with vestry, &c. A tower of about 80 feet high gives considerable effect to the 
building. 

The total cost of the structure, including organ, was nearly .3,000, and only a 
small portion of this sum now remains unpaid. Mr. Austin still officiates as minister, 
and various meetings are held during the week for elucidation of the doctrines and 
also for social intercourse. A Sunday school, mainly consisting of members' children, 
assembles every Sunday afternoon, and a small publication called the Camberwell New 
Church Chronicle specifies from time to time the operations of the various organizations 
connected with the society. 



PECKHAM ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH. 

It was not until the year 1855 that the Roman Catholics of Peckham were enabled 
to erect for themselves a place of worship. The mission had been entrusted by the 
Right Reverend Dr. Grant, the then Catholic Bishop of Southwark, to the Capuchin 
Fathers, one of the branches of the Franciscan Order. The congregation consisting 
principally of poor and struggling people, great exertions were required to collect the 
means necessary to carry out the undertaking. One of the earliest contributors to the 
work was the late King of Naples, and the first of the congregation to offer help was 
an Irish woman, who, as soon as she heard of the arrival of the Fathers, brought a 
donation of 5 and a liberal supply of household necessaries ; and this zeal and 
fervour being shared by others of the flock, all difficulties were at length overcome, 
and a small and poor but decent chapel and school were erected in the Park Road, 



240 ^ PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

Peckham. In this simple building several distinguished prelates of the Order, and 
preachers famed for their eloquence (amongst them His Eminence the late Cardinal 
Wiseman), have pleaded the cause of the poor Catholics of Peckham. And such 
success crowned the unwearied exertions of the priests of the mission, that, after the 
lapse of a few years, the original chapel proved too small for the greatly increased 
congregation, and it became an imperative necessity to erect a much larger building. 
The 3 first stone of the present beautiful church was laid by the Right Reverend Dr. 
Grant on the 7th of July, 1859, and it was opened by the same prelate on the 4th of 
October, 1866, with all the magnificent ceremonies allowed by the Roman Catholic 
Chur ch, there being present the Superiors of the Religious Orders in England and 
Ireland and most of the Catholic clergy of London. At these opening services His 
Grace the Archbishop of Westminster preached in the morning, and the Right 
Reverend Dr. Amherst, Bishop of Northampton, in the evening. The church is 
124 feet in length by 70 feet in breadth, and maybe considered as one of Mr. Pugin's 
best efforts. It is simple, elegant, and substantial ; its walls have frequently echoed 
to the eloquent words of Archbishop Manning, Monseigneur Capel, and many other 
popular and distinguished preachers. There are two schools one for girls, and the 
other for boys, both under Government inspection. There are about 150 attendants 
in the former and 130 in the latter ; both schools have obtained excellent reports 
from the Government inspectors. The Roman Catholic district of Peckham contains 
about 3,000 Catholics. Since the formation of this mission, great educational and 
social progress has been made in the neighbourhood, very much having been done to 
improve the moral and physical condition of the poor. The Franciscan Order is one 
of the most remarkable and numerous in the Church of Rome. Before the French 
revolution of 1793 it contained between 40,000 and 50,000 members ; and although 
civil and religious revolutions have, in many countries, caused its suppression, it still 
numbers upwards of 12,000. It has established missions in India, the two Americas, 
and in most European countries. The Capuchins have received many marks of 
distinction from different Roman pontiffs, and, according to a decree of Bene- 
dict XIV., the preacher to the Papal Court is always a Capuchin. 

The Rev. Father Emidius, Superior of the Capuchin Community of Our Lady of 
Dolors, has been connected with the church since its establishment in Peckham. He 
is Italian by birth, and not long since became a naturalized British subject. He is 
much beloved not only by members of his own flock, but by Protestants of every 
denomination. 



THE FRIENDS' MEETING HOUSE. 

The Friends first met in a carpenter's workshop in Harder's Road about fifty-five 
years ago, and in 1835 the present Meeting House in Hanover Street was built The 
Friends were formerly a numerous body, and have always been noted for' their 
liberality and support of local charities, more particularly of course in the sup- 
port of those connected with their own immediate circle. One of the principal 
members, Mr. Thomas Cash, at present a guardian of this parish, belongs to a family 
which has long been intimately connected with the cause. The site on which the 
Meeting House now stands was formerly a pond, much prized by the boys of the last 
generation as a skating-ground. 



SCHOOLS. 




THE SCHOOL BOARD AND EDUCATION IN CAMBERWELL. 

jHE passing of the Elementary Education Act, 1870, gave Camberwell 
(as a portion of the Division of Lambeth) a new class of representatives 
i.e., members of the School Board for London. The extensive field 
for usefulness in developing the education of children, thenceforth 
to be practised on a very large scale, in order that the country might 
keep pace with Continental nations who had made very rapid strides of late 
years, naturally attracted a large number of candidates for the honours offered 
through this medium. The first election was fixed for the return of five members 
for this division, to be held on the 29th of November, 1870. As this was the first 
trial, and consequently an experiment, of the system of cumulative voting, as well a s 
the first effort to conduct voting by ballot on a large scale, the election provoked an 
extraordinary amount of interest. The Ballot Act, in respect of voting for Members 
of Parliament as well as for School Boards, is bound up with Camberwell, for it was 
here that the Right Hon. W. E. Forster, then Vice-President of the Committee of 
the Privy Council on Education, when preparing his Education Act, stationed himself 
at one or more of the polling-places in order to witness the effect in voting for the 
election of vestrymen, as adopted in Camberwell a practice reported to that minister, 
much to his surprise, by Mr. Middlemass, when attending with a deputation to wait 
upon Mr. Forster. 

At the end of three years, the term for which the first members were elected, a 
second election was held on the 27th November, 1873. The Church party had been 
in a minority on the first occasion ; and, fearing that the tendency of the new system 
of education would be to weaken the denominational schools, a strong and united effort 
was made by the friends of National schools to influence the elections all over the 
Metropolis in favour of their own representatives, the object being to secure sufficient 
care for their own denominational interests. In this effort the Church party was 
successful, inasmuch as they contrived to return 28 of the forty-nine represen- 
tatives, whereas at the first election they were only 21 strong. Nowhere did the 
feeling run higher, nor were the meetings conducted more vigorously, than in Cam- 
berwell. The Bishop of Winchester (Dr. Harold Browne) was brought on to the 
scene to lend the weight of his name and position, and to plead in his earnest but 
temperate style for the return of the Church candidates. The result was in a 
majority (three) of the members returned being of the Church section, and a minority 
(two) of Dissenters. The state of the poll was as follows : 



Candidates. 


Votes. 


Candidates. 


Votes. 


Rev. Evan Daniel, M.A. . 
Mr. W. F. Morgan . . 
Mr. T. E. Heller . 
Rev. G. M. Murphy . . 


17,022 
16,672 
14,690 
12,669 


Mr. J. Stiff . 
Mr. H.Wallace . . . 
Rev. F. Tugwell 


11,998 
10,764 
4,901 



The first five were declared to be elected, Mr. Morgan being the one residing in, 
and consequently immediately representing this parish ; and he has proved himself 
a most assiduous and painstaking member. 



242 



Y PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 



The state of the poll at the previous election was as follows : 



Candidates. 


Votes. 


Candidates. 


Votes. 


Mr. Stiff .... 


22,078 


Mr. Applegarth 


7,682 


Mr. Tressider . . . 


16,656 


Mr. Kavanagh 


4,724 


Sir Thomas Tilson . 


14,574 


Mr. C. White . . s',976 


Hon. A. McArthur . . 


11,963 


Mr. W. R. Selway . . 


3,419 


Mr. Charles Few 


10,508 


Mr. Mottershead 


3,063 







Mr. John Gibbons . . 


1,473 


Rev. G. M. Murphy . . 


8,402 


Mr. Shaen 


918 


Rev. F. Tugwell 


7,828 







The total number attending Public Elementary schools in Camberwell parish 
i.e., schools at which elementary education is the principal part of the instruction 
given, and at which the fees do not exceed 9d. a week at the time the census was 
taken by the School Board, in compliance with a request from the Education Depart- 
ment at Whitehall, which census was completed and a return made in April, 1871, 
was nearly 7,000. 

The annexed table is a complete list of all the elementary schools in the parish, as 
taken in the School Board census in the first four months of the Board's existence, 
by officers specially employed for the purpose, supplemented by replies in detail from 
the managers, teachers, or proprietors, in answer to a circular sent out by the 
Board : 



School. 


^w 

3 



Private. 


Adventui-e. 


Projected. 


Contemplated En- 
largement. 


Accommodation at 
8 sq. ft. per child. 


K 


* 




I 

73 

8 


St. Matthew's (Girls and Infants), National, Camberwell 
New Road 
Emmanuel, National, Camberwell Road 


1 
l 




.. 






330 

017 r 


405 


315 


Camberwell, Wyndham Road, Roman Catholic 

Nelson Street, Ragged, Wyndham Road 
Wyndham Road (Infants), Wyndham Road 




1 

i' 
i 




i' 




284 
300 
154 


J67 
233 


132 
162 


Brown, Mrs., 9, Clarendon Street, Camberwell New 
















84 


Payne, Miss, 29, Albany Road 
Gibson, Mrs., 30, St. George's Street 








1 
1 






52 


42 


6 
42 


Lmfoot, Mrs., 139, Cobourg Road, Old Kent Road 






j 


* * 








15 


Lewis, Mrs., 33, Smyrk's Road, Old Kent Road 
British, Oakley Road, Old Kent Road 


1 




1 




. 


61 

15 


45 
15 


45 
15 


Allen, Mrs., 60, Neate Street . 














459 


376 


St. George's National, New Church Road 


1 










17 


22 


22 


Camberwell, Green Coat and National, Camberwell 
Green 


1 














350 


St. Giles's (Infants and Girls), Waterloo Street 


i 










932 


546 


408 


Camberwell (Free), Waterloo Street . 


1 














175 


Voluntary, Waterloo Street 
Norgrove, Mrs., 5, Southampton Street '. 
\Vyatt, Mrs. and Miss, 18, Southampton Street 
Hope, Mr., 41, George Street 


l 




1 

1 
1 






131 
26 
39 


143 

127 
17 
26 


122 
112 
17 
26 


Fleming, Miss, 55, East Surrey Grove 






^ 










12 


Tiffin, Mrs., 190, Cator Street 












13 


26 


20 


Coman, Miss, 135, Cator Street, Commercial Road ' 
Camden Chapel, Mission Hall, Melon Ground 




i' 


1 






18 
20 


15 
35 


14 
30 


Fealy, Mrs., 15, Pelham Street, Kempton Road 
Camden Chapel, National, Sumner Road 


i' 




1 






20 


281 
25 


281 
25 


Middle Class (Boys), 27, Camden Grove . 
R ral d Mr ' and MrS>> 2A ' Branch Buildin S, Commercial 






1 






36 


74 


554 
67 


Christchurch (Infants), National, Arthur Street Old 
Kent Road . . . 


i 






" 




32 


61 


61 


' i 












200 


139 


111 



SCHOOLS. 



243 



School. 


1 


1 


Adventure. 


Projected. 


Contemplated En- 1 
largement. 


Accommodation at 
8sq. feet per child. 


i 



0* 

fc 




3 


St. Francis, Roman Catholic, Lower Park Road . . 
Lower Park Road, Ragged, Old Kent Road . 


1 

i* 


- 








i 


125 
100 
114 


170 
154 


165 
116 


Ansell, Miss, 8, Cornwall Road 
Cove, Miss, 6, Sidmouth Terrace, Commercial Road 
Ruston, Mr., 26, Arthur Street 






1 
1 
1 








20 
12 
49 


10 
12 
20 


10 
6 
20 


Ward, Mrs., 57, Arthur Street, Old Kent Road 
Peckham (Girls), British, Hill Street 


i* 





1 







24 
110 


8 
121 


8 
101 


Peckham, Wesleyan, Day, Stafford Street High Street 


i 










308 


250 


230 


St. Andrew's District Orchard Hill Street 


i 










97 


128 


106 


Church (Infants), 25, Clarkson Place Carlton Grove 




i 








25 


26 


23 


Hargrave, Mrs., 4, Shard's Road, Carlton Road 
New Hatcham, Ragged, Manor Street, Old Kent Road . 
Chandler, Miss, 27, Mawbey Road 





i 


1 

i' 







17 
130 
35 


33 
25 


27 
2*1 


Lee, Miss, 6, Earl Street, Albany Road 






i 






18 


24 


24 


Antrobus, Mr., 4, Milstead Terrace, Church Street . . 
Lurmiss, Mr., 13, Church Street, Old Kent Road . 
Swain, Mrs. , 4, Manor Street Old Kent Road 








i 

i 
i 


.. 


. 


22 
39 
13 


12 
41 
32 


11 
41 
17 


Young, Miss, 879, Old Kent Road ... 






i 






15 


14 


13 


Christ Church, National, Asylum Road 


i 










365 


316 


239 


Perkins, Mr. and Miss 13 York Grove 






i 






19 


16 


16 


Vitty, Mrs., Eland's Avenue, Clifton Road . 






i 






31 


13 


13 


Fry, Miss, 90, Lothian Road, Camberwell New Road . 
Peckham (Girls), Ragged, Victoria Place 





i* 


i 







49 
67 


49 
146 


46 
116 


Peckham (Boys), British High Street 


, 










221 


273 


197 


Peckham (National), 136, High Street . 


i 










237 


52 


39 


Gardiner, Miss, 8, Victoria Road 






i 






33 


28 


28 


St. Mary Magdalen's, Albert Road 


i 










383 


421 


364 


Cox, Miss, 20, Sturdy Road 
St. John's, East Dulwich, National, Peckham Rye . . 

St. John's, East Dulwich, Lordship Lane .... 
The "James Allen" (Girls), Dulwich . 


i 
i 


i' 


i 
't 


' 


1 


31 
161 

458 
58 
136 


26 
182 
458 
85 
50 


26 
158 

73 
37 


The National, Dulwich 


i 










271 


159 


114 


St. Peter's, National, East Dulwich 


i 










27 


50 


37 





















In giving the history of the School Board connection with Camberwell, it will 
perhaps be interesting to the readers of this work to know the modus operandi 
adopted by the Lambeth members on the commencement of operations in the Borough 
of Lambeth, with respect to the Education Act, 1870. Certain persons were ap- 
pointed, called visitors, with a superintendent to arrange and supervise their work. 
It was the duty of these visitors to call at every house, to schedule the names of 
all children between the ages of 3 and 13, and the school at which they were 
attending. In the cases of children between 5 and 13 years of age, who were 
not attending any school, or were not being educated at home, and no reasonable 
cause was shown for such apparent neglect, after various cautions and visits, notices 
were served upon the parents (called Notice A) to send such children to school 
within a given period specified on the notice. If this failed to have the desired 
effect, then a notice, B, was served upon the parents, summoning them to appear 
before the committee to show cause why they should not be taken before a magistrate 
and fined. In Lambeth, every lenity has been shown by the committee in all cases 
brought under their notice, and in order to give the parents no opportunity of making 
excuses, these meetings have always been held in the evening, and near the residence 
of the parents. Four, five, and sometimes six of these meetings have been held 
weekly, and although it has pressed heavily upon the committee and the superinten- 
dent, it is a rule that has always been adopted in Lambeth, and has worked with 
great success. It was not till the visitors had been at work for six months, or more, 



* Since closed. 



Since enlarged. 



244 



Y e PAKISH OF CAMERWELL. 



that compulsory powers in any case were enforced. The work of scheduling was 
commenced in April, 1872, with a staff of eight visitors, Mr. James H. Vockins, of 
Camberwell Vestry, being appointed superintendent ; two of the aforesaid, viz., 
Mr. John B. Brasted and Mr. C. S. Heesom, being appointed specially for 
the districts lying between Southampton Street and Peckham and Camberwell 
Road, and the neighbourhood of Wyndham Road and its environs. The effect of 
their work soon told upon the various schools, such as the Green Coat, Emmanuel, &c., 
and the returns showed a gradual but steady increase in the average attendance. 
In October, 1873, after the work had been reorganized, eight additional visitors were 
appointed, and compulsory measures were then immediately put in operation. All 
the cheap schools in Camberwell rapidly filled, and ultimately every other, until 
at last there was no further school accommodation. Temporary premises were then 
hired ; for instance, James Grove school-room, Hill Street Chapel, and the Mission 
Hall, Sunnier Road, formerly under the management of the Rev. J. Fleming, B.D., 
were placed under the control of the Board. The operations of the visitors, whose 
number had been largely increased, soon, however, filled these places, and spurred 
the School Management Committee on to greater exertions, in order to open the new 
buildings then in hand as soon as possible. In August, 1874, the first new block of 
schools was opened in Camberwell, at the borders of Camberwell and Deptford, to 
relieve the wants of the poorer classes lying north of the Old Kent Road. These 
schools, accommodating 959 children, very soon filled. In October following, 
another block of schools lying between the Camberwell Infirmary and Southampton 
Street was opened ; these schools accommodated 590 children, and in less than one 
month all the rooms were full. There are two large groups of schools very nearly 
completed, which will be in occupation by the time this work is published, one 
situated in Albany Row, and the other near the Rosemary Branch, capable of holding 
1,798 children, and there is another block of schools in rapid progress in Sumner 
Road for the accommodation of 913, and several other sites are scheduled. Camberwell 
will in the end thus receive her full share of attention and support. The number of 
visitors employed in the Lambeth Division is now thirty-four, of which eight are 
specially set apart for Camberwell. Nearly every house in Camberwell has been 
scheduled, and the visitors give the following details : 



Number of Houses. 


Number of Families. 


Total number of Children. 


Between 3 and 13 Years. 


Requiring Elementary Education. 


21,386 


20,451 


27,789 


23,445 



During the two years the visitors have been at work, they have served in Cam- 
berwell 5,400 A and 3,927 B notices. 

The beneficial result of serving the above notices was such, that it was found 
necessary in the cases of 127 children only to have recourse to the power of the police 
magistrate. Out of that number seventeen children have been removed from the care 
of their parents and sent to Industrial schools, the magistrates being of opinion that 
the parents had lost all control over them, and that it was desirable to place such 
children under a course of more rigorous discipline. Although all the children have 
not been sent to efficient schools, through the great want of accommodation, still they 
have been sent to schools of some class or other, as it was deemed desirable for them 



SCHOOLS. 



245 



to be removed from the streets ; but as each new school is opened, the effect of the 
notices is quickly perceived. 

In 1871, when the first returns were collected, it was shown that between 6,000 
and 7,000 children were in attendance at schools, while at the present time there are 
over 10,000 children in actual attendance at Public Elementary schools. In October, 
1874, the staff was largely increased by the addition of fourteen other visitors, making 
in all thirty-four. 

The following is the list of members, staff, &c., in connection with the whole of 
Lambeth : 

MEMBERS. 

Reverend Evan Daniel, M.A., Training College, Battersea. 

W. F. Morgan, Esq., East Dulwich House, East Dulwich. 

T. E. Heller, Esq., 2, Cedars Terrace, Queen's Road, Wandsworth Road. 

Reverend G. M. Murphy, 8, Finchley Road, Walworth. 

James Stiff, Esq., High Street, Lambeth. 



VISITORS. 



Mr. T. B. Raven. 

Mr. J. B. Brasted. 

Mr. J. Shaw (Camberwell). 

Mr. E. Heesom. 

Mr. C. S. Heesom. 

Mr. G. Prichard. 

Miss Wyatt. 

Mr. G. Gare (Camberwell). 

Mr. R. D. Walker. 

Miss Sydney. 

Mrs. Haynes. 

Mr. Channings. 

Mr. Erwood. 

Mr. Moore. 

Mr. Simmonds. 

Mrs. Martin. 

Mr. Davis. 



Mrs. Iselton (Camberwell). 

Mrs. Winter. 

Miss Bloomfield. 

Miss I. C. Stephens. 

Mr. W. I. Love. 

Mr. Perry (Camberwell). 

Mrs. Nuth (Camberwell). 

Mr. D. Blunden (Camberwell). 

Mrs. Toshach (CamberweU). 

Mr. Fisher. 

Mr. Morse. 

Mr. Oliver. 

Mr. Wint. 

Mr. PoweU (CamberweU). 

Mr. Langridge. 

Mr. Charles Myland. 

Mr. Fane. 



OFFICE CLERK. 
Mr. A. B. Head. 



SUPERINTENDENT. 
Mr. James H. Vockins. 

The following table gives a complete list of the new buildings either actually 
erected, in process of erection, or contemplated to be built by the School Board at 
the present time (January, 1875), with all the particulars as far as are known : 



246 



Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 



SITES. 





No. of children 
proposed to be 
built for. 




f-e ! || 


2 
"3 

cq 




^ * o 


ti 

"2 


CO 

^ 


fl 








S 


JS S i 8 


"8 




o8 


S, 


8 


3 S 




Name. 










M 


" P< 2 


"o 


WJ 


;" C3 


o 


PQ 













$ 







* > 


a 


S 


1 


"i % 





g 


?! 






I 


I 


1 
S 


1 


f 


I 1 


I 1 


|I 


1 


111 


I 


o' 


|! 


I 






















s. d. 










Albany Row, 
Camberwell. 


248 


255 


282 


785 


15,125 


825 23 2 6 

1 


Bd. 
Archi- 
tect. 


G. 
Stephen- 
son. 


6,436 10 6 


School 
nearly 
finished. 








Gloucester Road, 
Camberwell. 


324 


324 


365 


1013 


32,775 


2,575 


4614 


Do. 


Hill,- 
Higgs, 


10,268 70 


School 
to be com- 
pleted 


























March, 
















1 












1875. 








James Street, 
Southampton Street, 


214 


161 


215 


590 


11,326 


l,97o 1941210 


Do. 


G. 

Stephen- 


5,027 12 6 


Sep. 10, 

1S74. 


531 


393 


Bo; 


Camberwell. 










4S'fi 








son. 










Gi 












'o E 


















InJ , 












i ^ 


















Id., 












7,904 




















Canterbury Road, 
Camberwell. 


283 


289 


387 


959 


14,946 


1,300 


146 3 7 


Do. 


J.Kirk. 


7,706 10 6 


Aug. 31, 
1674. 


678 


543 


Bo; 

" Gil 






























2d. &, 






























Infa i. 


Surnner Road, 
Peckham. 


276 


276 


361 


913 


18.900 


1,000 


1818 


Do. 


W. Brass 


8,097 OC 


School to 
be com- 






























pleted 






























June, 






























1875. 








Lower Park Road, 
Peckham. 








50C 


25,053 














Not com- 
menced. 








Leipsic Road, 
Camberwell. 









72C 


23,338 













Not com- 
menced. 

















100( 


22,OOC 















Not com- 
menced. 





- 




Camberwell. 








Choumcrt Road. 








72( 


17.53C 












Not com- 




_ 




Peckham. 






















menced. 









SCHOOLS. 



247 



MANAGERS, ETC. 



a 


.d 

o 




Teachers. 


X 

H 


1 




Managers. 








is 

5 


1 




Male. 


Female. 


<5 


o 












The following representatives of the Division at the School 










Board are ex-officio managers, in the case of each School 
mentioned in all the following tables : 










Rev. Evan Daniel, Training College, Battersea, S.W. 










Mr. William F. Morgan, East Dulwich House, East Dul- 










wich, S.E. 










Mr. Thomas E. Heller, 2, Cedars Terrace, Queen's Road, 










Wandsworth Road, S.W. 










Rev. G. M. Murphy, 8, Finchley Road, Walworth, S.E. 
Mr. James Stiff, High Street, Lambeth, S.E. 






1 


.. 


Rev. R. Wearmouth, 3, Glengall Terrace, Old Kent Road, 
S.E. 






E 




Mrs. Wearmouth, ditto. 










Rev. J. Evans, Pepler Road, Old Kent Road, S.E. 
Mr. H. Hicks, 177, Albany Road, Camberwell, S.E. 
Mr. Moody, 100, Mann Street, Walworth, S.E. 










Mr. George Best, 47, Albany Road, Camberwell. 
Rev. Dr. Leary, 19, Peckham Grove, Camberwell. 










Rev. Samuel Smith, 113, Wells Street, Camberwell. 










Mr. J. P. Barrett, 34, Radnor Street, Camberwell. 
Mrs. Mills, 491, Old Kent Road. 










Rev. J. H. Hazel, St. Andrew's, Peckham. 










Mr. J. C. Reynolds, Glebe House, Vicarage Road. 
Mr. J. Sugden, 27, Peckham Grove. 










Rev. J. C. Lintott, Peckham Grove. 






- 





Mrs. Elizabeth Bubb, 58, Camberwell Road. 
Rev. F. Buttanshaw, 2, Brunswick Square, Camberwell. 
Mr. F. Fermor, 255, Southampton Street, Camberwell. 


V. T. Murche'. 
C. W. Hillyear. 
J. O. Boyes. 


P. E. Weight. 


R 




Rev. W. Harris, 11, Brunswick Road, Camberwell. 




M. A. Gare. 






Miss S. McDowell, Grove Park, Camberwell Grove. 




A. Quinney. 






Mr. P. A. Nairne, Grove Hill, Camberwell. 




A. Swarbreck. 


B. 




Mr. R. W. Reid, 2, Maude Road, Camberwell. 










Rev. J. Sears, 26, Addington Square, Camberwell. 






- 




Rev. O. Thorpe, 36, Queen's Road, Peckham. 
Mr. J. Webb, 27, Peckham Park Road, Peckham. 


Charles J. Crossley. 
John James. 








Mrs. E. Wilson, 46, Trafalgar Road, Peckham. 
Mr. G. M. Gross, Culm ore Road, Peckham. 
Mrs. Jones, 5, Philbrick Terrace, Nunhead Road, Peckham 


E. Pownall. 


J. M. Wissenden. 
Millicent Finnis. 
Charlotte Bull. 






Rye. 
Rev. G. Buchanan Ryley, 9, St. Mary's Road, Peckham. 
Mr. Stubbins, 22, Queen's Road, Peckham. 




Emily Jane Bryant. 






Rev. T. Tarn, 12, Wellington Villas, Montpelier Road, 










Peckham. 






' 





[Not appointed]. 






.. 


.. 


[Not appointed]. 











[Not appointed]. 











[Not appointed]. 






' 


' 


[Not appointed]. 







248 



Y c PARISH OF CA&ERWELL. 



It 

^rt o 
C 

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J ^ 

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O "^ 

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p> 



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II 

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Hi 
III 



SCHOOLS. 



249 







^5 


1 




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IS 


I 






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sg 







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[This school was first offered to be transferred, 
:epted by the School Board, but the offer v 
tely withdrawn by the Managers. ] 


v. W. English, Emmanuel Vicarage, Camberwel 
. T. W. Hall, 34, Leipsic Road, Camberwell. 
. T. Haynes, 13, George Street, Camberwell Roa 
. J. B. Pittman, 122, Camberwell Road. 
. D. H. Allport, Cold Harbour Lane, Camberwel 
. S. Thompson, 212, Camberwell New Road. 
. J. E. Tresidder, 6, Paragon, New Kent Road. 
. H. G. Heald, Eastlake Road, Cold Harbou 
Camberwell. 
. J. Collins, 14, Grosvenor Street, Camberwell. 
. C. Wade, 16, Grosvenor Street, Camberwell. 
s. Allport, Cold Harbour Lane, Camberwell. 
s. Smith, 9, Maude Road, Camberwell. 


. T. Galabin, 143, Camberwell Grove. 
. W. Bois, 22, Lyndhurst Road, Peckham. 
. J. E. Tresidder, 6, Paragon, New Kent Road, S 
ss E. D. Wolton, Woodlands, Feckham Rye, S.E 
. J. W. Edmonds, 218, Southampton Street, Cam 
S.E. 


. G. T. Congreve, Combe Lodge, Rye Lane, Peckl 
. A. H. Bheppard, 85, Azenby Square, Lyndhurs 
Peckham, S.E. 


. W. Lovell, 5, Richmond Terrace, Holland Road, 
. J. E. Parrott, Camberwell Road. 
. G. W. Wilkinson, 50, Gresham Park, Brixton. 
v. W. P. Tiddy, The Parsonage, Congregationa 
Camberwell New Road. 
. Travers Buxton, Champion HilL 
s. Buxton, Champion Hill. 
. E. R. Crampton, 45, Sutherland Square. 
. T. Galabin, 143, Camberwell Grove. 




11 


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2 5o Y PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

In all the above-named schools the expenditure must be understood as being the 
entire cost for all purposes. The receipts for the school consist of weekly fees from 
the children, of annual grants made by Government for the proportion of attendance 
of children, and for the success of the scholars in passing the examinations of Her 
Majesty's Inspectors, and of the rates levied on the inhabitants. The amount 
received as fees, and that obtained from Government, are given in separate columns ; 
by adding these two items together, in the case of any or all of the schools, and 
deducting the sum from the gross expenditure given above, the remainder will 
represent the actual amount charged upon the rates. 



CAMBERWELL FREE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

The story of the Camberwell Free Grammar School is not uninteresting, although 
it will not furnish us with the brightest page of local history. The founder, Edward 
Wilson, Clerk, Vicar of CamberweU, did a little for posterity, but quite as much for 
himself and his belongings ; and if mismanagement has done something, the absurd 
rules and regulations of the founder have done more to bring about the scholastic 
abortion of to-day. " The master to be chosen out of my own kindred before any 
others " has ruined other well-intentioned schemes ; and Camberwell can unfor- 
tunately point to another school whose usefulness has been impaired through the 
same mischievous, but perhaps pardonable, mistake. 

Little is known of Edward Wilson, except that he was vicar of Camberwell in 
1577, a position then, as now, of some considerable importance. It is generally 
supposed that he was the first appointed master of his own school, but this is more 
than doubtful, and as he was particularly attached to those of his own kith and kin, 
it is not improbable that the first master, Edward Wilson, M.A., was a relative, more 
or less near, of the founder's. 

In the choice of master, the founder expressly ordered that the party selected " shall 
not have any benefice, with cure, office, or service, whereby to hinder the school," 
which goes far to confirm our impression that the founder himself was not the master ; 
although it is, of course, possible that, in order to give the youth of Camberwell the 
benefit of his learning, an exception might have been made in favour of himself. 

The charity was founded in the thirteenth year of the reign of King James I., 
under letters patent granted by the king on the 29th of September, 1615. By the 
Foundation Deed, the following persons and their successors in their offices were 
appointed governors of the school, viz., the vicar, the churchwardens, the patron of 
the vicarage, and the master of the Grammar School of Camberwell, the rectors of 
St. Olave's, Southwark, Lambeth, and Newington, and the vicar of Carshalton. 

In addition to these official governors, eight others were named in the letters 
patent to act with them, upon whose deaths it was ordained that their respective 
heirs should be from time to time appointed to succeed them in the governorship, 
and the body of governors so constituted was declared to be a corporation. 

The provision for the continuance of the governing body is somewhat singular, and 
the difficulty afterwards experienced in carrying out the founder's wishes in this 
respect deprived the school of that healthy and invigorating lay element it so much 
needed. 

It was ordered by the founder that the governors before named, with the exception 
of the patron of Camberwell, the rector of St. Olave's, and the master of the school, 






SCHOOLS. 251 

. 

should on the death of any one or more of them, " have authority and power for 
naming and choosing their several heirs, to be successors in his or their places and 
turns, and being of the age of twenty and one years." There is a note in " The Kules 
and Regulations of the Free Grammar School," published by order of the governors 
in 1824, to the effect that these lay governors are lost to the charity, from the diffi- 
culty, if not impossibility, of finding out their "heirs." The last lay governor 
appears to have been appointed in 1733.* 

The original governors were Edmund Bowyer, Knt., John Bowyer, Esq., and 
Benjamin Bowyer, Esq., all of Camberwell. 

Thomas Grimes, of Camberwell, Knt. His successors were Thomas Crymes, George 
Crymes, and Thomas Grymes, but the name becomes extinct about sixty years after 
the foundation. 

Thomas Hunt, of Lambeth, Knt. His only heir seems to have been Richard Hunt, 
who signed the minutes in 1661. 

Peter Scott, of Camberwell, Esquire, and John Scott, of Camberwell, gent. 

The last representatives of this family were Edward Scott, cousin and heir of Peter, 
and Francis Scott, heir of John Scott, elected governors on the 15th April, 1714. 

Thomas Wilson. Esq., no doubt a relative of the founder's, of whose heirs nothing 
is known. 

Jeremiah Turner, Knight. 

His name is omitted in the original appointment, but occurs in the recapitulation 
among the " aforesaids." 

The rules and regulations drawn up by the founder are quaint and peculiar in 
many particulars. There was evidently a vein of sly humour in the vicar of Cam- 
berwell, for after enumerating the qualifications to be exacted of the master that he 
was to be " sound in religion, body, and mind ; gentle, sober, honest, virtuous, 
discreet, and approved for a good facility in teaching," the good man adds parenthe- 
tically ("if such a one may be gotten ! ") Only fancy " a Master of Arts sound in 
jion, mind, and body ! " But all the master's qualifications are not yet enume- 
" He shall be a man of wise, sociable, and loving disposition ; not hasty and 
>us, nor of evil example ; such a one as can discern the nature and disposition of 
ivery child (if such a one may be gotten)." After such a standard of excellence as 
this, it is not a matter of surprise that this " concentrated essence of scholastic virtues" 
is to receive " for his stipend ten pounds yearly during my natural life," and that the 
best scholar is to welcome him with a Latin oration ; but what does surprise us is the 
edict that the master "shall not keep any house of victualling, gaming, &c., nor 
frequent ill-houses, nor practice physic without the consent of the governors." " The 
Master of Arts, sound in religion, body, and mind," asking the governors of the 
school to allow him to open a gaming-house is indeed a rich morsel ! 

The number of the scholars is not limited, but they are to be " of the children and 
youth of the parish of Camberwell, there born or dwelling, whereof twelve shall be 
freely taught, and shall be the children of such of the inhabitants of the said parish 
as shall be poor ;" and gratuitous instruction is also to be given " for one year n to 
the son of the senior churchwarden ! The scholars to be provided with a " little 
bible, psakn book, paper, pens, ink, satchell, candles in winter, wholesome apparel, 
and to bring five shillings and three pence a quarter for rods and brooms ; " from 
which we infer either that "rods and brooms" were at a tremendous premium in 
1615, or that an unlimited number were used on the Camberwell youths of that day. 

* Much, of the information here given concerning an esteemed local resident, who has devoted con- 
the Free Grammar School is obtained from a siderable time and research to the subject. 
pamphlet published by Mr. Charles Mott, solicitor, 



252 Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

The boys were not allowed to take money to school, "lest they be tempted to any 
bad exercise or others be tempted to defraud them of it ;" but two exceptions were 
allowed to this rule" the schoolmaster's duties," which were to be paid on entrance, 
find the " birch and broom " money ! And in addition, " a pound of good candles at 
Michaelmas " was to be delivered to the master. The next paragraph after the 
brooms and rods and best candles and schoolmaster's money runs as follows : " If 
you refuse these orders, or if your child grow stubborn, unruly, a picker, stealer, or 
usual swearer, or use thieving, you shall," &c. The moral attached to paying the 
" rod and broom " money is transparent enough, and throws light on a subsequent 
instruction to the master that he is " wisely to mix severity and lenity ; using means 
to cheer up the scholars "i.e., on Sunday, " my dear children ;" on Monday, " over 
the form ! " 

The master was also enjoined " to be careful of the behaviour of the scholars in 
coming in, going out, and sitting ; and especially in repetition for good grace, counte- 
nance, pronunciation, and carriage, &c. ; reverence abroad of scholars to their betters, 
elders, &c. ; behaviour, courteous speech, and fair condition required ; and reforma- 
tion of such as do amiss." 

Wednesday and Saturday were dies non, at least from a holiday point of view. The 
only holiday known to young Camberwell of 1620 was held on Thursday, at one 
o'clock, and as a great treat the boys were required on half-holidays to learn Calvin's 
Catechism, and on no account were they to be allowed to play two days together, 
and the games allowed were " wrestling, leaping, running, chess, and shooting with 
long bows, and all money players or betters to be punished or expulsed." 

Every scholar was required to write once a week the following sentence in 
one, two, or more hands : " This is life eternal ; that they know thee, and whom 
thou has sent, Jesus Christ." "And if any one neglect, or not profit in fair 
writing after three admonitions, he shall be dismissed the school ;" but prizes 
varying from two pence to two shillings were ordered to be given to the most 
meritorious scholars. 

About 1816 the instruction of the free scholars in Latin and Greek, which had 
been discontinued, was resumed ; and in 1821 the governors reduced the period of 
study to five hours a day (from ten in summer and eight in winter), and agreed that 
the scholars should be taught English, reading, and arithmetic, as well as the learned 
languages. 

Sir James Tyrrel, who was partly educated there, was the eldest son of Sir Timothy 
Tyrrell, Knt., and Elizabeth his wife, the only daughter of Archbishop Usher, and 
was born in London in 1642, and created Master of Arts in 1663. He was after- 
wards one of the deputy lieutenants and justice of the peace for Buckinghamshire, 
in which office he continued till James II. " turned him and the rest out of commis- 
sion." He wrote and published several works on the history, laws, politics, and 
constitution of England. His death occurred in 1718, when in the seventy-sixth year 
of his age. 

MASTERS. 

' 

1615. Edward Wilson. 
Richard Godfrey. 
1645. Samuel Everard. 

1650. James Coleby. 

1651. William Newman. 
1661. John Bradford. 



SCHOOLS. 253 

1675. Daniel Ballow, senior. 
1687. Mithwell Johnson. 

Nehemiali Lambert. 
1700. Alexander Jephson. 
1709. Adam Langley, senior. 
1731. Adam Langley, junior. 
1733. William Jephson. 
1761. Thomas Jephson. 
1803. William Jephson (son of Thomas Jephson). 

In the year 1824 the governors sold and conveyed to the Charity Commissioners 
a portion of the charity land as an addition to the churchyard of the parish, the 
purchase-money for which (842 10s.) was paid into the Court of Chancery, and 
invested in .917 Os. Id. Consols, the dividends upon which were from time to time 
paid to the then vicar of Camberwell in trust for the charity. 

In 1842 an information* was filed against the governors and the then master of the 
school, with reference to the past and future management thereof and of the property 
belonging thereto. Many of the statements contained in this information were 
proved to be incorrect, but the Master in Chancery was ordered to make inquiry and 
report ; and the scheme of the Master, dated February 1st, 1845, for the future 
management of the charity, was as follows : 

" FIRST. To pull down all the houses and buildings then standing on the charity 
land, except the enclosure walls, and fences on the east, west, and south sides thereof, 
and to sell and remove certain trees standing thereon, and the materials of such 
houses and buildings. 

" SECONDLY. To make a road through the middle of the charity land from the 
high road on the north side to the boundary fence on the south side. 

"THIRDLY. To sell certain strips of ground, part of such land, to the parishf for a 
long term of years, for the sum of 105, and to reserve one acre of the land next the 
high road for the purpose of building a new school-house and schoolmaster's residence, 
and for a playground for the scholars, and a garden for the master, and to let^the 
remainder upon building leases for terms not exceeding ninety-nine years, at yearly 
rents, after the first two years, amounting in the whole to not less than 250 per 
annum. 

" FOURTHLY. To invest and accumulate the proceeds of the sales and the rents 
until the whole of the five acres should have been let on building leases, and the 
accumulations of the rents, together with any other money of the charity available 
for building a new school-house and schoolmaster's residence, should amount 
to 1,500. 

"FIFTHLY. When the fund should amount to 1,500, to build a new school-house 
for at least forty boys, and a residence for the master and a teacher and eight boarders, 
with the necessary outbuildings upon part of the acre of land to be reserved for that 
purpose, according to the plans and specifications prepared by the then surveyor to 
the governors, and to provide all proper fixtures and fittings for the school-house, and 
to borrow on mortgage of the ground-rents any sum which might be necessary for 
these purposes, not exceeding 1,000. 

" SIXTHLY. To provide for the repayment (in one sum, or by instalments of 200, 
as might be agreed upon with the mortgagee) of the money to be raised on mortgage, 

* The costs on this occasion were taxed at the t This land now forms part of the churchyard, 

sum of 900 11s. 9cZ., and were ordered to be paid and was let to the parish for a term of 1.000 years, 
out of the funds of the charity ! 



254 Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

a sinking fund of 25 per annum during the life of the late schoolmaster, and .60 
per annum after his death, out of the ground-rents. 

" SEVENTHLY. When such new school-house and schoolmaster's residence should 

have been built, a yearly sum of 20 should be retained by the governors out of the 
^round-rents, to be applied by them from time to time in repairing the school-house 
and schoolmaster's residence, outbuildings, and fences, and insuring them against 
damage by fire. 

" EIGHTHLY. That the balance of the ground-rents, after the deductions for sinking 
fund, repairs, and insurance, and paying interest on the mortgage, should be con- 
sidered as available for the general purposes of the charity, and in particular for the 
payment of the schoolmaster. 

" LASTLY. That the enclosure walls and fences on the east, west, and south sides 
of the land should be repaired, and all the other buildings then standing thereon 
forthwith pulled down and none of them rebuilt." 

Upon this report, an order dated the 19th of March, 1845, was made, as follows : 

" That the said charity property might in future be managed according to the 
scheme approved of by the said master, and it is ordered that the defendants the 
governors shall cause the houses and buildings on the charity land, except the 
inclosure walls and fences on the east, west, and south sides thereof, to be forthwith 
pulled down. And that they should cause the trees on the said land and the materials 
of the said houses and buildings, except as aforesaid, to be forthwith sold and 
removed from off the said land ; and that they do cause the road in the scheme 
mentioned to be properly made, according to the plans mentioned in the said scheme 
as soon as conveniently may be. And that they be at liberty to sell the strips of 
ground containing together 21 perches or thereabouts, to or in trust for the said 
parish of Camberwell for the term of 1,000 years, for the sum of 105. And that 
they do, with the approbation of the said master, cause the acre of the said land by 
the said scheme proposed, to be reserved for the purpose of building a new school- 
house and master's residence, and for a playground for the scholars and a garden for 
the master, to be properly fenced off from the rest of the said land. And that they 
be at liberty, with the approbation of the said master, to grant such building leases 
as in the said scheme mentioned of the remaining five acres or thereabouts of the 
said land." 

In 1845 the school buildings * were razed to the ground, and for nearly eighteen 
years the land on which they stood was let out for grazing purposes at a nominal 
rent. In December, 1863, an offer was made by the late Mr. Purkis to take the 
whole of the land on lease for ninety-nine years, the first year to be a peppercorn 
rent, the second year at 120, and the remainder of the term at 220 per annum, 
Mr. Purkis agreeing to erect seventy houses within five years, of the value of not less 
than 500. 

In the month of March, 1864, application was made to the Charity Commissioners 
under the Charitable Trusts Acts, on behalf of certain parishioners of Camberwell, 
with reference to the past and future management of the charity, which resulted in 
the whole funds of the charity being paid over to the official trustees of Charitable 
Funds. 

This sketch would be incomplete were we to omit mention of the late Mr. Edward 
Lines, of Camberwell Grove, who devoted many years ^of patient toil towards 
promoting the welfare of this institution. 

+1 * TSt bui j^K ate .rials were sold by auction on of various kinds sold amounted to 245, and realiaed 
the 16th and 17th April, 1845, by Messrs. Close and 73 3g 6d 
Bon, and realized 742 13. The number of trees 



SCHOOLS. 255 



GREEN COAT SCHOOL. 

According to an inscription on the front of the school buildings recently pulled 
down, the Green Coat School of Camberwell was erected " To the glory of God, and 
the honour of the Church of England, by Henry Cornelisen, Esq., in 1721," and it 
was designed " for the Christian instruction of poor children." 

No deeds have been discovered connected with the foundation ; and in consequence 
it was with some difficulty that the committee succeeded recently in procuring a title 
as a Church of England School from the Charity Commissioners. A new scheme was, 
however, obtained from the Commissioners in October, 1872, and a building grant of 
1, 129 obtained, so that the cost of rebuilding has been entirely covered. 

The charity appears from the minute-books* to be older than the date given above, 
as the first minute recorded is that of the 3rd July, 1709, respecting a " meeting of 
the subscribers to the charity school in Camberwell." At this first meeting there 
were present the vicar (Dr. Tipping), Mr. Hester, Mr. Grub,f Mr. Kesterman, sen., 
Mr. Higgs, Mr. Green, Mr. Kesterman, jun., and it was agreed, inter alia, that " the 
number of children to be taught be thirty,^ to consist of both boys and girles ; that 
the schoolmistress have .24 per ann., out of which she is to pay house-rent and 
firing ; that all the children be cloathed ; that a treasurer be chosen every year the 
Munday after Mic'as Day, and also dine together ; that a sermon be preacht the first 
Sunday after the children are cloathed to induce a contribution, and that Dr. Tipping 
preach the sermon." 

The most important item noted on this 3rd day of July, 1709, is the date fixing 
the establishment of the charity, for a vote of thanks is there recorded " to the gen- 
tlemen who have maintained this school till Mic'as last, which appears to have been 
about two years and a halfe, and that they be acquainted that it is hoped it may now 
be maintained by the subscribers," thus fixing the establishment of the school early 
in 1706. It appears that the gentlemen who carried on the school till Michaelmas, 
1708, were desirous of having their names concealed. They are described as "gentle- 
men of London," and no doubt residents also of this parish, although this is mere 
surmise. Amongst the local gentry who took a warm interest in the school was 
Lord Chief Justice Trevor ; and though unable to attend diligently to his duties as 
a director, his agent, who was authorized to vote on all occasions on his lordship's 
behalf, was a very regular attendant. Mr. Cock was another of the influential 
local residents who took an active part in the management of the school, and the 
name of Mr. Bartlett occurs as attending the meeting held on the 17th July, 1709. 
" Trustees " are also there mentioned for the first time, seven of whom were appointed 
to act as a committee, " to provide cloaths for the children, and to promote the 
subscriptions." Of the trustees then appointed, one is described as having " removed 
from y e towne," that is, the " towne of Camerwell." The meetings of the trustees 
were usually held on Sunday afternoons, except on special occasions. The annual 
meeting for auditing the treasurer's accounts and electing his successor was one of 
these special occasions, and the " Golden Lyon " was usually selected as the most 
suitable rendezvous, and it is almost needless to add that mine host of the " Lyon " 
provided a good dinner to order. On one occasion (1713) " the Reverend Mr. Adam 

* Courteously placed at our disposal by the hon. 1724, boys' school increased from twenty-five to 

secretary, Mr. Nairne.' thirty; and in January, 1725, to thirty-five; and 

t Agent to Lord Chief Justice Trevor. the number was gradually increased until it reached 

J Increased to forty in 1712 ; to fifty in 1716. In four hundred in 1870. 



256 Y PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

Langley and what other directors will made an appointment at the " Butchers* 
Arms " " to adjust the treasurer's accounts." 

The following are the names of the thirty scholars elected on the 17th June, 1711, 
to be new clothed and admitted to receive the charity : John Batts, George Hall, 
Thomas Dyer, William Constable, John Nixon, William Bond, Thomas Carpenter, 
William Chappell, John Bakewell, Hugh Bakewell, Abel Daniel, John Charles, 
Michael Thorpe, Edward Shuter, Sarah Constable, Susannah Chandler, Katherine 
Saunders, Eliza Nixon, Dorothy Taylor, Ann Page, Mary Carpenter, Jane Best, 
Francess Nixon, Eleanor Dyer, Eliza Floyd, Margaret Lewis, Sarah Fox, Ann Allen, 
Mary Turvaine.* 

Bye-laws for the management of the charity were made on the 28th May, 1712, 
from which we extract the following : 

1. Every subscriber to be a governor of the school during the maintenance of his 

subscription. 

2. Governors to meet at the vestry of the church on the second Sunday in the 

month, to elect directors and examine the accounts and inspect the state of 
the schools. 

3. Ten directors t to be elected by the governors annually, the minister and lecturer 

for the time being to be standing directors. 

4. Treasurer and collectors to be appointed at the monthly meeting in June. 

5. Fixes monthly meeting as in Bye-law 2. 

6. Three to be formed into a " cloaths " committee, and two into a " school inspec- 

tion" committee. 

7. Children eligible to be seven years of age and under twelve. 

8. Four probationers to be appointed. 

9. Sponsors to be provided by children for admission, to answer for clothes,, 

books, &c. 

10. Children to be educated according to the Church of England, and not to be 

taught to sing any anthem or any such like singing, excepting the psalms 
commonly sung in churches.^ 

11. The directors to discourse of no other business but what relates to the said 

" charity schoole." 

12. Applications to be made a month before admission, and applicants to be recom- 

mended by a subscriber. 

13. No law made, suspended, or altered in any future court to be in force until 

confirmed at the next monthly meeting. 

The directors were not, it would seem, so punctual in their attendance as might 
have been expected, and so in June, 1712, it was decided that " such of the directors 
as are not present att the monthly meetings in y e vestry by five o'clock, shall forfitt 
and pay one shilling, unless such a reason be given as shall be satisfactory to the 
directors then present." And the penalty was duly enforced at the next meeting 
against Doctor Tipping, Squire Cock, and Mr. John Cock ; and at a subsequent 
meeting, seven out of the ten directors paid " forfeits." 

The " charity sermon " appears to have been a considerable source of revenue to 

* It would appear from the minutes that one of J " Mr. Hodson, the clerk," "was allowed three 

the above, Master Hugh Bakewell, was not a pounds per annum for teaching the children " to 

particularly good selection, for a few days after his singpsalmes twice a week ; " and subsequently ten 

admission he "committed a grievous offence pounds a year was voted to him when " arithmetic 

against the school mistress, in throwing his book and writing " were added : and Roger Hudson, 

at her head and spitting in her face." Master clerk, had ten pounds a year "to teach such of 

3akewell was ordered to have correction by "whyp- the children as shall bee directed by ye managers 

Pfcjg-" to wright and cast accompts." 

f Increased to fourteen on the 14th March, 1713. 




GREEN-COAT SCHOOL 180O- 




GREEN-COAT SCHOOL,, 1874. 



SCHOOLS. 257 

the charity in its early days, and numerous entries occur of directors calling upon 
the bishop and other noted divines, " to begg a sermon." Bishops appear to have 
been in request for the purpose, for on the 14th August, 1715, a committee was 
formed " to endeavour to procure a bishop to preach y e next charity sermon." 

On the occasion of the king's entry into London in 1714, " stands and refreshments " 
were ordered to be provided for the children "in the streets of London." 

On the 10th March, 1717, Mr. Henry Corneliseii first appears upon the books as a 
director, and after his election, his interest in the school, judged by his attendance, 
was small indeed. 

On the 20th December, 1720, a committee was desired " to take the opinion of 
counsel as to the conveyance of the ground upon which the charity school is proposed 
to be built, and at the meeting immediately preceding, Mr. Cornelisen appears 
on the minutes as Henry Cornelisen, Esq., so that it is pretty evident that he 
had done something to obtain his promotion. In April, 1721, Mr. Cornelisen was 
requested by his brother directors "to provide preachers," a duty which on all 
previous occasions required a committee of at least three directors to perform. 
That the schools were rebuilt in 1721, either wholly or partly at Mr. Cornelisen's 
expense, is, we think, placed beyond doubt by the inscription in front of the late school 
building ; but it is, to say the least, an extraordinary circumstance that the 
minutes, which were kept with great care and precision, should contain no mention of 
that gentleman's gift. On the 1st June, 1721, it is ordered " that the marble and 
inscription at the charity school be paid by the treasurer ;" and on the llth March, 
1722, the bills of Mr. Henry Davis for .16 11s., and Mr. Wm. Backsdale, "the 
plumer," of 4 7s., were ordered to be paid. The minutes convey the impression 
that some one had paid the cost of rebuilding, for notwithstanding the necessary 
outlay, the treasurer had a balance in hand, in March, 1722, of 328 4s. 7d., against 
322 16s. 6cl in March, 1721. 

During the latter year the bye-laws were revised, and " orders " for the children 
and charges for the master and mistress were drawn up at considerable length. The 
following, amongst other orders, were to be observed by the scholars : 

"To devote their thoughts to God as soon as they awake in the morning ; to take 
care to get up betimes ; to say their prayers, morning, noon, and night, reverently 
upon their knees ; to be careful to implore the blessing of God upon their meat and 
drink when they are about to receive them, and to give God thanks after they have 
been refreshed by them ; to be at school in due time morning and evening, and never 
frame any excuse to be absent from thence ; to pay their respects on entering the 
school first to the master or mistress and afterwards to their school fellows ; to be 
orderly in church and school, where nothing ought to be said or done but what 
properly belongs to God and good education ; to rise up in their places when any 
body enters the school, and to make a bow or curtesie ; to be mindful of their bap- 
tismal vow, with a continual regard to all God's laws, and never come into the 
company of such as are addicted to swearing, lying, and stealing, or any other scan- 
dalous or vicious practice, and to shun all such as they would the plague ; to take 
particular care not to join with, or be concerned in any mobs in a tumultuous manner 
upon any occasion whatsoever ; to avoid going about begging money for bonfires ; 
the use of badges or marks of party distinction on dayes of publick rejoicings or 
thanksgivings, nor on any other dayes to give opprobrious or ill language to any 
person whomsoever ; to show all the civility they can whensoever they come into the 
presence of their superiors, such as their parents, master, minister, officer of the 
parish, benefactor, person of quality, aged man or woman, and not to cover their 
head before them, nor go away. from them without a reverent bow ; to love all 



258 



Y PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 



schoolfellows (the girls are not particularly mentioned) with a brotherly and hearty 
affection, and wherever they meet them, or any other of their acquaintance, to pull 
off their caps, bowing, and showing them all the civility they can ; to behave them- 
selves with so much modesty and discretion that they may be ornaments of the 
school, as well as comforts to their master and friends ; to consider on their way to 
church that they are going to holy ground, the place where God is more immediately 
present ; to observe the rubrick, and not to read the sentences of Holy Writ with 
which the divine service begins, nor the exhortation, absolution lessons, collects, 
commandments, &c., with the minister, but where they are required to joyn or 
response, to do it so as not to give offence by being louder than the con- 
gregation." 

There are numerous entries in the minute-books concerning presents to well- 
behaved children on leaving the school ; and such children were not only presented 
with a Bible, but had their green clothes dyed black by order of the directors. 

In addition to the liberal subscriptions of the local gentry, the charity appears to 
have derived a considerable income from sermons preached on its behalf at the- 
parish church, Camden Chapel, Dulwich College Chapel, and St. Matthew's, Denmark 
Hill. 

The following list of collections will show not only that eminent preachers pleaded 
the cause of the school, but also that the collections in many instances were par- 
ticularly good : 



Date. 


Church. 


Preacher. 


Amount 
collected. 








s. d. 


1736. May 9 . 


St. Giles 


Bishop of Chester 


17 3 7 


1746. May 


?? ' 


Bishop of St. David's . . 


23 19 7 


1742. May 





Rev. Mr. Dubourdien 


24 4 8 


1743. Sept 


Dulwich Col. . . 


Rev. Mr. Aylmer . . 


10 14 4 


1744. May 


St. Giles 


Rev. Dr. Arrowsmith 


22 1 10* 


1744. Aug. 12 . 


Dulwich Col. . . 


Rev. Mr. King . . . 


10 15 3j 


1748. May 22 . 


St. Giles 


Rev. Dr. Bancroft . 


21 3 11 


1749. May 21 . 


?) * 


Rev. Dr. Kemp . . . 


17 4 2 


1752. June 
1760. Oct. 


Dulwich Col.' . 


Archbishop of Canterbury 
Rev. Mr. Aylmer 


35 14 11 
15 10 


1785. May 8 . 


St. Giles 


Bishop of Gloucester . . 


25 7 6 


1787. March 25 


?? . . 


Rev. O. Maine . 


46 15 2 


1788. Sept. 28 . 





Rev. Mr. Cecil . . . 


26 9 6 


1794. . 
1795. . 


AttheNewChapei 


Rev. Mr. Venn, of Clapham 


34 17 6 




on Denmark Hill . 


Rev. Mr. Wood 


28 5 2 


1798. July 


Camden Chapel . 


Rev. Dr. Hawes . . . 


38 


1799. Nov. 10 . 


St. Giles . 


Rev. Mr. Good 


40 3 


1801 


Camden . 


Rev. Mr. Cooke . . . 


33 


1805. Nov. 18 . 


St. Giles . 


Rev. J. Jackman, Chaplain 








in Ordinary to H.R.H. 








the Prince of Wales 


27 17 6 


1809 
1811. Aug. 


Camden . . . 
?> 


Dr. Collyer . . . 
Rev. Mr. Draper 


49 19 6J 
46 18 11 



It would occupy too much space to enumerate the whole of those gentlemen who- 
bave taken an active part in the charity from the beginning, but the following names 



SCHOOLS. 259 

occur in the minutes as prominent supporters of the charity during the last century. 
The date given marks their first appearance as directors : 

Sir Thomas Trevor ; Mr. Walter Cock (1709) ; Mr. Langley ; Mr. John Cock ; 
Captain Amery ; Mr. Whormby (1712) ; Mr. Emmett (1714) ; Mr. Cornelisen ; 
Edmund Bowyer, Esq. ; Colonel Thomas Butler (1717) ; Peter Cock, Esq. (1723) ; 
John Hooke (1726) ; Captain Hodges (1728) ; Mr. Voguell (1735) ; Mr. Jephson 
(1740) ; Mr. Theodore Cock (1741) ; Mr. Crespigny (1743) ; Mr. Alderman Arnold. 
(1749) ; Captain Devon (1752) ; John Torriano, Esq. ; Mr. Woodbridge (1753) ; Mr. 
Shard (1762) ; Claude Crespigny, Esq. ; Brass Crosby, Esq. ; Mr. Treslove ; Mr. 
Koffey, of Peckham (1767) ; Mr. Thomas Harder (1782) ; Henry Jowett (1785) ; Mr. 
Titchener, of Peckham (1791) ; Nicholas Wanostrocht (1792) ; Benjamin Jowett 
(1793) ; Thomas Jephson (1798) ; Mr. Cattley; and Alderman Knight (1799). 

There is an entry in the minute-book, under date June 27, 1788, that the sum of 
two guineas was paid to the treasurer by the Kev. Mr. Bentley, vicar, being part of 
five guineas given by the Freemasons for the use of the church. 

The funds of the charity were augmented from time to time by numerous and 
liberal bequests. 

That the children were well cared for is evident enough from the proceedings of 
the directors. Amongst other indulgences granted to the scholars was a monthly 
dinner, usually given on the second of every month, the cost of which is recorded 
with some minuteness. The following is selected from many similar entries : 

May 4, 1786. Expenses attending children dining at school, 2nd Sunday in every 
month, for 8 months from July, 1785, to February, 1786, inclusive, viz. : 

Butcher 3 12 0| 

Baker 1 17 2| 

Brewer 14 

Eggs, milk, &c 12 5 

Master's allowance 100 

Mistress 100 

Considerable addition appears to have been made to the school buildings in 1813, 
at a cost of about ,500 ; and on the 30th June, 1871, the foundation-stone of the 
present building was laid by the late Bishop Wilberforce. The occasion was made 
more than usually interesting by the presence of numerous members of the Masonic 
brotherhood, the architect, Mr. Edward Clark, being at that time Worshipful Master 
of the Caniberwell Lodge known as the " Sphinx." The stone bore the following 
inscription : 

" To the Glory of God and the Honour of the Church of England. 

" The Camberwell Green Coat and National Schools were erected on this site A.D. 
1721, by Henry Cornelisen, Esq., the Rev. Ichabod Tipping, vicar. This foundation- 
stone of the New School Building was laid by the Right Rev. Samuel Wilber- 
force, D.D., Lord Bishop of Winchester, on the 30th June, 1871, the Rev. J. Williams, 
Vicar." 

The Bishop was presented on the occasion with a silver trowel by the brethren 
of the Sphinx Lodge. 

The new buildings, which were erected at a cost of nearly .6,000, are intended to 
accommodate 325 boys, 225 girls, and 250 infants, making a total of 800, and were 
formally opened on Thursday, 14th November, 1872. 

Mr. Perceval A. Nairne, the present hon. sec., was appointed on the 8th June, 1869, 
on the occasion of the resignation of Mr. R. A. Puckle, at present churchwarden of the 

s 2 



260 ye PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

parish, who had held the post for nine years, and to whom was accorded a cordial vote of 
thanks in recognition of his high character and extreme courtesy in conducting the 



business of the charity.* 



CAMDEN SCHOOLS were commenced in 1800 as a Sunday school only, and it will 
be seen from the following quaint record in the school register that the early days of 
the Camden Schools were somewhat different from the present nourishing institution 

in Sumner Road : 

" Camberwell Sunday school, 
Instituted in the year 1800, 
When 30 scholars were admitted, 
Viz., 15 boys and 15 girls. 

Which in the course of one year were reduced to the number of 7 children only. 
The appearance seemed so discouraging that it was designed to give up the school, 
till some active friends belonging to Camden Chapel zealously engaged in the work 
with the master. It has ever since flourished. The number in general now is to the 
amount of 150 children, boys and girls, and much good has been done to the morals 
of many of the children by rescuing them from idleness and vice ; and by means of 
this school many boys and girls have been recommended to decent families, and 
become good servants and apprentices, which, if neglected, might no doubt have become 
pests to society. 

" And, in particular, many of the children's parents are much reformed by becoming 
industrious, sober, and honest, and attend places of public worship." 

In 1813 the week-day schools were established, when 30 boys and 30 girls were 
substantially clothed. 

The clothing has only recently been discontinued, as under the New Educational 
Code no grant is allowed for such a purpose. 

The original school buildings, which had from time to time been much improved 
by voluntary aid, were situated near the parish church, where Church Terrace now 
stands, until Christmas, 1847, when the schools were removed to their present site, 
Sumner Road, Peckham. The " Camden District Schools " were built under the 
auspices of the late Henry Kemble, Esq., M.P., who laid the foundation-stone on 

* The following is taken from a report just issued the board's calculations, 

by the committee of the school : " The committee consider that the schools have 

" The school buildings are erected by the School been erected at a very moderate cost. The total 

Board for London as providing accommodation for expenditure on building and furnishing (including 

937 children. They have been built at a cost far architect's commission, salaries of clerk of works 

below those of the board, and are believed to be in no and watchman, district surveyor's fees, printing, 

degree inferior. They have been reported by Her legal expenses, &c.) has been 5,676 Is. ; which, 

Majesty's Inspector as being ' among the best in calculating the buildings to provide accommodation 

South London.' They are also conducted on a more for 937 children, is at the rate of something less 

economical scale than those of the London School than 6 Is. Id. per head. The average cost of the 

Board, and it is believed with quite as much schools built by the School Board for London has 

efficiency. The cost of rebuilding has been entirely been considerably above this. Their school in the 

paid, and the accounts closed. immediate neighbourhood (James Street Board 

"The directors now appeal earnestly to the School) cost for building 8 10s. per head ; and the 
parishioners to assist them in carrying on this last school opened by the board (Great College 
time-honoured institution, which has been in active Street, Camden Town, Board School) cost for build- 
existence for 165 years, so that its usefulness may ing 7 11s. 4d. per head. It must be remembered, 
not be impaired by parsimony. too, that in these board schools no residences for 

' The average attendance in the several depart- teachers are provided, whilst the cost of the Green 

ments of the schools during the quarter ended at Coat Schools, as above mentioned, includes separate 

Christmas, 1874, has been : residences for the three principal teachers. It also 

Boys, 318 ; Girls, 199 ; Infants, 194 : total, 711. includes many items (such as architect's com- 

The capacity of the old schools was about 400. mission, clerk of works' salary, printing, &c.), 

The new schools were designed to accommodate 800, which are believed not to be included in the board's 

and by some alterations in the plans the accommo- estimate." If a proper allowance be made for the 

dation was increased. The School Board for London residences and the board room, the actual cost of 

have, however, estimated them as providing ac- the schools would of course be considerably 

commodation for 937, and they are so treated in reduced. 




CAMDEN SCHOOLS. 




BASING MANOR HOUSE, 
P E C K H A ML . 



SCHOOLS. 261 

June 25th, 1846 ; and of the Rev. D. Moore and others, at an original cost of ,3,500. 
Two class-rooms have since been added at a cost of .500, and a third one is in 
contemplation. 

There are at present about 1,000 children in attendance namely, 750 in the week- 
day schools, and the remainder Sunday scholars. 

The scholars have gradually increased in number and efficiency under the nursing 
care of the late Rev. Canon Melvill, the Rev. D. Moore, the Rev. J. Fleming (who has 
recently -been succeeded by the Rev. J. Richardson), and an active school committee. 
The present master and mistress, Mr. H. Kemp and Mrs. V. Butterfield, were engaged 
at Christmas, 1847, to open and conduct the new schools, and still (1875) hold office. 
3,650 children have passed through the boys' school alone since 1847. Present total 
annual expenditure, about 1,200. 

In March, 1874, a handsome testimonial was presented to the present master, Mr. 
Kemp, at a meeting held in Camberwell Hall, over which the Rev. James 
Fleming, B.D., presided. Besides a beautifully-executed record of Mr. Kemp's many 
good qualities "as a teacher and a friend/' a purse of 312 was presented to him, 
mainly given by old scholars of Camden Schools. Shortly after receiving the above, 
an anonymous donor sent a Bank of England note for 300 to Mrs. Kemp. 

ST. GEORGE'S NATIONAL SCHOOLS were established in 1824, for the instruction of 
250 children of both sexes. The unfitness of the building for the increasing work of 
the school was at once apparent to the present vicar on taking charge of the district, 
and soon after his appointment circumstances favoured the minister's more enlarged 
and liberal views. In 1835 the late Mr. Joseph Ward left a legacy of 500 towards 
increased school accommodation ; and it is worthy of note that one of the chief 
sources of income to the schools at this period was a performance of sacred music in 
St. George's Church, superintended by Mr. Adams, who presided at the organ. No 
less than 199 19s. 6d. was realized by this means in 1839. So well was the project 
of building the new schools received, that on the 28th October, 1839, the first stone 
was laid by Henry Kemble, Esq., M.P. for East Surrey, and on the 2nd July, 1840, 
the buildings were formally opened. The designs were supplied by Mr. "W". G. 
Colman, and the cost, which was mainly defrayed by voluntary contributions, 
exceeded 3,000. Not only is the new school admirably adapted for educational 
purposes, but it also serves as a lecture hall, accommodating upwards of 700 people. 
On a site adjoining, a very good infant school has been lately erected, entirely at 
the cost of one family, as a filial tribute to the memory of John Syer Bristowe, Esq., 
an old and highly respected inhabitant of the parish, and an attached member of 
St. George's Church. 

PECKHAM NATIONAL SCHOOLS were originally established in Victoria Place, on 
a piece of ground given by Augustus Hughes, Esq., of Peckham, for the term of 500 
fears, at the annual rent of a fat capon on the 4th September. The schools were 
subsequently removed to their present site, and the land in Victoria Place let on a 
ground-rent of 6 10s. per annum. The present site is freehold, and was pur- 
chased from Sir Edward Sniijthe. 

The schools, "which have been mainly supported by the members of St. Chry- 
sostom's Church, Hill Street, were closed for about ten years (1860-70). They were 
reopened on January 30th, 1871, free of debt, and are now in a highly satisfactory 
position. At the present time 304 children are on the books viz., 175 boys and 129 



262 Y c PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

girls. The master and mistress (Mr. Pitt and Miss Gregory) were appointed by the 
committee at the reopening, January, 1871. 
F. G. Lewin, Esq., is the treasurer of the schools. 

BRITISH SCHOOLS, HIGH STREET, PECKHAM, were originally founded in 1812 by 
Harrv Newman, Esq., and other members of the Society of Friends, in a building 
the site of which is now occupied by the Hill Street Brewery. In 1822 the school 
was removed to the present building, and was conducted on the Lancasterian prin- 
ciple, the master being the late Mr. Thomas "Weston, who resigned his duties in 
1859, after forty-seven years' labour. The school, which was closed for a short 
time after Mr. Weston' s retirement, was reopened in 1860, on the British and Foreign 
Society's system, the present master, Mr. Balchin, commencing his duties on April 
30th, 1860. Mr. Ballantine has since been appointed assistant-master. The average 
attendance is 180. The Peckham Theatre formerly occupied the site of this school, 
and was open nightly during part of the year, under the management of the cele- 
brated Penley family. 

KENT ROAD BRITISH SCHOOLS, OAKLEY PLACE, were established in 1845, mainly 
by the exertions of Henry Richard, Esq., the present Member for Merthyr Tydvil. 
The portion occupied by the boys consists of one large room, 51 ft. by 31^ ft., and 
three smaller class-rooms, added in Midsummer last. 

The girls' rooms consist of one room, 36 ft. by 30 ft, one class-room, 20ft. by 15 ft., 
and smaller class-rooms, also added at Midsummer last. The average attendance of 
boys in 1873 was 170, and of girls 176. There is a large playground in the rear of 
the school buildings. 

The members of the committee are nearly all connected with the Marlborough 
Chapel, Old Kent Road. 

Mr. W. Eckensall is the master and Mrs. A. E. Parish the mistress of the 
school. 

VOLUNTARY SCHOOL, WATERLOO STREET, was established in. 1850. It is con- 
ducted on the mixed principle, and is managed by a committee. By voluntary is 
meant a school which does not receive Government aid, its support being derived 
from the children's pence and from subscriptions. The infants pay M, per week ; 
1st division, 3d; 2nd division, Qd. per week ; and the advanced class (which includes 
mensuration, geometry, mechanics, algebra, industrial and commercial geography, 
Latin and French), Is. per week. At the present time there are 120 boys and 69 
girls on the books. The school is conducted by Mr. James Eaton and Miss 
Baker. 



THE ST. GILES'S GIRLS' AND INFANTS' SCHOOLS, situate in Waterloo Street, were 
established in April, 1864, although the girls' school has only been attached to the 
infants' school about four years. On the same premises is a free school for the 
poorest class of children, originally established in a small room in Church Street in 
1863. 

New school buildings are about to be erected, capable of accommodating about 600 
children. In Grove Lane there is also the St. Giles's Middle-Class School for Girls, 
under Government and diocesan inspection. 

There are at present about 40 girls in the school. 



SCHOOLS. 



ST. MARY'S COLLEGE, HANOVER PARK, PECKHAM, is a self-supporting semi-public 
school. It was established in 1868 at the sole cost of the present principal, Mr. 
J. G. Thompson, M. A., to provide at a moderate charge a . superior commercial and 
classical education on Church of England principles. The Bishop of Winchester 
acts as visitor. The religious education is under the control of the wardens, who at 
present are the Rev. R. Gregory, M.A., Canon of St. Paul's, appointed by the 
National Society Middle-Class School Committee, with which the school is in 
union ; the Rev. M. Briggs, M.A., of St. Mary Magdalene, Peckham ; the Rev. J. 
Fleming, B.D., of St. Michael's, Chester Square; the Rev. G. K. Flindt, M.A., of 
St. Matthew's, Denmark Hill ; the Rev. J. H. HazeU, M.A., of St. Andrew's, 
Peckham ; and the Rev. J. Richardson, M.A., of Camden, Peckham. The principal 
is entirely responsible for the secular instruction. 

There are twelve scholarships in the gift of the wardens, entitling the holders to 
three years' gratuitous education in the school. The numbers are now 260, and every 
year seems to bring an increased number of young collegians to Peckham. 

The school-buildings stand in about three acres of ground, and are particularly 
spacious and well ventilated, the large lecture-room being about 80 feet long by 35 
feet wide, and at each end are large and well-arranged class-rooms. 

In the examination of the various schools in union with the National Society 
Middle-Class School Committee, this institution has stood first for five successive 
years. From the published returns of this year we find that at the last examination 
of the first eight boys, five were from this school. It appears also to have taken the 
first place in religious knowledge, mathematics, and book-keeping. For the last three 
or four years and this year it has carried off the honours in French, model drawing, 
and linear perspective. 

SUGDEN HOUSE SCHOOL, now conducted by the Rev. Thomas Harper, has long 
been connected with the parish of Camberwell. It was conducted for thirty-three 
years by the late Mr. Sugden. In 1861, when Mr. Harper assumed control, the 
number of scholars was exceedingly limited, only about thirteen boys being then on 
the books. There are at present more than 100, a fact which speaks volumes for 
Mr. Harper's success as a teacher. A preparatory school for little boys is also 
conducted in the same building by Miss Harper. 

PECKHAM COLLEGIATE SCHOOL. In the Queen's Road, at the corner of the Bur- 
chell Road, is the Peckham Collegiate School, conducted by the Rev. Thomas 
Ray, LL.D. The school was originally founded by the Rev. Martin Ready (about 
1770) ; and adjoining his house Mr. Ready built a chapel, which he used on week 
days as a school-room. The late Baron Channell * (brother of Mrs. S. H. Law), of 
De Crespigny Park, and Dr. Raffles, of Liverpool, were educated at Mr. Ready's 
school. About 1804 Mr. Raffles took an interesting leave of his tutor and school- 
fellows previous to his going to Homerton College. At Mr. Ready's death the school 



* Channell, Sir William Fry, son of the late Pike 
Chanuell, Esq., of Peckham, was born in 1804, and 
called to the bar in 1827, and became a Serjeant in 
1840. He was a member of the Home circuit, of 
which, after the retirement of Sir F. Thesiger (Lord 
Chelmsford) from circuit practice, and the elevation 
to the bench of Baron Platt, he was long the titular 
leader. As a junior counsel his practice was very 
considerable, and, for some years after his pro- 
motion to the coif, he divided with the late Mr. 
Justice Talfourd the leading business of the Com- 
mon Pleas. At Nixi Prius, however, and on circuit, 
he was distanced by men who, though his inferiors 



in legal erudition, possessed more of those peculiar 
powers of the advocate which tell with a jury. 

When the Common Pleas was thrown open to the 
profession at large, his practice again experienced 
a sensible decline. The respect entertained for his 
high personal character and his professional attain- 
ments was shown by his being frequently selected 
to act as a substitute for the judges when they 
could not attend to their circuit duties. In this 
capacity he is understood to have given very 
general satisfaction ; and he succeeded Baron 
Alderson, in 1857, as one of the Barons of the Ex- 
chequer, and was knighted. Men of the Time. 



264 



Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 



was continued by Dr. Paul, and afterwards by Mr. Kirby and the Rev. F. A. 
Willis, D.C.L. (now of Hastings). Mr. Ray succeeded Mr. Willis in 1855, and when 
the house and grounds were sold, the school was removed to Queen's Road, where it 
is now carried on. 



THE BIRKBECK SCHOOLS were built by Mr. Ellis on freehold land purchased by 
him in the year 1852. Mr. W. A. Shields, who deservedly occupies a high position 
in the educational world, has been head master since their establishment. The 
schools are described as being unsectarian, or, as Mr. Shields puts it, his teaching 
would be extra-theological, not anti-theological. The Lancaster, or monitorial, 
system is largely used, by which the children are employed to teach each other. 
The average attendance of the schools have been about 600. There are three 
departments the infants', junior, and upper schools, with proportionate fees. The 
fee was originally sixpence a week, but has since been raised for the elder children 
to a shilling a week. From the minutes of evidence given by Mr. Shields before 
a committee of the School Board for London, in March, 1871, that gentleman stated 
that his " infants' school-room was about 30 feet square, that it was well attended, 
the average age of the children being about 4 years, and that he never knowingly 
permitted any child's exercise to last over half an hour. The age of admission to 
the junior school was 7 years. In this school the sexes were separated, and he 
had always striven to carry out Mr. Elli.s's design for improving character as well 
as imparting knowledge. In the upper school boys were accepted as soon after 7 
years of age as their parents wished. It was a question of means on the part of the 
parents whether the children were placed in the upper or lower school. The elements 
of morality were given, but no theological instruction whatever. The Bible was not 
read in school, as he could not teach from that book without imparting his own 
knowledge and belief. He had the children of Roman Catholics, Dissenters, and 
Jews, all taught on the same floor. Most of the children went to Sunday school, and 
some of the elder ones were teachers. The children were instructed in physical 
science, physiology, and chemistry of an elementary nature. He also taught drawing, 
singing, and drill. Corporal punishment was unknown in the school." The buildings 
have been enlarged from time to time to meet the growing requirements of the 
neighbourhood. 

WESTWOOD PARK HOUSE SCHOOL is conducted by the Rev. H. J. Chancellor. 
The course of instruction includes the subjects required for the Oxford and Cam- 
bridge local examinations. 

STONE HOUSE, FOREST HILL, is under the charge of the Rev. Dr. Morgan, vicar 
of St. Augustine's, Honor Oak. 

MANILLA COLLEGE, PECKHAM RYE. The principal of this establishment, Mr. 
John Douglas, states in his prospectus that " the sons of gentlemen are liberally 
boarded and carefully instructed in the subjects necessary to prepare them for the 
various public schools, the Civil Service, legal, medical, and middle-class exami- 
nations, as well as for professional or commercial pursuits." 

The school was established in 1854, and its proximity to the great cricket-ground 
of this parish is no doubt considered to be an advantage by many parents. 



SCHOOLS. 265 

UPPER SCHOOL, PECKHAM, founded by Dr. Yeats, has for twenty-one years 
enjoyed a high reputation for training boys for commercial life. More than 2,000 
souths have been educated at this establishment. The school is now conducted by 
[r. Lydgate, late of Guildford, who has added a collegiate course to the former 
curriculum. 

KUTLAND HOUSE SCHOOL has been established in Peckham more than half a 
itury. It was formerly under the management of Mr. Cargill, who was succeeded 
yy Mr. Stevens. Mr. Harper, the present proprietor, has met with well-deserved 
3, for through his energy and ability the school has been raised to a very high 
indard. There are at present seventy boys on the roll, whilst the girls' school, 
nder the management of Mrs. Harper, numbers more than twenty. Mr. Harper 
for many years held the appointment of master of St. Andrew's Middle- Class School, 
Wells Street, Marylebone, and has also had considerable experience in Continental 
^ademies. The organist of Dulwich College gives instructions on the pianoforte, 
id the curriculum of the school is at once liberal and comprehensive. 

STAFFORD STREET SCHOOLS. The school buildings in Stafford Street were for- 
lerly occupied as a chapel by the Wesley ans, who now worship in the Queen's 
>ad. Head-master, Mr. Faulkener. 



LADIES' SCHOOLS. 

Peckham and Camberwell have always been noted for establishments for the 
lucation of young ladies. These places of instruction are variously named, but 
whether called " seminaries," " colleges," " establishments," or " schools," the 
bject sought to be obtained is of course common to all of them. Amongst the more 
iportant of these schools may be mentioned that conducted by the Misses 
[cDowall, of Grove Park. The young ladies attending this school are principally 
iwn from the upper middle-class. The religious instruction given is in accordance 
rith the principles of the Church of England. The school is interesting to residents 
of Camberwell from the fact that the house was once the residence of the famous Dr. 
Lettsom, whose charming mansion and grounds are elsewhere described. Amongst 
other schools in the neighbourhood of Grove Park, may be mentioned " Surbiton 
House," Grove Hill, conducted by Mrs. Dransfield, " Palatine College," Camberwell 
Grove (Miss Cusworth), and Miss Bishop's establishment, Camberwell Grove. 

THE MANOR HOUSE SCHOOL has been conducted by Mrs. Tattersall in the old 
Basing Manor House for twenty-one years. The quaint old manor-house was no 
doubt part of the original manorial mansion of the Gardiners of Peckham, at one 
time lords of Basing manor. During the reigns of the first and second Charles the 
Manor House is often alluded to, and in the history of the house of Gardiner will be 
found many curious and interesting letters written from " Basings " in Peckham. 
It is perhaps only fair to assume that the present building forms but a small portion 
of the original mansion, whilst the immense estates surrounding the manor-house 
have since been sacrificed to the progress of modern times. There is a tradition 
that John Wesley preached within the walls of this interesting edifice. We are 
indebted to the courtesy of the present occupier for an inspection of the truly 
beautiful specimens of oak 'panelling and antique carving,. At the present time 



266 Y c PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

there is attached to the school about two acres and a half of land, now used as 
recreation-ground, &c., for the pupils. A portion of the adjoining house, occupied by 
Mr. James Chubb, draper, was no doubt a part of the old mansion of the Gardiners. 

PELICAN HOUSE SCHOOL, in the Peckham Road, has been built at least 200 years, 
and the pelicans, from which it derives its name, originally stood on brick pilasters 
at the entrance gates. The house is now occupied by a school, which was established 
about fifty years ago, under the superintendence of Mrs. and the Misses Fletcher. 
For the last three years it has been conducted by Miss Dixie, niece of the Misses 
Fletcher, and the number of pupils has greatly increased, being now about seventy- 
five. The house was formerly occupied by Miles Stringer, Esq., a gentleman who 
took an active part in all local affairs. The Fletchers of Pelican House were related 
to Mr. Fletcher, formerly of the Denmark Hill Grammar School. 

MYRTLE HOUSE, QUEEN'S ROAD, PECKHAM, is interesting from the fact that it 
was once the residence of Mr. (afterwards Sir Benjamin) Broclie. The Misses Clifton 
now conduct the school, which has been established more than twenty years. The 
school buildings are at least 250 years old, and the oak carving and panelling 
throughout the house are curious and interesting in the extreme. 

On Peckham Rye Mrs. Henry Collett has established a college for young ladies in 
the house formerly occupied by R. A. Gray, Esq., J.P. ; and the Misses Grove, 
formerly of Chepstow House, Peckham Road, have recently migrated to "The 
Poplars/' Peckham Rye. 

In Southampton Street is a scholastic establishment, conducted by Miss Jay, 
known as " Somerset College," and attended by more than 100 children. 



SUTTON SCHOOLS. 

Not the least interesting institution connected with Camberwell is the extensive 
parochial school at Sutton. Originally established in 1849, it has grown with the 
altered circumstances surrounding infantile poverty, until it is now a large colony 
and a great power for good in the metropolis. It is fed with the pauper children of 
seventeen parishes, situated in the eastern and south-eastern portions of the Metropolis. 
In common with other school districts, it was constituted under the provisions of 
the 7 & 8 Viet. c. 101, and was designed to effect an entire separation of the children 
from adult paupers, to train them in various departments of industry, and to fit 
them for domestic service and apprenticeship. The ground and buildings have 
cost about 90,000, and the average number of children maintained in the school is 
1,550, the cost of the maintenance and clothing per head per week being 4s. 

The first admission of children took place in 1855, since which time 13,903 have 
been received into the school. Many children have been admitted in consequence of 
the temporary distress or affliction of their parents, and were removed on the dawning 
of better times. 

As many as 1,182 have left for domestic service, 1,323 have been apprenticed 
to various trades, 180 have entered military bands, and 36 have become school- 
masters and mistresses. The following statistics, showing the number of children 
employed in the workshop, and the number of new garments made by the children 
during the past two years, will prove that their industrial training is not lost sight 
of : Shirts, 3,760 ; boys' collars, 5,627 ; frocks, 2,253 ; flannel petticoats,[2,749 ; upper 



SCHOOLS. 267 

petticoats, 1,428 ; chemises, 2,797 ; aprons, 574 ; pinafores, 5,510 ; bedgowns, 338 ; 
besides a large quantity of sheets, pillow-cases, towels, tea-cloths, &c. ; coats and 
jackets, 1,548 ; waistcoats, 1,438 ; trowsers, 1,626 ; caps, 2,186; band suits, 48. The 
following statistics show the number of girls and boys employed in industrial work. 
These are divided into two sections, and attend school and work on the half-time 
system : Girls, as laundresses, 57 ; boys, as tailors, 56 ; shoemakers, 40 ; carpenters, 
4 ; painters, 4 ; bricklayers, 4 ; engineers, 8 ; bakers, 8 ; farm and garden, including 
pig and cowboys, 120 ; storekeeper's boys, 2 ; superintendent's office, 2 ; scrubbers, 
knife-cleaners, fibre-picking for beds, &c., 120 ; lodge, 6 ; band, 60. All the girls 
over 7 years of age are at needlework. 

"We extract the following from the very interesting report of the managers just 
issued : 

" The idea of establishing a building for the exclusive habitation of children of the 
fluctuating class originated with the Local Government Board, during the presidency 
of the Right Hon. J. G. Goschen, and was advocated by Dr. Markham and Mr. 
Corbett, poor law inspectors. Dr. Markham was of opinion that benefits of a moral 
and sanitary kind would result from such a classification, and Mr. Corbett's argu- 
ments in its favour were based upon the assumption, that the whole tone of district 
schools may be and is often corrupted by the importation into them from time to 
time of children of a certain age, whose parents are the fluctuating denizens of the 
workhouse, and who from their earliest years have been ignorant of almost all but 
vice, their stay in the school not being long enough to be conducive of profit to them- 
selves, but long enough to sow the seed of enduring mischief. The managers from 
the first were averse to the adoption of the system for the separation of the children 
of the class referred to from the other inmates of the school, and they viewed with 
much regret the prospect of its introduction ; their views were strengthened by the 
statements of the head officers, that no injurious effects upon the conduct of the per- 
manent inmates by the intermixture of the fluctuating portion of the children had 
come under their notice ; the superintendent being unable to call to mind any 
instance where the influence of the fluctuating children had proved injurious to the 
other children, but that on the contrary, boys and girls who had entered the school 
bearing the character of incorrigible, had been known to become tractable, seldom or 
ever giving any trouble to the masters or others placed over them. Moreover, it 
appeared to the managers that to isolate and congregate together children whose 
early associations rendered them * ignorant of almost all but vice,' would deprive 
them of the advantages resulting from the good example and conduct of the well- 
disposed children, render their teaching and training devoid of any imitable or stimu- 
lating element, and perpetuate and increase the obstacles in the way of their moral 
improvement ; and in deference to the views of the managers, the Local Government 
Board assented to the occupation of the new buildings by the junior children. 

" For many years past the managers have felt the propriety of having a building 
other than the dining-hall, for the celebration of the worship of God by the officers 
and the children. On the 7th January, 1873, the managers passed the following 
resolution : ' That it is desirable for the proper and decent worship of Almighty 
God, and for impressing upon the minds of the children a due [sense of the import- 
ance of such worship, that a separate building be erected. That the Local Govern- 
ment Board be asked to give their consent to such erections, and to issue the neces- 
sary orders to raise the money for the same.' " And the chapel was opened for public 
worship on the 28th of July, 1874. 

Dr. Webster's name has been identified with the institution as one of the board of 
management for nine years, and no face is so welcome to the little ones at Sutton as 



268 



Y e PAKISH OF CAMERWELL. 



that of the cheery doctor, through whose energy and devotion so much practical good 
has resulted. 

STATISTICS OF CHILDREN WHOSE EDUCATION WAS PROVIDED FOR BY THE 
GUARDIANS DURING THE YEAR ENDING LADY DAY, 1874 : 









Number of 




Number of 




such Children 


School, &c. 


Children at 
the School 


Cost per week for each Child. 


discharged 
during the 




chargeable to 




year, for Ser- 




this Parish. 




vice or Ap- 








prenticeship. 




r 


Maintenance ) q/iijT) 








& clothing p/ 11 ^ 




South Metropolitan District 
School (Sutton) 


l 371 


Establishmt. ( .,,, 1 Total 
charges J ^ /D f 7/ll| 
Loans ) ,,-j 


25 






repayment j ' 8 J 




Roman Catholic Orphanage, 
North Hyde . 


| 7 


3/8 and 4/0 





Ditto, Norwood . 


8 


3/8, 4/0, and 6/0 





Ditto, Leyton . . . . 


1 


3/8 





" Goliath " Training Ship . 


15So 


7/6 
The charge is limited by 


5 


Children of out-door poor, 
at the various schools in 
the parish . . . . 


1 610* > 


statute to 2ftZ. per head for 
each attendance at school. 
The total school fees paid 
during the year amounted to 
221 7s. 8d. 






In addition to Dr. Webster, the other Camberwell members of the board are 
R. Strong, Esq., J.P., Mr. Colls, and Mr. Herring. 



* By the Elementary Education Amendment Act 
of last session it is made a condition for the con- 
tinuance of an allowance of out-relief to a pauper, 
that the children, if any, shall be regular in their 
attendance at school. The guardians, in carrying 
out this provision, have adopted a system whereby 



the parent is furnished with a card, for each child, 
on which the school authority is required to record 
weekly the attendance of every such child at school, 
and this is produced to the relieving officer on tha 
parent's application for the relief allowance. 



CHAEITABLE INSTITUTIONS. 

LICENSED VICTUALLERS' ASYLUM. 

|HE Licensed Victuallers' Asylum is a monument of which any body of 
men may be proud. Set on foot only in 1826, a plot of freehold 
land (5 A. 3n. 28p.) was purchased in 1827, and on the 29th May, 1828, 
the first stone of the Asylum was laid by His Royal Highness the Duke 
of Sussex with full Masonic honours. 
The building contract was for forty-three houses ; but in 1831, so numerous were 
the applicants for admission, that a new (or south) wing was commenced, to consist of 
twenty-nine more dwellings ; and in 1833 the north wing was commenced likewise, 
to consist of twenty-nine houses ; and on the 15th December, 1842, the Society 
became incorporated by royal charter. 

In 1843 His Royal Highness Prince Albert did the Society the honour of becoming 
the patron of the institution, on the decease of His Royal Highness the Duke of 




A new wing, called " The Ladies' Wing," consisting of sixteen houses, was added in 
1849, the first stone being laid by His Royal Highness Prince Albert ; and in the 
following year seven more habitations were added to it. In the same year the board 
were enabled to build a chapel, a board -room, and a spacious court-room. In 1858 
fifteen additional houses were erected, His Royal Highness Prince Albert again 
officiating, and these later erections were designated the " Albert " "Wing ; in the fol- 
lowing year six additional houses were added ; and in 1862 thirteen more were built. 

In 1864 His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, who had succeeded " Albert the 
Good " as patron, unveiled a statue erected by voluntary contributions to the memory 
of the Society's late illustrious patron. 

In 1866 His Royal Highness the Duke of Edinburgh laid the foundation-stone of 
the " Smalley " Wing, in the presence of the lord mayor and sheriffs, this being the 
fifth occasion on which royalty had honoured the institution with its presence. This 
wing was named the " Smalley " Wing out of compliment to its founder, William 
Smalley, Esq., the secretary to the Incorporated Society of Licensed Victuallers, who 
contributed 1,000 guineas towards its erection. 

The flag-staff was the gift of Mr. Thomas Wright, of Church Street, Camberwell. 

The Asylum now consists of 170 separate and distinct habitations, and 205 inmates 
are provided with shelter, pecuniary assistance (single inmates, 9s., and married 
couples, 13s. weekly), coals, medicine, and medical advice. 

From 1826 to 1872 the sum of 179,864 16s. 9d. was contributed by the trade and 
their friends to this very deserving because well-managed charity ; and a very laudable 
effort is now being made to provide an endowment fund, which, when accomplished, 



270 Y c PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

will surely place this Asylum in a position altogether unequalled amongst Trade 
Societies. Mr. Alfred L. Annett is secretary of the Asylum, whose business offices 
are at 67, Fleet Street. 



THE PECKHAM PENSION SOCIETY 

Was established in the year 1834, by a few members of the congregation of Hill 
Street Chapel, to afford permanent relief, without distinction of religion, sect, or 
country, to decayed housekeepers or their widows, of good character, residing 
within the liberty of Peckham, by allowing monthly payments to the males, 
26s., and to the females, 21 s. 8d. The candidates must have completed their 
sixtieth year, and have contributed by direct taxation in the said liberty of 
Peckham for at least seven years to the parish rates, and not have received parochial 
relief for four years preceding their recommendation. Each person subscribing 
seven shillings annually is entitled to one vote at each election, and in proportion 
for every seven shillings ; and each person subscribing five guineas is a life 
governor, with two votes, and another vote for every two and a half guineas. The 
Society is under the management of a president, vice-president, treasurer, secretary, 
and twelve directors, chosen annually by the subscribers at the general meeting in the 
month of December. During the past forty-five years this Society has contributed 
^5,451 towards the support of sixty-four pensioners, many having been recipients of its 
bounty for upwards of fourteeen years ; and it may reasonably be supposed that many 
aged and infirm but respectable inhabitants would have ended their days in the 
workhouse but for the assistance rendered by this valuable institution. Among the 
various classes of persons who stand in need of Christian benevolence, there are 
few whose claims are greater than those who, in the dealings of an inscrutable 
Providence, and perhaps through no fault of their own, are reduced from com- 
parative affluence to the wretchedness of penury, and it is this class that the society 
seeks to assist. 

The present officers ure : 

Rev. M. Biggs, M.A., President. 

Mr. C. Harris, Vice-President. 

Mr. V. H. Colven, Treasurer. 

TRUSTEES. 

Rev. E. Lilley, B.D. Mr. A. H. Colven. 
Mr. C. Harris. J. 0. Wilson. 

DIRECTORS : Mr. W. Berridge, Mr. Borland, Mr. Burgan, Mr. F. W. Fry, Mr. 
E. B. Gudgeon, Mr. F. Hart, Mr. F. G. Lewin, Mr. Robinson, Mr. O. Strong, Mr. 
J. G. Thompson, Mr. S. Willes, Mr. J. 0. Wilson. AUDITORS : Mr. J. Byrne, Mr. 
H. Mills. SECRETARY : Mr. J. Walker. COLLECTOR : Mr. W. H. Hill. * 



MR. CRONIN'S FREE RESIDENTIAL HOUSES. 

There are perhaps few names in this great metropolis so thoroughly associated 
with true philanthropy as that of Mr. Daniel Cronin. Although it does not fall 
within the scope of this work to enumerate the various London charities with 
which his name is associated, we may perhaps be permitted to record the fact 




DANIEL CRONIN'S FREE RESIDENTIAL HOUSES. PECKHAM. 



CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS. 271 

that lie has long been intimately connected as governor with the Foundling 
Hospital, and as an almoner with St. Bartholomew's. It was whilst acting as an 
almoner of the latter charity that Mr. Cronin was called upon, through the lamented 
illness of Mr. Foster White, to act as chairman of the Board, and the appreciation of 
his services is thus recorded in a resolution passed at a meeting of the almoners : 

"ST. BARTHOLOMEW'S HOSPITAL. 

" At a meeting of the Almoners, holden Thursday, 24th July, 1873, 
" Resolved unanimously, That the warmest thanks of this Committee are 
eminently due to Daniel Cronin, Esq., for the unremitting attention which he has 
given to all the duties which have devolved upon him as an almoner during the 
past four years, and especially for the good judgment and kindliness of manner with 
which he has presided over the deliberations of his colleagues during the past twelve 
months. And the Committee beg further to express their obligation to Mr. Cronin 
for his considerate and courteous bearing towards his colleagues, who have the 
greatest pleasure in assuring him of their high estimation of his character, and their 
great value of his friendship, which they trust they will ever be privileged to 
retain. 

"W. H. CROSS, Clerk." 

To residents of Camberwell Mr. Cronin is best known as one of the largest 
freeholders of the parish. It speaks volumes for his character as a landlord, that 
at the present time, when building operations are being carried on so extensively, 
there is not an empty house on his estate. Indeed it was not long since that one 
of his tenants complained in our hearing that his house was too well looked after, 
and when the painter made his appearance to add a coat or two of paint, he was 
ely told by the tenant that he would not be allowed to proceed with his work, 
'he man, however, returned with this message, that if the tenant didn't know how to 
keep the property in good repair the landlord did. 

Another illustration of the fact that property in Mr. Cronin's eyes has its duties 
as well as its rights may be furnished by the fact that he has built on his estate a 
substantial block of buildings, which he modestly calls " Camden Houses," for the 
reception of twelve aged persons who, through misfortune, have fallen into reduced 
circumstances. Our illustration affords a fair idea of this snug retreat, which is in 
reality one of the most charming little spots to be found in the parish of Camberwell ; 
and both the houses and their floral surroundings afford ample evidence of the fact 
that the original expense of building is not the only one in connection with this 
excellent institution. Applicants for admission must be 60 years of age, and 
possess an income of not less than 25 nor more than 40. Of the twelve inmates, 
six must be residents of Camberwell, and six at least must be members of the Church 
of England. No inmate is to receive parish relief, and unmarried men are not eligible 
for admission. When a person is nominated, two sureties (householders) are required 
to give an undertaking in writing that they will see to the decent burial of such 
inmate. The houses were opened in 1866. 

Mr. Cronin is also known as an author, having published a most delightful volume 
of poems, as well as several works on character, all of which bear the impress of an 
educated and refined mind, and teem with illustrations of the author's hearty 
sympathy with all that is noble in human character, as well as a horror of all that is 
little and mean, pharisaical and sly. An open look, an open hand, an open heart, 
and an open Bible such are the " articles of faith " that Mr. Cronin has ever 



272 Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 

believed in, and which he wishes others also to adopt who aim at success in life. 
Every word that he has written is manly and healthy, and young men of our day 
and young women too should read Mr. Cronin's "Matter of Manner," with its 
scathing denunciation of unreality and make-believe, and its hearty appreciation of 
all that is outspoken and straightforward, and they would rise from its perusal better 
men and better women. 

Just one extract. In tracking the cause of prevarication through the world, 
Mr. Cronin does not leave us in doubt as to the remedy to be applied to overcome 
the insidious sin of equivocation. He says : 

" The remedy is to be obtained by constant watchfulness, by general rectitude of 
principle, by singleness of purpose, by valour for the truth, and by a right com- 
munion with right spirits. The end and reward are face to face, heart to heart 
no veil, no cloud, no suspicion, no doubt. But soul-lit eyes, open hearts, purity of 
spirit, frankness, friendship, eternal trust, eternal love ! " 

And how many of us can realise the following truthful lines, entitled 

A REMONSTRANCE. 

The greatest sorrows that my soul assail 

Acquire their force through my untrusting fears ; 
Man born to trouble trouble must prevail, 

But love and hope will dry the bitterest tears. 

And what are all our sad anticipations ? 

And why our melancholy tearful eyes ? 
Are not the most mysterious visitations 

Blessings in truth though blessings in disguise ? 

Unconscious infant sighs, like matin bells, 

May seem to predicate some joys to come ; 
But age so grave, a different story tells, 

In sighs that seem to toll us to our home. 

As childhood breathes the sparkling radiant tear, 

As music beams through every infant's breath, 
So gilds the sun the lifeless leaf and sere, 

And glads the path of loneliness and death. 

Though all is trouble, yet the chastened heart 

May still in faith be practising for heaven ; 
And this believe, if we fulfil our part, 

To us shall grace, and light, and peace be given. 

How often smiles will hide the inmost sadness, 

Often do clouds guard from the burning glare ; 
And tears sometimes betoken joy and gladness 

As hollow laughing indicates despair. 

Now all the gifts we have are merely lent, 

Lent to be used in trust for all the world ; 
Living by faith we live in bright content 

Though all we have were to destruction hurled. 

Let us in faith each joy, each sorrow greet, 

All things work good for every faithful soul, 
The humblest herbage trod beneath our feet, 

Contributes to the welfare of the whole. 

Whatever joys or sorrows may betide, 
^ In every trying test believe in this ; 
Submission, trust, and suffering sanctified 
Are portals leading to eternal bliss. 



THE GIRDLERS' ALMSHOUSES. 

The Girdlers' Company have almshouses in the Albert Road, Nunhead, and 
Choumert Road, Peckham. Those in the Albert Road were erected to commemorate 
the good deeds of one Cuthbert Beeston, citizen and girdler. This worthy, by will 



CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS. 273 

dated July 5th, 1582, gave to the Girdlers' Company certain premises in the parish 
of St. Olave, Southwark, upon condition that they made certain annual payments 
out of the rents ; and he directed that the residue of the rents should be applied 
to the granting of loans for one year to the poorest members of the Company. 
The property gradually increased in value, and being required by the Corporation 
of London for making approaches to the new London Bridge, was sold for that 
purpose. The loan system having practically failed, the sale of the premises 
afforded a favourable opportunity for varying and extending the benevolent intentions 
of the testator, and the Girdlers' Company applied for and obtained the sanction 
of the Court of Chancery to apply the purchase-money in the erection and 
endowment of almshouses for the benefit of poor members of the Company. A plot 
of ground in what is now Albert Road was purchased, and seven houses erected 
thereon. The inmates are freemen of the Company, or wives of freemen, each 
receiving a pension in addition to the use of the house. The houses belonging to 
the Company in the Choumert Road were erected in the year 1851 in commemoration 
of another worthy benefactor of the Girdlers George Palyn. This worthy man, by 
will dated 4th March, 1609, bequeathed to the Girdlers' Company the sum of 900, 
and directed that within two years after his death the Company should with 260 of 
the said 900 obtain permission from the king, under the Great Seal of England ? 
luthorizing the Company to erect an almshouse or hospital in or near the city of 

mdon for the perpetual relief and sustentation of six poor men ; and to endow it 
dth lands and hereditaments. "Within three years of his death the Company were 

quired to purchase in their corporate capacity " lands, tenements, and hereditaments 
in fee simple, of the clear annual value of 40 at least, towards the maintenance of 
said six men being of honest repute and freemen of London, that is to say, to 

sh of them 6 13s. 4d. by quarterly payments." 

The original almshouses stood in Bath Street, City Road, but in consequence of 

sir extreme dilapidation, and the present, by the late Thomas Watkins, Esq., of 
lye Lane, of the freehold land in Choumert Road, they were not rebuilt in Bath 
Street ; the site being let for building purposes, and the ground-rent added to the 
endowment fund. 

The six pensioners receive considerably more than the sum originally named by 
the donor, George Palyn. 



AGED PILGRIMS' SOCIETY. 

This society, instituted in 1807 for the purpose of giving life-pensions of ten 
guineas, seven guineas, and five guineas per annum to poor, aged, and infirm Pro- 
testant Christians of both sexes and of every denomination, has some neat almshouses 
in Westmoreland Place, Southampton Street. 

The edifice is of brick, with stucco mouldings and ornaments, having an embattled 
centre, flanked by two towers. A low pointed gateway leads through this part of 
the structure to a quadrangle with a lawn in the centre, and surrounded by buildings 
in the same style. It bears this inscription on the front : 

AGED PILGRIMS ASYLUM. 
COMPLETED BY VOLUNTARY SUBSCRIPTIONS 

A.D. 1837, 

FOR 42 AGED PILGRIMS. 

THE FREEHOLD GIVEN BY 

WILLIAM PEACOCK, ESQ. 

T 



274 



Y e PARISH OF CAMERWELL. 



In addition to the inmates, there are several out-pensioners. 

The objects of the Society's bounty are persons who give Scriptural testimony that 
they are of the household of faith, not under threescore years of age, and duly 
recommended by a subscriber. Their income from every source must not exceed 
seven shillings per week, if a single person, or ten shillings, if man and wife, and no 
person is considered eligible who has 20 at his or her own disposal, although 
unable to work or having no income, or 10 and an income of three shillings per 
week. 

Twenty-five of the old pensioners were entertained by John Gadsby, Esq., at 
Cowley Hall, near Uxbridge, 25th June, 1863. The youngest present were aged 62 
and 68, twenty-one ranged from 69 to 80, one 81, and one 82. A poor woman in 
Cowley village, aged 95, was invited. The total of the twenty-six represented 1,940 
years.* 



FRIENDLY FEMALE ASYLUM. 

In Gloucester Place, leading from the Albany Road to Neate Street, stands the 
Friendly Female Asylum. This charity was established in 1802 for the relief of 
poor, infirm, aged, widowed, and single women, who have known better days. The 
asylum at Camber well was erected in 1821, as set forth on the tablet in front of the 
building : 

THE FRIENDLY FEMALE ASYLUM 

FOR AGED PERSONS 
WHO HAVE SEEN BETTER DAYS, 

ERECTED AND SUPPORTED 

BY VOLUNTARY CONTRIBUTIONS, 

1821. 

In the Camberwell and Brixton Asylums it is stated that comfortable house-room 
and a yearly allowance of eight guineas each are provided for sixty-eight poor women, 
the majority of whom are above 70. 

Her Most Gracious Majesty is the patron of the Society. 



BETHEL ASYLUM. 

In Havil Street is a plain building with this inscription in front, which sufficiently 
explains its object : 

BETHEL ASYLUM 

FOR 

TWELVE AGED 

WOMEN, 
ESTABLISHED A.D. 1838 

BY 

WILLI